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Over View

of
Pressure Vessel
Design

Course Over View

General
Materials of Construction
Design
Other Design Considerations
Fabrication
Inspection & Testing
2

OBJECTIVES

Differentiate Between ASME Section VIII,


Div 1, Div 2 & Div 3.
Identify Material Selection Criteria.
Overview of Mechanical Design of
Pressure Vessel.
To Learn Testing & Inspection Techniques
of Pressure Vessel.
Basic Structure of ASME Section VIII Div 1
3

EXPECTATIONS

Ground Rules

Interactive Session
Keep your phone Silent.
One Question at a Time.
Training Etiquettes
Have Fun

Benefits

Better Understanding of ASME Section


VIII.
Designing a Pressurized Vessel
Cost Saving
Reduced Manhours and increased
Confidence

Outcome

At The End of this Training, participants


will be able to
Understand Basic Designing techniques
of Pressure Vessel.
Identify Different topics of ASME Section
VIII.
Exercise these techniques in routine
Modifications, Rerating, Reviews etc.
7

Pressure Vessel

Containers for Fluids under pressure


Used in variety of industries
Petroleum Refining
Chemical
Power
Pulp & paper
Food
8

Horizontal Drum on
Saddle Supports
NOZZLES
A

HEAD

SHELL

Saddle
Vessel
supports
shell
may
used
be
cylindrical,
forwelded
horizontal
Multiple
Components
diameters,
typically
thicknesses
or
Shell
is
primary
component
that
Vessel always closed by heads.
spherical,
drums.
or possible.
conical.
materials
together.
are
contains
pressure.
Spreads load over shell.
One support fixed, other slides.

A
SECTION A-A
SADDLE SUPPORT
(SLIDING)

SADDLE SUPPORT
(FIXED)

Vertical Drum on Leg


Supports
NOZZLE

HEAD

SHELL

HEAD
SUPPORT LEG

10

Tall Vertical Tower


NOZZLE

HEAD
NOZZLE

1. Skirt supports typically used


for tall vertical vessels:
Cylindrical shell

TRAYS
CONE

Typically supported from


ground
2. General support design (not
just for skirts)
Design for weight, wind,
earthquake.

SHELL

NOZZLE Pressure not a factor.

HEAD
NOZZLE

SKIRT
SUPPORT

Temperature also a
consideration for material
selection and thermal
expansion.

BASE PLATE
11

Vertical Reactor
INLET NOZZLE
HEAD
UPPER
CATALYST
BED

SHELL

CATALYST BED
SUPPORT GRID
LOWER
CATALYST
BED
HEAD

OUTLET
COLLECTOR
OUTLET NOZZLE

SUPPORT SKIRT
12

Spherical Pressurized
Storage Vessel
SHELL

SUPPORT
LEG

CROSS
BRACING

13

Vertical Vessel on
Lug Supports
1. Vessel size limits for lug supports:
1 10 ft diameter
2:1 to 5:1 height/diameter ratio
2. Vessel located above ground.
3. Lugs bolted to horizontal structure.

14

Section VIII Division 1

15 psig < P 3000 psig

Applies through first connection to pipe

Other exclusions
Internals (except for attachment weld to vessel)
Fired process heaters
Pressure containers integral with machinery
Piping systems
15

Section VIII, Division 2,


Alternative Rules

Scope identical to Division 1 but


requirements differ
Allowable stress
Stress calculations
Design
Quality control
Fabrication and inspection

Choice between Divisions 1 and 2 based


on economics
16

Differences between
Divisions 1 and 2.

Division 2 allowable membrane stress is


higher.
Division
2
requires
more
complex
calculations.
Division 2 does not permit some design
details that are permitted in Division 1.
Division 2 requires more stringent material
quality control, fabrication and testing
requirements.
17

Division 3, Alternative
Rules

High
Pressure
Vessels
Applications
over 10,000 psi

Pressure from external source, process reaction,


application of heat, combination of these

Does not establish maximum pressure limits of


Division 1 or 2 or minimum limits for Division 3.

ASME Sec VIII Overview\SectionVIIIcomparison.p


df

Structure of Section
VIII,
Division 1

Subsection A
Part UG applies to all vessels
Subsection B

Requirements based on fabrication method

Parts UW (Welded), UF (Forged), UB (Brazed)

Subsection C
Requirements based on material class

Parts UCS (Carbon and low-alloy steel), UNF (Non-ferrous metals), UHA (High
alloy steel), UCI (Cast iron), UCL (Clad and lined material = Requirements for
Welded Pressure Vessels Constructed of Material With Corrosion Resistant Integral
Cladding, Weld Metal Overlay Cladding, or With Applied Linings), UCD (Ductile
iron), UHT (Heat treated steels - Requirements for Pressure Vessels Constructed
of Ferritic Steels With Tensile Properties Enhanced by Heat Treatment), ULW
(Layered construction), ULT (Low-temperature material - Alternative Rules for
Pressure Vessels Constructed of Materials Having Higher Allowable Stresses at
Low Temperature), UHX (Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger), UIG (Requirements for
Pressure Vessels Constructed of Impregnated Graphite)

Mandatory and Nonmandatory Appendices


19

Structure of Section
VIII,
Division 1
Table of Contents.pdf

20

Material Selection
Factors

Strength
Corrosion Resistance
Resistance to Hydrogen Attack
Fracture Toughness
Fabricability

21

Material Selection
Factors

ASME Code does not specify


particular materials to use in each
application. Owner must do this.
ASME Code specifies permitted
materials and the requirements
that these must meet.

22

Strength

Strength: Materials ability to withstand


imposed loading.
Higher strength material = thinner
component.
Determines required component thickness
Overall strength is determined by:

Yield Strength
Ultimate Tensile Strength
Creep Strength
Rupture Strength
23

Yield Strength

24

Yield Strength
The point at which the specimen generates a large
deformation without the addition of any load is called
the yield point. The corresponding stress is called the
yield stress, or yield strength, Sy.
The yield point is easy to recognize for materials with a
stress-strain curve similar to that shown in Fig. 2.1(a).
For materials with a roundhouse stress-strain curve as
shown in Fig. 2.1(b), there is no apparent yield point. For
these materials, the common approach is to define yield
strength by the amount of stress required to produce a
fixed amount of permanent deformation. This is the socalled offset method of determining the yield point.
ASTM specifies an offset strain of 0.2% to be used for
common pipe materials covered by its specifications .
25

Ultimate Tensile
Strength
The highest stress on the stress-strain curve is called the
ultimate strength. As the material is stretched, the crosssection area will be reduced. However, the stresses given
on the curve are determined by dividing the applied force
with the original cross-section area of the un-stretched
specimen.
This explains why the curve shows a drop in stress near
the break point toward the end of the curve.
The use of the original cross-section area is required as all
design calculations are based on original cross-section.

26

Creep Strength

The ability of a metal to withstand a constant weight or


force at elevated temperatures.

27

Rupture Strength

Nominal stress developed in a material at rupture.

28

Material Selection
Factors

Strength
Corrosion Resistance
Resistance to Hydrogen Attack
Fracture Toughness
Fabricability

29

Corrosion Resistance

Deterioration of metal by chemical action.


Most important factor to consider.
Corrosion
allowance
supplies
additional
thickness. Adding extra component thickness
(i.e., corrosion allowance) is most common
method to address corrosion.
Alloying elements provide additional resistance
to corrosion. Alloy materials are used in
services where corrosion allowance would be
unreasonably high if carbon steel were used.
30

Material Selection
Factors

Strength
Corrosion Resistance
Resistance to Hydrogen
Attack
Fracture Toughness
Fabricability
31

Resistance to
Hydrogen Attack

At 300 - 400F, monatomic hydrogen forms


molecular hydrogen in voids

Pressure buildup can cause steel to crack

Above 600F, hydrogen attack causes irreparable


damage through component thickness
H2 attack is a function of H2 partial pressure and
design temperature.
Increased alloy content (i.e., Cr) increases H2
attack resistance.
Reference API-941 for Nelson Curves.

32

Material Selection
Factors

Strength
Corrosion Resistance
Resistance to Hydrogen Attack
Fracture Toughness
Fabricability

33

Brittle Fracture and


Fracture Toughness ..

Fracture toughness:
Ability of material to withstand
conditions that could cause brittle
fracture

Brittle fracture
Typically at low temperature
Can occur below design pressure
No yielding before complete failure
34

.. Brittle Fracture
and Fracture Toughness

Conditions required for brittle


fracture
High enough stress for crack initiation
and growth
Low enough material fracture
toughness at temperature
Critical size defect to act as stress
concentration
35

Factors That Influence


Fracture Toughness

Fracture toughness varies with:


Temperature
Type and chemistry of steel
Manufacturing and fabrication
processes

Other factors that influence fracture


toughness:
Arc strikes, especially if over repaired
area
Stress raisers or scratches in cold
formed thick plate

36

Charpy V-Notch Test


Setup
Charpy V-Notch test is most widely
used measure of material fracture
toughness.

37

Charpy V-Notch
Test Specimens

38

ASME Code and


Brittle Fracture Evaluation

Components to consider

Shells
Manways
Heads
Reinforcing pads
Backing strips that
remain in place

Nozzles
Tubesheets
Flanges
Flat cover plates
Attachments
essential to
structural integrity
that are welded to
pressure parts
39

Temperatures to Consider in
Brittle Fracture Evaluation

Minimum Design Metal Temperature


(MDMT)

Lowest temperature at which component has adequate


fracture toughness. MDMT is a material property

Critical Exposure Temperature (CET)


Minimum temperature at which significant membrane
stress will occur. CET is an environmental factor.

40

Simplified ASME
Evaluation Approach

Material specifications classified into


Material Groups A through D

Impact test exemption curves


For each Material Group
Acceptable MDMT Vs. thickness where impact
testing is not required

If combination of Material Group and


thickness not exempt, then must impact
test at CET

41

Material Groups ...


MATERIAL
APPLICABLE MATERIALS
GROUP
Curve A - All carbon and low alloy steel plates, structural shapes, and bars not
listed in Curves B, C & D
- SA-216 Gr. WCB & WCC, SA-217 Gr. WC6, if normalized and tempered
or water - quenched and tempered
Curve B - SA-216 Gr. WCA, if normalized and tempered or water-quenched and
tempered
- SA-216 Gr. WCB & WCC for maximum thickness of 2 in., if produced
to fine grain practice and water-quenched and tempered
- SA-285 Gr. A & B
- SA-414 Gr. A
- SA-515 Gr. 60
- SA-516 Gr. 65 & 70, if not normalized
- Except for cast steels, all materials of Curve A if produced to fine
grain practice and normalized which are not included in Curves C & D
- All pipe, fittings, forging, and tubing which are not included in Curves
C&D

Table: 3.1 (Excerpt)

42

Material Groups
MATERIAL
APPLICABLE MATERIALS
GROUP
Curve C - SA-182 Gr. 21 & 22, if normalized and tempered
- SA-302 Gr. C & D
- SA-336 Gr. F21 & F22, if normalized and tempered
- SA-387 Gr. 21 & 22, if normalized and tempered
- SA-516 Gr. 55 & 60, if not normalized
- SA-533 Gr. B & C
- SA-662 Gr. A
-All material of Curve B if produced to fine grain practice and
normalized which are not included in Curve D
Curve D SA-203
SA-537 Cl. 1, 2 & 3
SA-508 Cl. 1
SA-612, if normalized
SA-516, if normalized
SA-662, if normalized
SA-524 Cl. 1 & 2
SA-738 Gr. A
Bolting and See Figure UCS-66 of the ASME Code Section VIII, Div. 1, for impact
Nuts
test exemption temperatures for specified material specifications

Table: 3.1 (Excerpt)

43

Minimum Design Metal Temperature oF

Impact Test Curves for Carbon


And Low Alloy Steel

Nominal Thickness, in
(Limited to 4 for Welded Construction)

Fig: 3.1

44

Additional ASME Code


Impact Test Requirements ...

Required for welded construction


over 4 in. thick, or non welded
construction over 6 in. thick, if MDMT
< 120F
Not required for flanges if
temperature >= -20F
Required if SMYS > 65 ksi unless
specifically exempt
45

Additional ASME Code


Impact Test Requirements

Not required for impact tested low


temperature steel specifications
May use at impact test temperature

30F MDMT reduction if PWHT P-1


steel and not required by code

MDMT reduction if calculated stress


< allowable stress
46

Material Selection Based


on Fracture Toughness

Exercise 1

New horizontal vessel


CET = - 2F
Shell and heads: SA-516 Gr. 70
Heads hemispherical: in. thick
Cylindrical shell: 1.0 in. thick
No impact testing specified
Is this correct?
If not correct, what should be done?
47

Exercise 1 - Solution ..

Must assume SA-516 Gr. 70 not


normalized. Therefore, Curve B material
(Ref. Table 3.1).
Refer to Curve B in Figure 3.1.
in. thick plate for heads: MDMT = -7F
in. thick plate exempt from impact testing
since MDMT < CET

1 in. shell plate: MDMT = +31F


Not exempt from impact testing
48

.. Exercise 1 - Solution

One approach to correct:


Impact test 1 in. plate at -2F. If passes,
material acceptable.

Another approach:
Order 1 in. plate normalized
Table 3.1: normalized SA-516 is Curve D material
Figure 3.1: 1 in. thick Curve D, MDMT = - 30F
Normalized 1 in. thick plate exempt from impact
testing
49

Material Selection
Factors

Strength
Corrosion Resistance
Resistance to Hydrogen Attack
Fracture Toughness
Fabricability

50

Fabricability

Ease of construction
Any required special fabrication
practices

Material must be weldable

51

Maximum Allowable Stress ..

Stress:
Force per unit area that resists loads induced
by external forces

Pressure vessel components designed to


keep stress within safe operational limits

Maximum allowable stress:


Includes safety margin
Varies with temperature and material

ASME maximum allowable stress tables


for permitted material specifications

52

..Maximum Allowable Stress ..


Spec
No.

Grade

Nominal
Composition

P-No.

Grou
p No.

Min. Yield
(ksi)

Min.
Tensile

Carbon Steel Plates and Sheets


SA-515

55
60
65
70

C-Si
C-Si
C-Si
C-Si

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
2

30
32
35
38

55
60
65
70

SA-516

55
60
65
70

C-Si
C-SMn-Si
C-SMn-Si
C-SMn-Si

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
2

30
32
35
38

55
60
65
70

3
3
4
4
4
4
5
5

1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1

33
45
33
40
35
45
30
45

55
70
55
65
60
75
60
75

Plate - Low Alloy Steels


SA-387 2 Cl.1
2 Cl.2
12 Cl.1
12 Cl.2
11 Cl.1
11 Cl.2
22 Cl.1
22 Cl.2

1/2Cr-1/2Mo
1/2Cr-1/2Mo
1Cr-1/2Mo
1Cr-1/2Mo
1 1/4Cr-1/2Mo-Si
2 1/4Cr-1/2Mo-Si
2 1/4Cr-1Mo
3 1/4Cr-1Mo

ASME Maximum Allowable Stress (Table 1A Excerpt)

53

Fig: 3.2

..Maximum Allowable Stress ..


ALLOWABLE STRESS IN TENSION FOR CARBON AND LOW ALLOY STEEL
Max Allowable Stress, ksi (Multiply by 1,000 to Obtain psi)
for Metal Temperature, F, Not Exceeding
650

700

750

800

850

900

950

1000

13.8
15.0
16.3
17.5

13.3
14.4
15.4
16.6

12.1
13.0
13.1
14.8

10.2
10.8
11.4
12.0

8.4
8.7
9.0
9.3

6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5

4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5

2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5

13.8
15.0
16.3
17.5

13.3
14.4
15.4
16.6

12.1
13.0
13.1
14.8

10.2
10.8
11.4
12.0

8.4
8.7
9.0
9.3

6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5

4.5
4.5
4.5
4.5

2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5

13.8
17.5
13.8
16.3
15.0
18.8
15.0
17.7

13.8
17.5
13.8
16.3
15.0
18.8
15.0
17.7

13.8
17.5
13.8
16.3
15.0
18.8
15.0
17.7

13.8
17.5
13.8
16.3
15.0
18.8
15.0
16.0

13.8
17.5
13.4
15.8
14.6
18.3
14.4
16.4

13.3
16.9
12.0
15.2
13.7
13.7
13.6
15.8

9.2
9.2
11.3
11.4
9.3
9.3
10.8
11.4

5.9
5.9
7.2
7.2
6.3
6.3
8.0
7.8

1050 1100 1150 1200 Spec. No.


Carbon Steel Plates and Sheets
SA - 515
SA - 515
SA - 515
SA - 515
Plate Low Alloy Steel
4.5
2.8
1.8
4.5
2.8
1.8
4.2
2.8
1.9
4.2
2.8
1.9
5.7
3.8
2.4
5.1
3.2
2.0

Cont'd
1.1
1.1
1.2
1.2
1.4
1.2

ASME Maximum Allowable Stress (Table 1A Excerpt Contd)

SA - 516
SA - 516
SA - 516
SA - 516
SA - 387
SA - 387
SA - 387
SA - 387
SA - 387
SA - 387
SA - 387
SA - 387

Fig: 3.2 Contd.54

Design Conditions and


Loadings

Determine vessel mechanical design

Design pressure and temperature, other


loadings

Possibly multiple operating scenarios to


consider

Consider startup, normal operation,


anticipated deviations, shutdown
55

Design Pressure
PT = Design Pressure
Top of Vessel

Weight Density of
Liquid in Vessel

H = Height of
Liquid
PBH = Design Pressure
Bottom of Vessel

56

Temperature Zones
in Tall Vessels
Section 4
( T-Z )

Section 3
( T-Y )

Section 2
( T-X )

Section 1
(T)oF
Support Skirt

Grade

57

Additional Loadings ..

Weight of vessel and normal contents under


operating or test conditions

Superimposed static reactions from weight of


attached items (e.g., motors, machinery, other
vessels, piping, linings, insulation)

Loads at attached internal components or vessel


supports

Wind, snow, seismic reactions


58

.. Additional Loadings

Cyclic and dynamic reactions caused by


pressure or thermal variations, equipment
mounted on vessel, and mechanical loadings

Test pressure combined with hydrostatic


weight

Impact reactions (e.g., from fluid shock)

Temperature gradients within vessel


component and differential thermal expansion
between vessel components
59

Summary Of ASME
Code Equations
Part
Cylindrical Shell

Spherical Shell
2:1Semi Elliptical Head
Torispherical Head
with 6% knuckle
Conical Section
( a = 30)

Thickness, tp , in.
Pr
SE 1 - 0.6 P

Pressure, P,
psi
SE 1 t
r +0.6 P

Pr

2SEt

2SE1 - 0.2 P

r +0.2 t

PD

2SEt

2SE - 0.2 P

D +0.2 t

0.855 PL

SEt

SE - 0.1 P

0.885 L+0.1t

PD
2SEt Cos
2Cos SE - 0.6 P) D + 1.2 t Cos

Stress, S, psi
P(r + 0.6 t)
tE
P(r + 0.2 t)
2tE
P(D+ 0.2 t)
2tE
P (0.885 L+ 0.1 t)
tE
P( D+ 1.2 t Cos)
2 t E Cos
60

General Skeleton of
ASME Sec. VIII Div. 1
SUBSECTION A
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
SUBSECTION B
REQUIREMENTS
PERTAINING TO
METHODS OF
FABRICATION
SUBSECTION C
REQUIREMENTS
PERTAINING TO CLASSES
OF MATERIALS

Part UG

General Requirements for All Methods of


Construction and All Requirements

Part UW Requirements for Pressure Vessels


Fabricated by Welding
Part UF

Requirements for Pressure Vessels


Fabricated by Forging

Part UB

Requirements for Pressure Vessels


Fabricated by Brazing

Part UCS

Requirements of Pressure Vessels


Constructed of Carbon and Low Alloy Steels

Part UHA

Requirements of Pressure Vessels


Constructed of High Alloy Steels

Part UCL

Requirements of Cladded Vessels

MANDATORY APPENDICES

Appendix 1, 2, 3, ..,31, 32, 33

NONMANDATORY APPENDICES

Appendix A,C,D,E,..,Y,AA,DD,EE,FF,GG

Slide 61 of 46

PART UG
General Requirements
for All Methods of
Construction and
All Materials

General Skeleton of Part UG


No.

Type of Requirement

Code Reference

Scope

UG-1

Materials

UG-4 to UG-15

Design

UG-16 to UG-35

Openings and Reinforcement

UG-36 to UG-46

Braced and Stayed Surfaces

UG-47 to UG-50

Ligaments

UG-53 to UG-55

Fabrication

UG-75 to UG-85

Inspection and Tests

UG-90 to UG-103

Marking and Reports

UG-115 to UG-120

10

Pressure Relief Devices

UG-125 to UG-137

11

Figures

12

Tables
Slide 63 of 46

UG-1 : SCOPE

The requirements of Part UG are


applicable to all pressure vessels and
vessel parts and shall be used in
conjunction with the specific requirements in
Subsections B and C and the Mandatory
Appendices that pertain to the method of
fabrication and the material used.

Slide 64 of 46

UG-4~15 : MATERIALS
UG-5

Plate

UG-6

Forgings

UG-7

Castings

UG-8

Pipe and Tubes

Table UCS-23

UG-12

Bolts and Studs

Table UNF-23

UG-13

Nuts and Washers

Specifications and maximum


allowable stress values are
given in tables referenced in
UG-23

UG-14

Rods and Bars

Table UHA-23
Table UCI-23
Table UCD-23
Table UHT-23
Table ULT-23

Slide 65 of 46

DESIGN
UG-16: GENERAL

Minimum Thickness of Pressure Retaining Components :


The minimum thickness permitted for shells and heads shall be
116 in. (1.5mm) exclusive of any corrosion allowance.
In compressed air service, steam service, and water service,
made from materials listed in Table UCS-23, minimum thickness
shall be 332in. (2.5mm) exclusive of any corrosion allowance.

Mill Undertolerance :
Vessels made of plate furnished with an under tolerance of not
more than the smaller value of 0.01 in. (0.25mm) or 6% of the
ordered thickness may be used at the full design pressure for the
thickness ordered.

Pipe Undertolerance :
Manufacturing under tolerance on wall thickness shall be taken
into account for Pipes and Tubes.
Slide 66 of 46

UG-20: DESIGN TEMPERATURE

Maximum :

Minimum : (MDMT)

The maximum temperature used in design shall be not less


than the mean metal temperature (through the thickness)
expected under operating conditions.
The minimum temperature used in design shall be the lowest
expected in service.
The MDMT marked on the nameplate shall correspond to a
coincident pressure equal to the MAWP.

Impact Test Exemption :


Important conditions for Impact test exemption are as below:
1. The material thickness shall not exceed by 12 in. (13mm) for
materials listed in Curve A of Fig. UCS-66; or 1 in. (25mm) for
materials listed in Curve B, C, or D of Fig. UCS-66.
2. Design temperature is no warmer than 650F (345C) nor
colder than 20F (29C).
Slide 67 of 46

UG-22: LOADINGS
Loadings to be considered.
1. Internal or external design pressure.
2. Weight of vessel and contents under operating or
test condition.
3. Weight of attached equipment e.g. Motors.
4. Wind, snow or seismic reactions, where required.
5. Impact / Shock loadings.
6. Temperature gradients and differential thermal
expansion.

Slide 68 of 46

UG-23: MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESS


VALUES
a)
b)

The maximum allowable tensile stress values for different materials


are given in Subpart 1 of Section II, Part D.
The maximum allowable longitudinal compressive stress shall be
smaller of the following values.
1. The maximum allowable tensile stress values as given in Section II,
Part D.
2. The Value of factor B as determined by below formulae.
0.125
AE , where
A

B
( Ro / t )
2
3.
4.

For the combination of earthquake or wind loading, allowable


stress may be increased by a factor of 1.2
For localized discontinuity stresses, the primary plus secondary
stresses at these discontinuities shall be limited to SPS, where SPS =
3S, and S is the maximum allowable stress of the material at
temperature.
Slide 69 of 46

UG-27: THICKNESS OF SHELLS UNDER


INTERNAL PRESSURE

Cylindrical Shells :
Circumferential Stress (Longitudinal Joints)

PR
t
SE 0.6 P

SEt
P

or
R 0.6t

Longitudinal Stress (Circumferential Joints)

PR
2 SE 0.4 P

or

2SEt
R 0.4t

Spherical Shells :
t

PR
2 SE 0.2 P

P
or

2 SEt
R 0.2t

Slide 70 of 46

Sample Problem 1
4- 0

Hemispherical

DESIGN INFORMATON
Design Pressure = 250 psig
Design Temperature = 700 oF
Shell & Head Material = SA 515 Gr 60

60- 0

Corrosion Allowance = 0.125


Both Heads are Seamless
10- 0

Shell and Cone Welds are Double Welded


and will be Spot Radiographed

30- 0

The Vessel is in All Vapor Service


2:1 Semi- Elliptical

Cylinder Dimensions shown are Inside


6- 0

Dimensions

71

Sample Problem 1-Solution ..

Required thickness for internal pressure of


Cylindrical Shell
Pr
SE1 - 0.6 P

Welds Spot Radiographed, E = 0.85 (Ref. Slide)


S = 14,400 psi for SA 516 Gr 60 at 700 oF (Ref. Slide)

P = 250 psig

72

..Sample Problem 1-Solution ..

For 6 ft - 0 in Shell
r = 0.5 D + CA = 0.5 x 72 + 0.125 = 36.125 in

Pr
tP =
SE1 - 0.6P

250 x 36.125
=
14,400 x 0.85 - 0.9 x 250
= 0.747 in

t = tP + CA = 0.747 + 0.125
= 0.872 in., including Corrosion Allowance
73

..Sample Problem 1-Solution ..

For 4 ft - 0 in Shell
r = 0.5 D + CA = 0.5 x 48 + 0.125 = 24.125 in
tP =

250 x 24.125
14,400 x 0.85 - 0.6 x 250

= 0.499 in

t = 0.499 + 0.125
t = 0.624 in., including Corrosion Allowance

74

..Sample Problem 1-Solution ..

Both Heads are Seamless, E = 1.0


Top Head Hemispherical

r = 24 + 0.125 = 24.125 in.


tP =

Pr
2SE - 0.2 P

250 x 24.125
2 x 14,400 x 1 - 0.2 x 250

= 0.21 in

t = tP + CA = 0.21 + 0.125
t = 0.335 in., including Corrosion Allowance
75

..Sample Problem 1-Solution ..

Bottom Head -- 2:1 Semi - Elliptical


D = 72 + 2x0.125 = 724.25 in.

tP =

PD
2SE - 0.2 P

250 x 72.25
2 x 14,400 x 1 - 0.2 x 250

= 0.628 in

t = tP + CA = 0.628 + 0.125
t = 0.753 in., including Corrosion Allowance
76

Design for External Pressure &


Compressive Stresses ...

Compressive forces caused by


deadweight, wind, earthquake, internal
vacuum

Can cause elastic instability (buckling)

Vessel must have adequate stiffness


Extra thickness
Circumferential stiffening rings

77

.. Design for External Pressure


& Compressive Stresses

ASME procedures for cylindrical


shells, heads, conical sections.
Function of:
Material
Temperature
Thickness
Diameter
Unstiffened length

78

Stiffening Rings
Stiffener rings reduce the buckling length of a shell and may be either inside or outside.
Stiffener rings are not used for heads.
Moment Axis of Ring

h/3

h/3

Do

h/3
h = Depth of Head

h/3

79

UG-28: THICKNESS OF SHELLS AND TUBES


UNDER EXTERNAL PRESSURE
Calculate maximum allowable external working pressure Pa and
compare with design pressure P. If Pa is smaller than P, select a
larger value of t and recalculate Pa.

Cylindrical Shells and Tubes:


Cylinders having Do/t values 10:
Calculate L/Do and Do/t. Enter Fig G in Subpart 3 of Section II,
Part D to get value of A . Enter Applicable material chart to get
value of B. Calculate value of Pa as follows.

Pa

4B
3( Do / t )

Design procedures are provided for Cylinders having Do/t values


10, and Spherical shells.
Slide 80 of 46

UG-32: FORMED HEADS AND SECTIONS,


PRESSURE ON CONCAVE SIDE
The minimum required thickness at the thinnest point after forming of ellipsoidal,
torispherical, hemispherical, conical, and toriconical heads under pressure on the
concave side (plus heads) shall be computed by the appropriate formulas in this
paragraph.
The thickness of an unstayed ellipsoidal or torispherical head shall in no case be
less than the required thickness of a seamless hemispherical head divided by the
efficiency of the head-to-shell joint.
For Ellipsoidal heads, required thickness shall be determined by

or

PD
2SE 0.2 P

Slide 81 of 46

2 SEt
D 0.2t

UG-33: FORMED HEADS, PRESSURE ON


CONVEX SIDE

For ellipsoidal and torispherical heads, the required thickness shall be the
greater of the following:
(a) the thickness computed by the procedure given in UG-32 for heads with pressure
on the concave side (plus heads) using a design pressure 1.67 times the design
pressure on the convex side, assuming a joint efficiency E = 1.00 for all cases; or
(b) Calculate a value of Factor A using below formula

0.125
Ro / t

Enter the applicable material chart in subpart 3 of Section II Part D, and find value of
factor B. Using this value of B, calculate maximum allowable pressure P a as
follows.

Pa

B
Ro / t
Slide 82 of 46

Sample Problem 2
DESIGN INFORMATION
4 - 0

150 - 0

Design Pressure = Full Vacuum


Design Temperature = 500 F
Shell and Head Material is
SA-285 Gr. B, Yield Stress = 27 ksi
Corrosion Allowance = 0.0625
Cylinder Dimension Shown
is Inside Diameter

83

Sample Problem 2 - Solution ..

Calculate L and Do of cylindrical shell.


L = Tangent Length + 2 1/3 (Head Depth)
L = 150 12 + 2/3 (48/4) = 1,808 in.
Do = 48 + 2 7/16 = 48.875 in.

Determine L/Do and Do/t


Account for corrosion allowance:
t = 7/16 1/16 = 6/16 = 0.375 in.
Do/t = 48.875 / 0.375 = 130
L/Do = 1808 / 48.875 = 37
84

..Sample Problem 2 - Solution..

Determine Factor A
Use Figure on Slide 64, Do/t, and L/Do.

Note:
If L/Do > 50, enter the Chart at L/Do = 50
If L/Do <0.05, enter the Chart at L/D = 0.05

85

..Sample Problem 2 - Solution..

Factor A

86

..Sample Problem 2 - Solution..

87

..Sample Problem 2 - Solution..

Calculate maximum allowable external


pressure
Pa =

2AE
3(Do / t)

Where
E = Youngs Modulus of Elasticity
= 27 x 106 psi at T = 500o F

Pa = 9 psi
88

..Sample Problem 2 - Solution..

Since Pa < 15 psi, 7/16 in. thickness not sufficient


Assume new thickness = 9/16 in.,
Corroded thickness t = 1/2 in.
Do
t

48.875
0.5

= 97.75

L
Do

= 37 ( As Before)

Ao = 0.000114
Pa =

2 x 0.000114 x 27 x 106
= 15.7 psi
3 x 130.33
89

Exercise 2
Required Thickness for Internal Pressure

Inside Diameter - 10 - 6
Design Pressure - 650 psig
Design Temperature - 750F
Shell & Head Material - SA-516 Gr. 70
Corrosion Allowance - 0.125 in.
2:1 Semi-Elliptical heads, seamless
100% radiography
Vessel in vapor service

90

Exercise 2 -- Solution ...

For Shell

tP =

Pr
SE1 - 0.6 P

P = 650 psig
r = 0.5 x D + CA
= (0.5 x 126) + 0.125 = 63.125 in.

S = 16,600 psi, For SA-516 Gr 70


E = 1.0For 100 % radiography

tP =

650 x 63.125
(16,600 X 1.0) - (0.6 x 650)

= 2.53 in.
91

Exercise 2 -- Solution

Add corrosion allowance


tP = 2.53 + 0.125 = 2.655 in.

For the heads


tP =
tP =

PD
2SE - 0.2 P
650 (126 x 0.9) + 0.250
(2 x 16,600) - (0.2 x 650)

= 2.23 in.

Add corrosion allowance


tp = 2.23 + 0.125 = 2.355 in.
92

Reinforcement of Openings

Simplified ASME rules - Area replacement

Metal used to replace that removed:


Must be equivalent in metal area
Must be adjacent to opening

93

Cross Sectional View of


Nozzle Opening
tn
trn

Rn

Dp

te

2.5 t Or 2.5 tn + te

tr

Use Smaller Value

t
h, 2.5t, 2.5 ti
Use Smallest Value

d or Rn + tn + t
Use larger Value
For nozzle wall inserted through the vessel wall

For nozzle wall abutting the vessel wall

94

Nozzle Design Configurations


(a)

(a-1)

Full Penetration Welds with


Integral Reinforcement

(b)

(a-2)

(a-3)

Separate Reinforcement Plate Added

(d)

(c)

(e)

Full Penetration Welds to which Reinforcement Plates may be added.

(f-1)

(f-2)

(f-3)
Self Reinforced Nozzles

(f-4)

(g)
95

Additional Reinforcement

Necessary if insufficient excess thickness

Must be located within reinforcement zone

Allowable stress of reinforcement pad should be


that of shell or head

Additional reinforcement sources


Pad
Additional thickness in shell or lower part of nozzle

96

OPENINGS AND REINFORCEMENTS


UG-36: OPENINGS IN PRESSURE VESSELS
Shape of Opening : Preferably be circular, elliptical or abround.
Size of Openings in Cylindrical Shell : Not limited as to size, except
that supplemental rules of 1-7 should be satisfied in addition to UG-36
through UG-43, for nozzles below.
1) For Vessel ID 60 in Nozzle size > 20 in or of vessel Dia.
2) For Vessel ID > 60 in Nozzle size > 40 in or 1/3 of vessel Dia.
Size of Openings in Formed Heads or Spherical
Shells : Not limited as to size, except that following
alternatives to reinforcement
may be used for openings
larger than of ID of shell.

Slide 97 of 46

UG-37: REINFORCMENT REQUIRED FOR OPENINGS IN


SHELLS AND FORMED HEADS
Exemption: Welded Connections do not require reinforcement if
Nozzle OD 3 (89 mm) and head or shell Treq 3/8 (10 mm)
Nozzle OD 2 3/8 (60 mm) and head or shell Treq 3/8 (10 mm)
For Internal Pressure : The total cross-sectional area of
reinforcement A shall not be less than

A = d tr F + 2 tn tr F (1 - fr1)
For External Pressure : The reinforcement required for external
pressure need to be only 50% of that required above, where t r is the
required wall thickness under external pressure and F=1.

Slide 98 of 46

UG-40: LIMITS OF REINFORCEMENT

Slide 99 of 46

UG-45: NOZZLE NECK THICKNESS

Slide 100 of 46

Sample Problem 3
DESIGN INFORMATION
- Design Pressure = 300 psig
- Design Temperature = 200 F
- Shell Material is SA-516 Gr. 60
- Nozzle Material is SA-53 Gr. B, Seamless
- Corrosion Allowance = 0.0625"
- Vessel is 100% Radiographed
- Nozzle does not pass through Vessel
Weld Seam

NPS 8 Nozzle
(8.625 OD)
0.5Thick

0.5625" Thick Shell,


48" Inside Diameter

101

Sample Problem 3 - Solution ..

Calculate required reinforcement area, A


A = dtrF

Where:
d = Finished diameter of circular opening, or finished
dimension of non-radial opening in plane under
consideration, in.
tr = Minimum required thickness of shell using E =
1.0, in.
F = Correction factor, normally 1.0
102

.. Sample Problem 3 - Solution ..

Calculate diameter, d.
d = Diameter of Opening 2 (Thickness +
Corrosion Allowance)
d = 8.625 2(0.5 + 0.0625) = 7.75 in.
Calculate required shell thickness, tr (Slide 51)
tr = 0.487 in.

Assume F = 1.0

103

.. Sample Problem 3 - Solution ..

Calculate A
A = dtrF
A = (8.625 - 1.0 + 0.125) 0.487 1
= 3.775 in.2
Calculate available reinforcement area in
vessel shell, A1, as larger of A11 or A 12
A11 = (Elt - Ftr)d
A12 = 2 (Elt-Ftr)(t + tn)

104

.. Sample Problem 3 - Solution ..

Where:
El = 1.0 when opening is in base plate away from
welds, or when opening passes through
circumferential joint in shell (excluding head to shell
joints).
El = ASME Code joint efficiency when any part of
opening passes through any other welded joint.
F = 1 for all cases except integrally reinforced nozzles
inserted into a shell or cone at angle to vessel
longitudinal axis. See Fig. UG-37 for this special case.
tn = Nominal thickness of nozzle in corroded
condition, in.
105

.. Sample Problem 3 - Solution ..

A11 = (Elt - Ftr)d


= (0.5625 - 0.0625 - 0.487) 7.75 = 0.1 in.2

A12 = 2 (Elt - Ftr) (t + tn)


= 2 (0.5625-0.0625-0.487) (0.5625 - 0.0625+0.5 - 0.0625)

= 0.0243 in.2

Therefore,

A1= 0.1 in.2 available reinforcement in shell


106

.. Sample Problem 3 - Solution ..

Calculate reinforcement area available in


nozzle wall, A 2, as smaller of A21 or A22.

A21 = (tn-trn) 5t
A22 = 2 (tn-trn) (2.5 tn + te)

107

.. Sample Problem 3 - Solution ..

Where:
trn = Required thickness of nozzle wall, in.
r = Radius of nozzle, in.
te = 0 if no reinforcing pad.
te = Reinforcing pad thickness if one installed, in.
te = Defined in Figure UG-40 for self-reinforced
nozzles, in.

108

.. Sample Problem 3 - Solution ..

Calculate required nozzle thickness, trn (Slide 60)

t m=

t m=

Pr
SE1 - 0.6 P
300 (3.81235 +0.625)
(15,000 x 1)- (0.6 x 300)

= 0.0784 in.

109

.. Sample Problem 3 - Solution ..


Calculate A2.
A21 = (tn - trn)5t

= (0.5 - 0.0625 - 0.0784) 5 (0.5625 - 0.0625)


= 0.898 in.2
A22 = 2 (tn - trn) (2.5 tn + te)
= 2 (0.5 - 0.0625 - 0.0784) [2.5 (0.5 - 0.0625) + 0]

= 0.786 in.2

Therefore,

A2 = 0.786 in.2 available reinforcement in nozzle.


110

.. Sample Problem 3 - Solution ..

Determine total available reinforcement area, AT;


compare to required area.
AT = A1 + A2 = 0.1 + 0.786 = 0.886 in.2
AT < A,
Nozzle not adequately reinforced, reinforcement pad
required

Determine reinforcement pad diameter, Dp


A5 = A - AT
A5 = (3.775 - 0.886) = 2.889 in.2
111

.. Sample Problem 3 - Solution ..

Calculate Dp
te = 0.5625 in. (reinforcement pad thickness)
A5 = [Dp - (d + 2 tn)] te
2.889 = [Dp - (7.75 + 2(0.5 - 0.0625)] 0.5625
Dp = 13.761 in.

Confirm Dp within shell reinforcement zone, 2d


2d = 2 7.75 = 15.5 in.

Therefore, Dp = 13.761 in. acceptable

112

Flange Rating

Based on ASME B16.5

Identifies acceptable pressure/temperature


combinations

Seven classes
150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1,500, 2,500

Flange strength increases with class number

Material and design temperature combinations


without pressure indicated not acceptable
113

Material Specification List


Materal Groups
Product Forms
Material
Nominal
Group Designation
Forgings
Castings
Plates
Number
Steel
Spec No. Grade Spec No. Grade Spec No. Grade
1.1

1.2

Carbon

A 105

A 216

WCB

A 515

70

A 350

LF 2

A 516

70

C - Mn - Si

A 537

Cl. 1

Carbon

A 216

WCC

A 352

LCC

A 352
A 352

LC2
LC3

A 203
A 203

B
E

2 1/2 Ni
3 1/2 Ni

ASME B 16.5 Table 1a. Materal Specificaton List ( Excerpt)

114

Pressure Temperature Ratings


Material
Group No.
Classes
Temp. o F
-20 To 100
200
300
400
500
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000

1.1

1.2

150

300

400

150

285
260
230
200
170
140
125
110
95
80
65
50
35
20

740
675
655
635
600
550
535
535
505
410
270
170
105
50

990
900
875
845
800
730
715
710
670
550
355
230
140
70

290
260
230
200
170
140
125
110
95
80
65
50
35
20

1.3

300
400
Pressure, psig
750
750
730
705
665
605
590
570
505
410
270
170
105
50

1000
1000
970
940
885
805
785
755
670
550
355
230
140
70

150

300

400

265
250
230
200
170
140
125
110
95
80
65
50
35
20

695
655
640
620
585
534
525
520
475
390
270
170
105
50

925
875
850
825
775
710
695
690
630
520
355
230
140
70

115

Sample Problem 4

Determine Required Flange Rating


Pressure Vessel Data:
Shell and Heads: SA-516 Gr.70
Flanges: SA-105
Design Temperature: 700F
Design Pressure: 275 psig

116

Sample Problem 4 -- Solution...

Identify flange material specification


SA-105

From Slide 115, determine Material


Group No.
Group 1.1

From Slide 116 with design temperature


and Material Group No. determined in
Step 3
Intersection of design temperature with
Material Group No. is maximum allowable
design pressure for the flange Class
117

..Sample Problem 4 -- Solution..


Table 2 of ASME B16.5, design information for all
flange Classes
Select lowest Class whose maximum allowable
design pressure required design pressure.

At 700F, Material Group 1.1: Lowest Class


that will accommodate 275 psig is Class 300.

At 700F, Class 300 flange of Material Group


1.1: Maximum design pressure = 535 psig.
118

Flange Design

Bolting requirements
During normal operation (based on design
conditions)
During initial flange boltup (based on stress
necessary to seat gasket and form tight seal

Am =

W
S
119

Flange Loads & Moment Arms


Gasket

hg
W
A

hT

hD

g1

HT
G HG

HD

go
Flange Hub
120

Stresses in Flange Ring


and Hub

Calculated using:
Stress factors (from ASME code)
Applied moments
Flange geometry

Calculated for:
Operating case
Gasket seating case
121

Flange Design and


In-Service Performance

Factors affecting design and performance


ASME Code m and y parameters
Specified gasket widths
Flange facing and nubbin width, w
Bolt size, number, spacing

122

ASME Code m and y Factors


Gasket Type & Material

Flat Metal Jacketed, Asbestos Filled:


- Soft Aluminum
- Soft Copper or Brass
- Iron or Soft Steel
- Monel
- 4 - 6 % Chrome
- Stainless Steels & Nickle-base Alloys
Solid Flat Metal:
- Soft Aluminum
- Soft Copper or Brass
- Iron or Soft Steel
- Monel or 4 - 6 % Chrome
- Stainless Steels & Nickle-base Alloys

Facing Sketch
Gasket Min. Design
and Column in
Factor
Seating
ASME Table 2-5.2
m
Stress, y psi
Slide 98
3.25
3.50
3.75
3.50
3.75
3.75

5,500
6,500
7,600 (1a), (1b), (1c), (1d);
(2); Column II
8,000
9,000
9,000

4.00
4.75

8,800
(1a), (1b), (1c), (1d);
13,000
(2), (3), (4), (5);
18,000
Column I

5.50
6.00
6.50

21,800
26,000

123

ASME Code Gasket Widths


Basic Gasket Seating Width, b
Column I
Column II

Facing Sketch

(1a)
N

(1b)
N

(1c)

T
w< N

w +T
2
w +N

(1d)

T
w

OD Contact Face

HG

w +T

max

w +N
4

max

w< N

HG

hG

hG

C
L Contact Face

For bo > 1/4 in

For bo < 1/4 in

124

Maximum Allowable
Working Pressure (MAWP)

Maximum permitted gauge pressure at top of


vessel in operating position for designated
temperature
MAWP Design Pressure
Designated Temperature = Design Temperature
Vessel MAWP based on weakest component

Originally based on new thickness less corrosion


allowance
Later based on actual thickness less future
corrosion allowance needed
125

Local Loads

Piping system

Platforms, internals, attached equipment

Support attachment

126

Types of Vessel Internals

Trays

Inlet Distributor

Anti-vortex baffle

Catalyst bed grid and support beams

Outlet collector

Flow distribution grid

Cyclone and plenum chamber system


127

ASME Code and


Vessel Internals

Loads applied from internals on


vessel to be considered in design

Welding to pressure parts must meet


ASME Code

128

Corrosion Allowance
For Vessel Internals

Removable internals:
CA = CA of shell
Costs less
Easily replaced

Non-removable internals:
CA = 2 (CA of shell)
Corrosion occurs on both sides

129

...Head to Shell Transitions

130

Nozzle Neck Thickness


Tapers
1/4 in min. radius
1/4 in min. radius
18.5o max.
14o min.

30o max.

tn

18.5o max.
14o min.

trn

tn

trn

t1

t1

131

Stiffener Rings

In-line
Intermittent Weld

Staggered
Intermittent Weld

Continuous Fillet Weld


on one Side, Intermittent
Weld on Other side

132

Post Weld Heat Treatment

Restores material properties

Relieves residual stresses

ASME Code PWHT requirements


Minimum temperature and hold time
Adequate stress relief
Heatup and cooldown rates

133

Inspection and Testing

Inspection includes examination of:


Base material specification and quality
Welds
Dimensional requirements
Equipment documentation

134

Common Weld Defects


Between Weld Bead and Base Metal

Between Adjacent Passes

Lack of Fusion

Incomplete Filling at Root One Side Only

Incomplete Filling at Root

Incomplete Penetration
External Undercut

Internal Undercut

Undercut

135

Weld Defects

Reduces weld strength below that


required

Reduces overall strength of


fabrication

Increases risk of failure

136

Types of NDE
NDE TYPE
Radiographic

Visual

DEFECTS
DETECTED

ADVANTAGES

Gas Pockets, Slag


Produces permanent
inclusion, Incomplete record. Detects small flaws.
Penetration, Cracks
Most effective for butt
welded joints.
Porosity, holes, slag Helps pinpoint areas for
inclusions, weld
additional NDE.
undercuts,
overlapping.
Weld surface-type
Used for ferrous and non-

LIMITATIONS
Expansive. Not
practical for
complex shapes.
Can only detect
what is clearly
visible.

Can only detect


defects; cracks,
ferrous materials. Simple & surface
seams, porosity, folds, less expansive than RT,
imperfections.
pits, inclusion,
MT or UT.
shrinkage.
Magnetic Particle Cracks, porosity, lack Flaws up to 1/4 in. beneath Cannot be used on
of fusion.
surface can be detected.
non-ferrous
materials.
Subsurface flaws:
Can be used for thick
Equipment must be
Ultrasonic
laminations, slag
plates, welds, castings,
constantly
inclusions.
forgings. May be used for calibrated.
welds where RT not
practical.

Liquid Penetrant

137

Pressure Testing ...


Pressure test is used as final demonstration of vessel integrity.

Typically use water as test medium

Demonstrates structural and mechanical


integrity after fabrication and inspection

Higher test pressure provides safety


margin

PT = 1.3 P (Ratio) --- Used to be 1.5 P


138

Pressure Testing
Hydrotest pressures must be calculated:

For shop test -- Vessel in horizontal position.


For field test -- Vessel in final position with
uncorroded component thicknesses.
For field test -- Vessel in final position and with
corroded component thicknesses.
PT Flange test pressure
Stress 0.9 (MSYS)
Field test with wind
139

Slide 141 of 46

UG-116: REQUIRED MARKING


U Stamp: The official U symbol shall be marked on vessels inspected in accordance
with the requirements in UG-90 through UG-97.
(inspected by USER specified inspectors)
UM Stamp : Vessels which are not fully radiographed, and do not exceed following
pressure- volume limits.
5 cu ft in volume and 250 psi design pressure
3 cu ft in volume and 350 psi design pressure
1.5 cu ft in volume and 600 psi design pressure
(Exempted from inspection.)
UV Stamp : Official Symbol for Pressure Relief Valves
UD Stamp : Official Symbol for Rupture Disc Devices

Slide 142 of 46

UG-119: NAMEPLATES

Slide 143 of 46

PART UW
Requirements for
Pressure Vessels
Fabricated by Welding

General Skeleton of
Part UW
No.
1

Type of Requirement
General

(Scope, Service, Weld Joint Category)

Code Reference
UW-1, UW-2, UW-3

Materials

UW-5

Design

UW-8 to UW-21

Fabrication

UW-26 to UW-42

Inspection and Tests

UW-46 to UW-53

Marking and Reports

UW-60

Pressure Relief Devices

UW-65

Figures

Tables
Slide 145 of 46

GENERAL
UW-1:

SCOPE

The rules in Part UW are applicable to


pressure vessels and vessel parts that are
fabricated by welding and shall be used in
conjunction with the general requirements in
Subsection A, and with the specific
requirements in Subsection C.

Slide 146 of 46

UW-2:

SERVICE RESTRICTIONS

(a) When vessels are to contain lethal1


substances, either liquid or gaseous, all
butt welded joints shall be fully
radiographed. When fabricated of carbon
or low alloy steel, such vessels shall be
postweld heat treated.
1Poisonous

gases or liquids of such a nature that a


very small amount of the gas or of the vapor of the
liquid mixed or unmixed with air is dangerous to life
when inhaled.

UW-3: WELDED JOINT CATEGORY

The term Category defines the location


of a joint in a vessel.
The joints included in each category are
designated as joints of Categories A, B, C,
and D.
The Categories established by UW-3 are for use in
specifying special requirements (based on Service,
Material, and Thickness) regarding joint type and
degree of inspection for certain welded pressure
joints.
Figure UW-3 illustrates typical joint locations
included in each category.
Slide 148 of 46

FIG. UW-3: ILLUSTRATION OF WELDED


JOINT LOCATIONS TYPICAL OF
CATEGORIES A, B, C AND D

UW-3(b)

If the angle is less than 30 deg, all requirements pertaining to the


butt welded joint shall apply to the angle joint.

Slide 149 of 46

UW-3:

(Contd.)

Category A. Longitudinal welded joints within the main


shell or nozzles; any welded joint within a formed or flat
head; circumferential welded joints connecting
hemispherical heads to main shells, to transitions in
diameters.
Category B. Circumferential welded joints within the main
shell, nozzles, or transitions in diameter; circumferential
welded joints connecting formed heads other than
hemispherical to main shells, to transitions in diameter.
Category C. Welded joints connecting flanges,
tubesheets, or flat heads to main shell, to formed heads,
to transitions in diameter, to nozzles.
Category D. Welded joints connecting nozzles to main
shells, to spheres, to transitions in diameter, to heads.
Slide 150 of 46

MATERIALS
UW- 5:

GENERAL

(a) Pressure Parts. Materials used in the construction of


welded pressure vessels shall comply with the
requirements for materials given in UG-4 through UG-15,
and shall be proven of weldable quality as per
qualification of the welding procedure under Section IX.
(b) Nonpressure Parts. Materials used for nonpressure
parts which are welded to the pressure vessel shall be
proven of weldable quality.
Two materials of different specifications may be
joined by welding provided the requirements of
Section IX, QW-250 are met.
Slide 151 of 46

DESIGN
UW-8: GENERAL

The rules in the following paragraphs


apply specifically to the design of
pressure vessels and vessel parts that are
fabricated by welding and shall be used in
conjunction with the general requirements for
Design in Subsection A, and with the specific
requirements for Design in Subsection C that
pertain to the class of material used.
Slide 152 of 46

UW-9: DESIGN OF WELDED JOINTS


(a) Permissible Types. The types of welded joints permitted

in arc and gas welding processes are listed in Table UW12, together with the limiting plate thickness permitted for
each type.

(b) Welding Grooves. The dimensions and shape of the


edges to be joined shall be such as to permit complete
fusion and complete joint penetration.
Slide 153 of 46

UW-9:

(Contd.)

(c) Tapered Transitions. A tapered transition having a


length not less than three times the offset between the
adjacent surfaces of abutting sections, as shown in Fig.
UW-9, shall be provided at joints between sections that
differ in thickness by more than one-fourth of the thickness
of the thinner section, or by more than 18 in. (3 mm),
whichever is less.

Slide 154 of 46

FIG. UW-9: BUTT WELDING OF PLATES


OF UNEQUAL THICKNESS

Slide 155 of 46

UW-10: POSTWELD HEAT TREATMENT

Pressure vessels and pressure vessel parts


shall be postweld heat treated as prescribed
in UW-40 (PROCEDURES FOR POSTWELD
HEAT TREATMENT) when postweld heat
treatment is required in the applicable part of
Subsection C.

Slide 156 of 46

UW-11: DESIGN OF WELDED JOINTS


(a) Full Radiography. The following welded joints shall be
examined radiographically for their full length in the
manner prescribed in UW-51 (RADIOGRAPHIC AND
RADIOSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF WELDED JOINTS):
(1) all butt welds in the shell and heads of vessels used to
contain lethal substances [see UW-2(a)];
(2) all butt welds in vessels in which the nominal thickness at
the welded joint exceeds 112 in. (38 mm) or exceeds the
lesser thicknesses prescribed in UCS-57, UHA-33, etc.
(4) all butt welds in nozzles attached to vessel sections or
heads that are required to be fully radiographed under (1)
above;
Slide 157 of 46

UW-11: (Contd.)
(b) Spot Radiography. Butt welded joints made in
accordance with Type No. (1) or (2) of Table UW-12 which
are not required to be fully radiographed by (a) above,
may be examined by spot radiography. Spot radiography
shall be in accordance with UW-52 (SPOT
EXAMINATION OF WELDED JOINTS). If spot
radiography is specified for the entire vessel, radiographic
examination is not required of Category B and C butt
welds in nozzles that exceed neither NPS 10 nor 118 in.
(29 mm) wall thickness.
(c) No Radiography. Except as required in (a) above, no
radiographic examination of welded joints is required
when the vessel or vessel part is designed for external
pressure only.
Slide 158 of 46

UW-12: JOINT EFFICIENCIES

Table UW-12 gives the joint efficiencies E to be used in


the formulas of this Division for joints completed by an arc
or gas welding process.

Slide 159 of 46

UW-13: ATTACHMENT DETAILS


(a) Definitions
th = nominal thickness of head
tp = min. distance from outside surface of flat head to edge
of weld preparation measured as shown in Fig. UW-13.2
ts = nominal thickness of shell
(b)(1) Ellipsoidal, torispherical, and other types of formed
heads, shall be attached to the shell as illustrated in the
applicable Fig. UW-13.1 sketches (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), and
(k).
(b)(3) Fig. UW-13.1 sketches (l) and (m) shall be provided at
joints between formed heads and shells that differ in
thickness by more than 14th the thickness of the thinner
section or by more than 18 in. (3 mm), whichever is less.
Slide 160 of 46

UW-13:

(Contd.)

Slide 161 of 46

UW-13:

(Contd.)

Slide 162 of 46

UW-13:

(Contd.)

Slide 163 of 46

Summary

Overview of pressure vessel mechanical


design

ASME Section VIII, Division 1


Covered

Materials
Design
Fabrication
Inspection
Testing

164