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GSM Vs.

CDMA
An Overview
Bhushan G. Jagyasi
Lecturer, Elex & Tele Comm Dept.
Thadomal Shahani Engineering College

Classification Of Existing Systems


Technologies
TDMA/FDMA

CDMA

GSM (European Standard)


IS 136 (U.S Standard)
PDC (Japnese Standard)

IS 95 (U.S Standard)

Evolution Chart
Service type

Narrow Band
1G
2G
Multi
media

Voice

Analog
AMPS

Digital
IS 95
IS 136
GSM

~ 24kbps

~64kbps

1980

1990

Broad Band
4G

Wide Band
3G

IMT
2000

~2Mbps
2000
Years

Wireless
Internet
Mobile
system

~20Mbps
2010

Access technology
PN Code
Freq

Freq

Freq

Time

Time

FDMA

TDMA

Time
CDMA

Comparison BetweenTechnologies
Digital
Mobile
technology

Users
Dec-02

Users
Dec-03

Growth
in2003

% Growth

Share Of
Growth

CDMA

145.2

181.0

35.4

24.3%

15.6%

GSM

790.5

970.8

180.3

22.8%

79.5%

PDC

60.1

63.1

3.0

5.0%

1.3%

TDMA

107.4

113.0

5.5

5.1%

2.4%

3 GSM
(W CDMA)

0.2

2.8

2.6

1708.5%

1.2%

GLOBAL
USER
BASE

1103.7

1330.6

226.9

20.69%

100%

GSM
An Overview

GSM
The European TDMA Digital Cellular Standard

Services Provided By GSM


1. Telephony
- Basic Teleservice
2. Other Services
-Emergency calling
-Voice Messaging

GSM
The European TDMA Digital Cellular Standard

Services Provided By GSM (Cont..)


3. Bearer Services
- Low Speed data transfer (upto 9.6 Kbps)
-Group 3 Fax and Sms
4. Suplementary Services
- call offering , call forwarding, call restriction,
call waiting, call hold.
- Multiparty teleconferencing, special schemes

GSM
The European TDMA Digital Cellular Standard

General Architecture Of GSM


HLR

BSC
BSC
SIM
SIM
ME

BTS
BTS
MSC
BTS
BTS

BSC
BSC

EIR

Abis
MS Um
Mobile
station

VLR

BSS
Base Station
Subsystem

AuC
NS
Network
Subsystem

PSTN,
ISDN

GSM
The European TDMA Digital Cellular Standard

Mobile Station (MS): Two Blocks


Mobile Equipment (ME)
Subscribers Identity Module (SIM)

Function of Mobile Station:


1. Personal Mobility

GSM
The European TDMA Digital Cellular Standard

Function of Mobile Station:


1. Personal Mobility

SIM SIM SIM SIM SIM SIM SIM

GSM
The European TDMA Digital Cellular Standard

Mobile Station (MS): Two Blocks


Mobile Equipment (ME)
Subscribers Identity Module (SIM)

Function of Mobile Station:


1. Personal Mobility
2. IMEI (International Mobile
Equipment Identity)
3. IMSI (International Mobile
Subscriber Identity)

GSM
The European TDMA Digital Cellular Standard

Base Station Subsystem (BSS)


Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
Base Station Controller (BSC)

BSC

GSM
The European TDMA Digital Cellular Standard
BSC: Base station Controller
1. It manages radio resources for
one or more BTS.
BSC 2. Allocation and Deallocation of
channels.
3. Transmitter power control.
4. Handoff control
BTS : Base Tranceiver station
1. It defines the cell .
2. It handles the radio link protocol with the mobile station

GSM
The European TDMA Digital Cellular Standard
HLR
BSC
BSC

VLR
PSTN,
ISDN

MSC
EIR

AuC

Network Subsystem
MSC: Mobile Switching Center
HLR: Home Location Register
VLR: Visitor Location register
AuC: Authentication Center
EIR: Equipment Identity Register

GSM
The European TDMA Digital Cellular Standard

Mobile Switching center:(MSC)

call set up/supervision/release


call routing
billing information colllection
mobility management
paging, alerting, echo cancellation
connection to BSC, other MSC and other local
exchange networks
Access to HLR and VLR

GSM
The European TDMA Digital Cellular Standard

Home Location Register (HLR)


One HLR per GSM operator
Contains permanent database of all the
subscribers in the network
contains MSRN(mobile station routing no.)
It is reffered for every incomming call

GSM
The European TDMA Digital Cellular Standard

Visitor Location Register(VLR)


Temporary visitors database
One VLR per MSC

Authentication Center(AuC)
Provides security
Authentication and encryption

Equipment Identity Register:


Contains IMEI

GSM
The European TDMA Digital Cellular Standard

Location Update

VLR
BSC

MSC
HLR

BSC

GMSC

MSC
VLR

PSTN.
ISDN

GSM
The European TDMA Digital Cellular Standard

Mobile call originating


BSC

VLR
MSC
HLR

BSC

GMSC

MSC
VLR

PSTN.
ISDN

GSM
The European TDMA Digital Cellular Standard

Mobile call terminating


BSC

VLR
MSC
HLR

BSC

GMSC

MSC
VLR

PSTN.
ISDN

GSM
The European TDMA Digital Cellular Standard

Handoff

GMSC

Handoff is of
3 types

MSC

MSC

1. Intra BSC
2 Inter BSC

BSC

BSC

BSC

3. Inter MSC

GSM
The European TDMA Digital Cellular Standard

GSM Radio Aspects :


Uplink(Mobile to base)
890-915 MHz (Total 25 MHz)
Downlink ( Base to Mobile)
935-960 MHz (Total 25 MHz)
Total 45 MHz spacing for duplex operation

GSM uses TDMA and FDMA

GSM
The European TDMA Digital Cellular Standard

GSM Using FDMA


200KHz

1 2 3 4 5
890MHz

Uplink Freq

124
915Mhz

Total Frequency range(Uplink)=25Mhz


Spacing between two carriers= 200kHz
No. of Carriers=25MHz/200KHz = 124

GSM
The European TDMA Digital Cellular Standard

GSM Using TDMA


TDMA Frame is divided into 8 time slots.
Freq
Down
Link
carrier
Up Link
carrier

Time slots
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

200 KHz
45MHz

1 233 3 45 5 6 7
4.6 ms

0.57ms
Time

GSM
The European TDMA Digital Cellular Standard

Classification of channels in GSM


Two types
Traffic channels (TCH)
Control channels (CCH)
Channels are used to carry speech , data and
control information.
Traffic Channels are defined using 26 TDMA
frame multiframe.

GSM
The European TDMA Digital Cellular Standard

Length of 26 TDMA frames = 120 msec


Length of 1 TDMA frame =120/26
= 4.615 msec
1 TDMA frame consists of 8 burst frames
Length of 1 burst frame = 0.577msec
Out of 26 frames
24 are TCH used for traffic
1 is SACCH used for control
1 is unused

GSM
The European TDMA Digital Cellular Standard

Frame Multiframe
10

Tdma Frame
1 2 3 4 5

Duration=120ms
24 25
Duration=4.615ms

Format of a single Burst Duration=0.577ms


25
57
1
26
57
Data

Training

Data

GSM
The European TDMA Digital Cellular Standard

Speech coding
Speech is digitized by PCM, o/p of PCM is
64Kb/s
It is further reduced by Regular pulse excitedLinear predictive coder, bit rate achieved
13kb/s for full rate (260 bits in 20 msec)
Further encoded for error correction, 456 bits
per 20 msec, bit rate = 22.8 Kb/s
456 bits are divided into 8 blocks and
transmitted during 8 burst periods.

GSM
The European TDMA Digital Cellular Standard

Classification of Channels
1 Traffic (TCH)
Speech
Full rate 22.8 kb/s
Half rate 11.4 kb/s

Data
9.6kb/s
4.8kb/s
2.4kb/s

GSM
The European TDMA Digital Cellular Standard

2 Control (CCH)
Broadcast (BCCH)
Freq correction (FCCH)
Synchronization (SCH)

Common (CCH)
Paging (PCH)
Access grant (AGCH)
Random Access (RACH)

Dedicated (DCCH)
Fast Associative (FACCH)
Slow Associative (SACCH)
Stand alone (SDCCH)

GSM
The European TDMA Digital Cellular Standard

GSM Security
NETWORK

MS

Random no
Ki
A3

Ki
A8

Kc
SRES

Ki

Ki

A3
SRES
Equal

A8
Kc

Code Division Multiple


Access
(CDMA)
An Overview

CDMA
Classification of CDMA Systems
CDMA SYSTEMS

CDMA
one

IS95

IS95B

CDMA
2000

JSTD 008

Narrow Band

Wide Band

CDMA
Multiple Access in CDMA:
Each user is assigned a unique PN code.
Each user transmits its information by
spreading with unique code.
Direct Sequence spread spectrum is used.
Users are seperated by code not by time slot
and freq slot.

CDMA
Concept of CDMA
Users share same
User

bandwidth
User axis shows
cumulative signal strength
of all users

Code 4
Code 3
Code2
Code 1
Freq

CDMA
Spread Spectrum and Multiple Access:
Spread Spectrum
In Spread spectrum data is transmitted with BW in
excess to minimum BW necessary to send it.
Spread spectrum is achieved by spreading with PN
code at transmitter . Same code is used to despread
the received signal at reciever

How do we get increased spectrum


Wide band
code seq

Narrow band
inputsignal

Wide band
Spreaded seq

CDMA
Advantages of spread spectrum:
Multipath Rejection
Immunity to interference and jamming
Multiple access
User

Code 4
Code 3
Code2
Code 1
Freq

CDMA

Comparison between CDMA and


TDMA/FDMA:
In TDMA Band width available for transmission
is small which leads to compromise in quality of
transmission. Whereas in CDMA systems entire
spectrum is used which enhances voice quality.
In TDMA/FDMA, cell design requires more
frequency planning which is tough job. Whereas
in CDMA frequency planning is minimal.
TDMA is Band limited system. CDMA is Power
limited system

CDMA
Types of Codes used in CDMA:
Walsh code
Orthogonal codes
In IS 95A and IS 95B 64 Walsh codes are used
In CDMA 2000 128 Walsh codes are used

Short PN code(16 bit)


Used to identify the BS and hence the cell

Long PN code(42 bit code)


Used to identify mobile station on reverse link

CDMA
Formation of channels (IS 95)
PN Code( Chip code) has rate of 1.23 MHz
Chip rate = 1.23 MHz (spread BW)
Link
Forward Link
(BS to MS)

Reverse link
(MS to BS)

CDMA
Forward Link (BS to MS)
Forward CDMA Channels

PILOT

SYNC

PAGE

W0

W32

W1

PAGE
W7

TRAFFIC

W9
POWER
TRAFFIC
CNTRL
DATA
SUB CH

TRAFFIC
W0

CDMA
Reverse Link Channel (BS to MS)
Here CDMA ch does not follow strictly orthogonal
rule.
It consists of 242 logical channels. 42 bit long PN code
is used to distinguish between channels.
Reverse CDMA Channels

Access
Ch 1

Access
Ch n

m mobiles tryin to gain access


to system

Traffic
Ch 1

Traffic
Ch m

m mobiles engaged in calls

CDMA
Other key Factors
Diversity
Time diversity
Frequency diversity
Space(Path) diversity

Power Control
Handoff: It supports Soft Handoff

CDMA
Soft Handoff

Signal
strength

Distance

Thanks