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features requires a framework for defining realworld locations.

Two Types:

1)Geographic coordinate system

2)Projected coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is

used to assign geographic locations to

objects.

A global coordinate system of

latitude-longitude is one such

framework.

grids, graticules, and tic marks labeled with various

ground locations (both in measures of latitude-longitude

and in projected coordinate systems (such as UTM

meters)..

layers are drawn in a specific order (on top of one

another) for the given map extent

One method for describing the position of a geographic

location on the earth's surface is using spherical

measures of latitude and longitude. They are measures

of the angles (in degrees) from the center of the earth

to a point on the earth's surface. This reference system

is often referred to as a geographic coordinate system.

The equator is at an angle of 0. Often, the northern

hemisphere has positive measures of latitude and the

southern hemisphere has negative measures of latitude.

Longitude measures angles in an east-west direction.

surface of the globe, they are not uniform units of

measure. This is because the equator is the only parallel

as large as a meridian. (Circles with the same radius as

the spherical earth are called great circles. The equator

and all meridians are great circles.)

Projected coordinate systems are any coordinate system

designed for a flat surface, such as a printed map or a

computer screen.

Units is the metric system.

Map Projection

Are systematic transformation of spheroidal shape of

the earth so that the curved three dimensional shape of

a geographic area on the earth can be represented in 2

dimentions as (x,y)

Projection formulas are mathematical expressions that

convert data from geographic location (longitude

&latitude) on a sphere to represent location on a flat

surface.

coordinates

Projected coordinate systems are any coordinate system

designed for a flat surface, such as a printed map or a

computer screen.

2D and 3D Cartesian coordinate systems provide the

mechanism for describing the geographic location and

shape of features using x and y values (and, as you will

read later, by using columns and rows in rasters).

(x), representing east-west, and one vertical (y), representing

north-south. The point at which the axes intersect is called the

origin. Locations of geographic objects are defined relative to the

origin, using the notation (x,y), where x refers to the distance

along the horizontal axis, and y refers to the distance along the

vertical axis. The origin is defined as (0,0).

In the illustration below, the notation (4, 3) records a point that is

four units over in x and three units up in y from the origin.

3D coordinate systems

Increasingly, projected coordinate systems also use a Z

value to measure elevation above or below mean sea

level.

In the illustration below, the notation (2, 3, 4) records a

point that is two units over in x and three units in y from

the origin and whose elevation is 4 units above the

earth's surface (such as 4 meters above mean sea

level).

Datum

Mathematical representation of the shape of the earths surface.

Datum is defined by spheroid, which approximate the shape of

the earth , its position relative to the center of the earth.

Horizontal datum : define the origin and orientation of longitude

and latitude lines.

Local datum: aligns its spheroid to closely fit the earths surface

in a particular area

Example : NAD27& European Datum of 1950.

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