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# Valves

If the pump is the heart of a hydraulic system then the valve is the brain.
Valves are used to perform a large variety of governing and controlling functions.

Aspects of classification
Form:
a) Spherical
b) c) d) e) Conical

Function:
Poppet
valve

## pressure control valves

flow control valves

f) Plate

g) Spool valve

## directional control valves

Valves
Pressure control valves:
pressure relief valves

## Pressure relief valve

Has the task to limit the pressure in a hydraulic system or in a part of the system.
The pressure can rise in a hydraulic system if:
- the flow rate from the pump is larger than the flow rate through the actuator
- the volume of a closed system is reduced
- the load of the actuator rises
- heat is introduced into a closed system
- the hydraulic resistance of the system rises

Valves

Symbol
A

N
C
m
Fspring

psys
Qp

## Pressure relief valve

Theoretical basics
Curtain surface:

Force equilibrium:

psys A FS FS 0 c x

(1)

Circumference height = k x = Ac

Bernoulli equation:

2 psys
2p
Qrv Ac v k x
k x
f
f
Qrv k x

F cx
2
S0
f
A

(2)
(3)

then:

Qrv k

psys A FS 0
c

2
psys
f

0,6...0,7

(4)

psys A FS 0
c

## Pressure relief valve

Theoretical basics:
*
Let psys
be the pressure when the valve just opens (x = 0)

psys
A FS 0

Qrv

subst. to (4)

p
k

sys

psys
A

(5)

2
k A
2

psys

psys psys
f
c
f

const

(5) is valid from x = 0 to x = xmax, xmax being the displacement when the spring is
completely compressed
0 x xmax
If p > pmax :

psys const psys

psys

## Pressure relief valve

Theoretical basics:
Qrv

*
psys

psys
pmax

negative part:
belongs to xmax
physically impossible

## Pressure relief valve

Hydraulic aggregate:
The simplest hydraulic system
Pump + pressure relief valve
Qp

psys

Qag user

Qrv
M

reservoir

Hydraulic aggregate
Let us derive the characteristics of the complete aggregate. Parallel circuit so:
Q p Qrv Qag Qag Q p Qrv
n = n1 < n = n 2

psys

Qrv
=

Qpump

*
psys

Qag1
Qrv

Qag2
Qpump

## Pressure relief valve

The pressure relief valve always has to be matched with the pump.
If for example the rotational speed is increased (orange curve) then there
will be flow through the aggregate even with higher pressure. Wrong!
The last section of the curve has to be at the negative Q plane.

## Pressure relief valve

Versions:
There are various versions of pressure relief valves:
1.

2.

## Self-operated externally operated

The self-operated valve is controlled by its own pressure, whereas the externally
operated valve is controlled by an outside pressure.

## Pilot operated pressure relief valve

Pilot operated is applied when large flow rates have to be controlled. Consists of
two valves:
At higher flow rates the losses at a directly operated valve would be very large.
Another problem is that with high flow rate the dynamics of the valve gets worse.
k A
2
Valve constant has to be increased: C

c
f
The area can be increased but this increases size and costs and worsens the
sensitivity of the control.
The spring constant can be decreased but this increase against the size. (Large
Solution: two valves: pilot operated valve
- Main valve (low c)
-

Pilot operated:
p1

Thr

p2

x
spring 1

spring 1

A
main
valve

pilot
valve

## p1 is the system pressure that has to be limited.

The valve is closed as long as the limit pressure is not reached at the pilot valve.

## Pressure relief valve

Pilot operated:
In this case the pressure p1 acts on both sides of the valve and the valve is in
equilibrium: p1 = p2.
In the pressure rises above the limiting pressure of the pilot valve then the pilot valve
opens.
A flow starts through the throttling valve so that p1 > p2.
If A(p1-p2) > FS01 (preload force of spring 1) then the main valve also starts to open.
This is more favourable because it allows a softer spring in the main valve.
The pilot valve can be spatially separated from the main valve the control can
be exercised from a distance.
More favourable static characteristics
Better dynamic characteristics

## Pressure relief valves

Pilot-operated pressure relief valve
1 - Main valve
2 - Pilot valve
3 Main spool
4 - 5 - 11 - Throttle
6 - 7 - 13 - Operation
line
8 - Valve body
9 - Spring
15 - Discharging
1 - fszelep, 2 - elvezrl
szelep,
3 - ftolatty, 4 - 5 - 11 fojts,
6 - 7 - 13 - vezrl vezetk,
8 - szeleptest, 9 - rug,
15 - tehermentests

## Pressure relief valve

Characteristic curves of pressure relief valves
p1

directly operated
pilot operated
ideal

Simplified symbol of
a pilot operated
pressure relief valve

Qrv
Applications of pressure relief valves:
- Safety valve (most common)
- Overflow valve (pressure source always open produces large losses,
should be used only for small power)
- Sequence valves (turn-on or turn-off)

## Pressure relief valve

Safety valve and overflow valve:

Qp
p
RV

Qs

p
pl

Safety valve

RV

pl

## Pressure relief valve

Sequence valves:
Turn-on valve is used when two or more users are fed by the same pump.
When one working step is finished , the pressure rises and a second user is
switched through the valve.
Turn-off valve is applied when two pumps (one high pressure, one low
pressure) work in parallel. If the pressure is high enough then only the high
pressure pump works.
If the pressure drops below the limiting value of RV1 then the valve closes and
the pump delivers into the system again.

## Pressure relief valve

Sequence valves:
Sequence valve (turn on)

Qp > Q S
pl1

pl2

RV2

RV1

Check valve
Q

HPP
RV2

pl2

LPP

pl1
RV1

## Here the RV1 is an

externally operated
valve.

## Pressure relief valves

Dynamic behaviour of pressure relief valves:

## Sudden opening or closing leads to oscillations of the valve.

Stationary characteristics depend only on the valve, dynamics characteristics
depend on the whole system.
The dynamic behaviour can be tested by a sudden application of the pressure
on the valve.

## Pressure relief valve

Dynamic behaviour of pressure relief valves:
p1
Qp

p1

V1

V2

V3

Qrv
p

DV
RV

t
Test rig
First linear rise, then damped
oscillation.
There is a differential equation
system which can be solved to
simulate the process.

V1 < V2 < V3
V is the volume of fluid between pump
and valve capacity and inductivity
changes.

Big pictures
End of normal presentation
Beginning of big pictures

Valves

Form

a) Spherical
b) c) d) e) Conical

Poppet
valve

f) Plate
g) Spool valve

Valves

Pressure
relief
valve

Valves

Pressure
relief
valve

Valves

Valves

Valves

Symbol
A

N
C
m
Fspring

psys
Qp