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Presentation On GSM, CDMA and 3G


Technologies
Training from 07.01.02 To 01.02.02

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Growing a Cellular
Network
Interleaving, GMSK modulation
etc.

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GPRS
Wireless Internet Challenges &
Technologies.
cdma
W-cdma & 3G
Technologies.

Growing a Cellular
Network

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Start-up

Growing a Cellular
Network
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N=
7

Complete Channel Assignment For Large Cell-

Growing a Cellular
Network
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N=
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Complete System Map with Channel Group Assignment For

Growing a Cellular
Network
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(4)

(6)

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N=
7
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Method of Assigning Channel Groups to Small cells

Growing a Cellular
Network
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Completion of Channel Group

N=
7
7

Frequency Reuse and Channel


Assignment

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The parameter N is number of channels per group or


number of cells per cluster.
The value normally used for N is 7 for North American
Systems
and 4 for GSM systems.

Considerations For Start-up


System

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When the coverage area is large, RF propagation


characteristics vary so much that a single cell radius
may not be suitable for the entire system.
A relatively large cell radius is appropriate for sections
of the system in which path loss increases relatively
slowly with distance.
But this cell radius would produce inadequate
coverage in sections of the system with more severe
path loss.
Similarly a relatively small cell radius is necessary for
sections in which path loss is severe.
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Considerations For Start-up


System

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But using this small cell radius in sections that have


milder path loss would inflate the cost of the system by
requiring more cell sites than necessary for adequate
coverage.
Cell splitting offers a way to use larger cell radius
where permissible and smaller cell radius where
necessary, while maintaining an orderly pattern of cells
amenable to regular channel assignment.

Cell
Splitting

At some point in growth of cellular system the


engineer needs to split the cell to add additional
capacity.
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Cell Splitting

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The value of reuse factor, N, must be relatively prime


with respect to value of type of split.
This ensures that voice channel frequency
assignment
remains unchanged when new cell sites
are added.
The splitting patterns that can be used for various
values of N
are :
For N=3, use 4:1 cell splitting.
For N=4, use 3:1 cell splitting.
Forcase
N=7,
or 4:1when
cell splitting.
In
of use
4:1 3:1
splitting
a new cell site is located at
border between two cell areas the new site has radius
one-half of the larger cell. Thus area covered by new11cell
is one fourth of the area covered by older larger cell.

Segmentation and
Dualization

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Segmentatio
Sometimes additional cell sites are added at less than
n
re-use
distance w/o using complete cell splitting
process.
Segmentation divides the channel group into
segments of mutually exclusive voice channel
frequencies.
By assigning different segments to particular cell
sites the co-channel interference is avoided between
these cell sites.
The disadvantage with segmentation is that the
capacity of segmented cells is lower.

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Dualization

Segmentation and
Dualization

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Dualization is the process of dividing the radios at a


cell site into two separate server groups one for larger
(overlaid ) cells ad one for smaller (under-laid ) cells.
As the traffic in smaller cell grows, more and more
channels are removed from the secondary cell and are
assigned to primary group until the primary group(and
its larger cell) disappears.
Dualization provides control of co-channel
interference and gives a real increase in engineered
traffic capacity.
13

Growing a cellular System An


Example.

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The demand for service at start is based upon


carried traffic load.
Coverage and interference are predicted using
software tools with actual terrain data and geographical
locations.
Reuse factor
=7.
Average Traffic per cell = 26
mE.
Average Call Duration =
100 s
Grade of Service =
2%.
14

Growing a cellular System An


Example.
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275

(2)
2

285

1108

1085

(3)

(4)

(5)

1085

1122

(6)

(7)

Start-up ( Step 0) : BHCA = 4,960.

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Increased demand for service : Growth Step 1


Channel groups from which voice channel
frequencies are
assigned at cell site 3 & 4 are exhausted.
A new cell site 7 is added between 3
& 4.
Voice channel frequencies from channel group 1 are
assigned
at cell site 7.
Since channel group 1 is not used at any site
there is no
frequency reuse in the system.

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Growing a cellular System An


Example.
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356

(2)
3

2
353

(3)

7
1307 554

1292

(4)

(5)

(1)

1150

1196

(6)

(7)

Growth Step 1 : BHCA = 6,208.

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Growing a cellular System An


Example.

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Cell
Site

1
16
2
16
3

44
4
44
5
39
6
741
22
Total

Chann
elGr.
No.
2

BHCA

356

Traffic
( Erlangs )

No. of
Voice ch.

9.26

353

9.18

1307

33.98

1292

33.59

1150

29.90

1196

31.10

554

14.40

6,208

161.41

Table - Growth Step 1

222
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Increase in demand for service : Growth


Step
2 voice channel
Channel groups from
which
frequencies are
assigned at cell site 5 & 6 are exhausted.
A new cell site 8 is added between 5
& 6.
The voice channel frequencies from channel group 3
are
used at cell site 8.
The increased demand for service can still be
satisfied
without frequency reuse since channel group 3 can
be
segmented and different frequencies can be
assigned at cell
sites 2 & 8.
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Growing a cellular System An


Example.
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386

(2)
3

2
400

(3)
5
1265

(6)

7
1282 542

1252

(4)

(5)

8
512
(3)

(1)

6
1308

(7)

Growth Step 2 : BHCA = 6,947.

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Growing a cellular System An


Example.

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Cell
Site

1
17
2
17
3

43
4
42
5
42
6
744
22
8
21
Total
248

Chann
elGr.
No.
2

BHCA

386

Traffic
( Erlangs )

No. of
Voice ch.

10.40

400

10.40

1282

33.33

1252

32.55

1265

32.89

1308

34.00

542

14.09

512

13.31

6,947

180.61

Table - Growth Step 2

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Further increase in demand for service : Growth


Step 3cell sites 3 & 4,
Cell site 9 is added between
and cell site 10 is added between cell sites 4 & 6.
Frequency channel group 2 is segmented and voice
channel frequencies from channel group 2 are assigned
to Cell site 9.
In order to re-use some of the voice channel
frequencies of channel group no. 6, Dualization is
used at cell site 5.
The voice channel frequencies assigned to primary
server group of cell site 5 are reused at cell site 10.

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Growing a cellular System An


Example.
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397
(2)
3

2
1265

4
7
541

1230

395

(4)

(3)
639
5
435
(6)

9
459
(2)

8
409
(3)

(1)

1232

10
469
(6)

(5)

6
742

(7)

Growth Step 3 : BHCA = 6,948.

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Cell
Site

1
17
2
17
3
4
42
5 Primary
42
5
18Secondary
6
24
27
7
8
9
19
10
19
Total
263

Growing a cellular System An


Example.
Chann
elGr.
No.2

BHCA

Traffic
( Erlangs )

3
4
5
6
6
7

397
395
1230
1232
435
639
742

1
3

541
409

14.06
10.63

469

12.19

459

11.93

6,948

180.65

No. of
Voice ch.

10.32
10.27
31.98
32.03
11.31
16.61
19.29

Table - Growth Step 3

21
17

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CDMA Fundamentals

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Spread Spectrum

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Spread Spectrum is a communication technique where


transmission bandwidth is much larger than information
bandwidth.
Tx
Rx
Channel

Spreader

Despreader

Transmission
Bandwidth , W
Information Bandwidth, B
W >> B
W/B = Processing Gain
25

CDMA Fundamentals

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Spread Spectrum

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Spread Spectrum is a communication technique where


transmission bandwidth is much larger than information
bandwidth.
Tx
Rx
Channel

Spreader

Despreader

Transmission
Bandwidth , W
Information Bandwidth, B
W >> B
W/B = Processing Gain
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CDMA Fundamentals
Direct Sequence Spread

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Spectrum
Spreadin
g

DeSpreading

Channe
Rx l

di(t)

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c(t)

do(t)
Matched
Filter

c(t)
Carrier
circuit

Carrier
circuit

di(t) = Binary Data at


input
do(t) = Binary Data at
output
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CDMA Fundamentals
Direct Sequence Spreading
+1

0
-1

Tc
Bipolar data d(t)

BW=1/
T

+1

0
-1
+1

BW=1/Tc
Bipolar spreading code
c(t)

BW=1/Tc

-1
spread data d(t) x c(t)

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CDMA Fundamentals

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Mixed Rate Spreading


C1(t)

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Data Rate R1

Eb

Eb/PG1
C2(t)

Eb/PG2

B1
Data Rate R2

Eb

W
PG1= W/B1

PG1 > PG2

PG2= W/B2

B2
If the two data streams require same Eb, then average
power is proportional to data rate.

For binary signals the bandwidth Bx is roughly equal


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to data rate Rx.

CDMA Fundamentals
Partial Spreading By Coding and Repetition
C(t)
Data Encoder
Repeat
R3
R4
R1 (n,k)
R2
m
times

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Eb.R1/R2

Eb

Eb.R1
/mR2
B

B.R2/R1

Eb/PG
m.B.R2/R1

R2/R1 = Code Rate k/n.


R4/R3 = Spreading Factor
R4/R1 = W/B = Processing Gain

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CDMA Fundamentals
Basic Concept of Multimedia CDMA

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Despreader

Spreader

Eb

NO
W

Eb/No determines the


probability of
error.
The interference caused
by any class of service
is proportional to data
rate.
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CDMA Fundamentals

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Eb/No Ratio

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The effective noise No


is residual interference
caused by other users at
de-spreader output.

Eb

No fluctuates with time


depending upon who is
transmitting during the frame.
Different users operate at
different data rates with
different frame activities.

NO

W
Composite
Spectrum
De-spreading

Perror

1
erfc
2

After

Eb

No

eff

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CDMA Fundamentals
Coverage Vs Eb/No Ratio
Large loading raises the noise level.Larger power
is required to maintain the required Eb/No.The cell
shrinks.
Cell boundaries are defined by the interference
level.Cell breathes that is expands at night and
shrinks during daytime.
In IS-95 the Eb/No ratio required for good quality
voice is 6 db.
We get the same voice quality all the times.
However talking at time when number of users are less
requires less power to be transmitted. And hence
saves battery life.
33

CDMA Fundamentals
Coverage Vs Eb/No Ratio
Large loading raises the noise
level.Larger power is required
to maintain the required
Eb/No.The cell shrinks.
Cell boundaries are defined
by the interference level.
Number of active users
determine the size of the
cell.

34

CDMA Fundamentals
Cell Splitting and Instant Base Stations
Gap in
coverage
caused by
overload

The new cell causes the existing cells to lower


their power.
No frequency planning is involved in putting new
cell site.

35

CDMA Fundamentals
Forward Link Model (1)
A mobile receiver intercepts a composite
signal S1 from its base station. It also
receives the signal from other adjacent
base stations.( S2, S3,S4,..)
De-spreader

S
2

S
1

desire
d

S1

S
3

S
4

Filter

S2

S2

S3

S3

S4

S4

Detector

Eb

S1 undesired

No

B
36

CDMA Fundamentals
Forward Link Model (2)
The signal received at mobile k that belongs to base
station 0 ( before De-spreading ) is -

rk

(0)

Desire
d

(i )
k
j
i

S k
(o)

(0)
k

Mj

S
j 1, j k

In-cell
Interference

(0)
j

Mi

i1 (ki) S ( ij) n
L

j 1

Out-of-cell
Interference

Thermal
noise

Distance attenuation between base station (i) and


mobile k.
Spread signal from base station (i) and intended for connected
mobile j.

Mi
L

No. of mobiles connected to base


station i.
No. of adjacent base stations.
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CDMA Fundamentals
Forward Link Model (3)
The signal De-spreader output consists of Desired Signal :
Most of energy is within information bandwidth B.
The strength of this component depends upon timing
accuracy.
In Cell residual Interference :
Ideally this component is supposed to be zero
(orthogonality ).
Multi-path distorts this orthogonality.
The strength of this component depends upon delay spread.
Out-of Cell residual Interference :
This component is generally not orthogonal to desired one.
The level at de-spreader output nearly equals the level at
input.
Thermal Noise :
The noise component is not effected by despreading.

38

CDMA Fundamentals
Forward Link Model (4)
The Eb/No for user k is calculated as :
1

( 0 ) 2

b

p

k
B
k

1
L
(i ) 2
(i )
*
o N

*P

W
k
total
i 1

E
N


P totali

j 1, j k

( 0 ) 2 ( 0 )

*P

k
j

In cell-residual cross-correlation small number < 1.

Total power transmitted from base


station i.

p ( 0i )
(i )

Mo

Spread signal power from base station 0 to mobile j.

2
Av path loss between base station i and

Mo
L

mobile k.

No. of mobiles connected at desired base


station i.
No. of adjacent base stations.

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CDMA Fundamentals
Forward Link Model (5)
W/B is the processing gain, G.

Eb
G*Pathloss*Tx . power

No
Out _ of _ cell _ int erference In _ cell _ int erference Noise
As an approximation we may drop noise and
in_cell_interference

Eb
G *Pathloss*Tx . power

No
Out _ of _ cell _ int erference
In CDMA power control keeps Eb/No constant for all
users.
Users at cell boundaries need more power because of
high path loss and high out_of_cell_interference.
40

CDMA Fundamentals
Forward Link Model (6)
2

Eb
G* Pathloss*Tx . power

No
Out _ of _ cell _ int erference
Desire
d

W/o power
control G . 2

. pt

With
power
control

G . . pt
Iooc
Interferen
ce

Iooc

Iooc is the total power emitted from an adjacent cell.


The other two lines are power sent to a given
mobile before and after power control.
41

CDMA Fundamentals
Forward Link Model (7)
In case of soft handoff the mobile communicates with two or
more base stations on separately.

Base St.
1

Eb/No
1

G .

2
1

. pt 1

Iooc,2

G .

2
2

. pt 2

Base St.
2

Iooc,1 Eb/No
2

42

CDMA Fundamentals
Hand Off
Hard Handoff :
Current circuit is disconnected in the current cell
followed by
a reconnection in new cell.
Soft Handoff :
Mobile maintains a connection with current and new cell during
handoff
procedure.
Two cells agree on which speech frame is more reliable and
select it.

43

CDMA Fundamentals
Reverse Link Model (1)

De-spreader

In the reverse channel, signals from different


mobiles are misaligned in time and have low crosscorrelation but are not orthogonal.
In this case in-cell interference represents largest
part of residual interference.
Detector

Filter

Eb
S1 undesired

desire
d

S1

No

S2
S3
S4

S2
S3
S4

44

CDMA Fundamentals
Reverse Link Model (2)
In the reverse link equation for Eb/No is identical
to forward link.The in_cell_interference is nearly
twice as large as out_of_cell_interference.

Eb
G *Pathloss*Tx . power

No
Out _ of _ cell _ int erference In _ cell _ int erference
Pole Capacity Equation :
Assumptions
user signal arrive at base station with same power
(perfect power control).
Asynchronous CDMA on reverse link.
Total number of users per cell is M.
45

CDMA Fundamentals
Pole Capacity Equation (Contd.)
Eb/No per user is given by :

Eb
P/B

No
( P / W )*( M 1) Out _ of _ cell _ int erference
Assuming further that out of cell interference
is a fraction (n)of in cell interference :

Eb
P/B

No
( P / W )*( M 1)(1 )
If minimum acceptable value of Eb/No
is (Eb/No)min then maximum number of
users per sector is Mmax. :

G
M max 1
Eb
(1 )

No min

Eb P / B
( M 1)*P / W

Out_of_cell_i
nterference

B
46

Cellular Technologies
Data Rate VS Mobility

Data
Rate

155 Mbps

54 Mbps

Fixed
Wireless

Very High Data Rate up-to 155


Mbps.
No Mobility.
High Data Rate up-to 54
Mbps.

W-LAN

Little Mobility.
Moderate Data
Rate.

Cellular
2 Mbps

High Mobility.
Moderate Data
Rates.

In-door

Very long
distances.

Out-door
3G

Vehicular.

very highSatellite
Mobility.

2G

Mobility
47

Wireless Rates and


Applications Office Communications

Voice

Browsing

High speed Internet

&

Broadban
d

&

Low
Rate
Data
Narrowban
d

Video
Fixed Wireless Access
Conferencin
g
Wideban
Wireless LAN
d
Direct To Home Satellite

3G
2.5 G
2G

10 Kbps 100 Kbps 1 Mbps

10 Mbps

100 Mbps

48

Relative Market Size


Growing very
fast.

Cellular
Fixed

WLA
N

700 millions
and
growing !!

Costly.

Strong competition from


other access technologies.

Will continue to grow.

May eventually lose to


fiber.

No competing
technologies.

Important in sparsely
populated areas.

Satellit
e

Limited
bandwidth.
Vital In Some
Spots.
49

3G Wireless Standards
Two organisations are developing approved 3 G standards.

3GPP
WCDM
AGSM
GPRS
EDGE

3GPP2
CDMA2000
RTT1X
RTT3X

50

GPRS ARCHITECTURE
SGSN=Serving GPRS Support
Node.

GGSN=Gateway GPRS Support

HLR

MSC/VL
R

A
MS

U
m

Node.

Gs

G
r

Gb
BSS

SGSN

G
c

Gn
GGS
N

GGS
N
G
i

PDN

Gn
Gp
SGSN
Signaling And Data
Interface
Signaling Interface

GGSN
Other GPRS
Network
52

GPRS ARCHITECTURE

In the GPRS architecture MS, BSS, MSC/VLR and HLR of existing GSM
network
are modified. For example HLR is enhanced with GPRS subscriber
information.
Two new nodes added are SGSN and
GGSN.
SGSN is GPRS equivalent of MSC for data
calls.
GGSN provides inter-working with external packet networks.
GGSN is connected to SGSN via IP based GPRS
backbone.
Interfaces A, Gs, Gr, Gc and D are used for
signalling only.
Interfaces Um, Gb, Gn, Gp and Gi are used for both signalling and data
transmission in GPRS.

53

GPRS NETWORK CONFIGURATION


GSM
BS
C

MS
C

Other BSS

HLR

( same
PLMN )

MS
BTS

Base Station Sub-system

SGS
N

GPRS
backbone
FR/ ATM.

Internet/
other data
network

GGS
N

SGS
N

Border Gateway

Othe
r
PLM
N

54

GPRS PDP Context


GPRS reuses the GSM infrastructure so that both circuit switched and
packet switched services co-exist under one subscription.
In GPRS no dial-up connection is required to access the data.
After PDP context activation MS becomes always on device that
facilitates instant connections.
After PDP context activation MS is known to GGSN and
communication to external network is possible .
A PDP context includes PDP type (either X.25,PPP or IP) , PDP
address, PDP state, requested and negotiated QoS.
A QoS profile is maintained in PDP context to indicate network and
radio resources required for data transmission.
PDP context is stored in MS, HLR,SGSN and GGSN.
55

GPRS Signaling Plane


BSSAP
+
SCC
P
MTP

BSSAP
+
SCC
P
MTP

3
MTP
2
MTP

3
MTP
2
MTP

SGSN

Relay

Um

BSS

GTP

GTP

P
TCAP

LL
C

UDP

UDP

SCC
P
MTP
3
MTP

SCC
P

2
MTP
1

Phys
ical

IP
L2
Phys
ical

Phys
ical

SGSN
Gb

MA
P
TCAP

GMM
SM

BSSG
IP
P
NS(FR L2
)

RL
BSSG
C
P
MA NS(FR
C
)
PLL
Phys
RFL ical

MA
C
PL
L
RF
L

MS

Interworking MA

Relay

GMM
SM
LL
C
RLC

Gs

MSC/VLR

Gn

GGS
N

MTP
3
MTP

MTP
1
Gc

HLR
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GPRS Transmission Plane

Applicatio
n
IP/X.2
5

SNDC
P
LL
C
RLC

Relay

SNDC
P

LL
C

Relay

Um

BSS

GTP

GTP

UDP
/TCP

UDP
/TCP

BSSG
IP
P
NS(FR L2
)

RL
BSSG
C
P
MA NS(FR
C
)
PLL
Phys
RFL ical

MA
C
PL
L
RF
L

MS

IP/X.25

Phys
ical

Gb

IP
L2

Phys
ical

Physic
al

SGSN
Gn

GGS
N

57

GPRS Protocols
GPRS specific protocols include SNDCP, LLC, RLC,MAC, BSSGP,BSSAP+
and GTP.
In BSS relay function relays Logical Link Control (LLC) Packet Data Units
(PDUs) between Um and Gb interfaces.

In SGSN this relay function relays Packet Data Protocol ( PDP) PDUs
between Gb and Gn interfaces.
To transparently transport the PDP PDUs between MSs and external
network PDP PDUs are encapsulated and de-capsulated for routing.
Both Gn and Gp interfaces utilize GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP).
GTP tunnels user data and and signalling messages between GSNs.
A tunnel is a two way point to point path. Tunneling transfers
encapsulated data between GSNs from point of encapsulation to point of
58
de-capsulation.

GPRS MS
GPRS MS consists of mobile terminal ( MT) and terminal
equipment ( TE).
TE could be a computer attached to
MT.
MT has to be equipped with software for GPRS functionality.
GPRS MS uses Automatic Repeat reQuest ( ARQ ) at data link layer to
re-transmit error frames.
In GSM there is no retransmission is provided for voice
channels.
With multiple timeslots GPRS provides higher
data rates.
Three modes of MS operation defined for GPRS are
Class A simultaneous circuit switched and packet switched
services.
Class B Both circuit switched and packet switched services. But
only one
a time.
Class C at
Packet
switched data only.

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GPRS BSS
BTS is modified to support new GPRS channel coding
schemes.
BSC forwards circuit switched calls to MSC and packet switched calls
(through PCU
) to SGSN.
Every BSC connects to one SGSN
only.
PCU ( Packet control unit ) is the new component located locally at
BTS or BSC is responsible for Medium Access
Control.
Radio Link Control unctions like packet segmentation and
reassembly.
Radio Link Control unctions like packet segmentation and
reassembly., access control, scheduling,ARQ etc.

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GPRS HLR and VLR


New fields introduced in HLR to accommodate GPRS subscription
and routing information are SS7 address of SGSN that serves the MS.
IP address of SGSN that serves the
MS.
MNRG flag that indicates that MS is currently not available for GPRS
service.
For class B mode of operation MSC/VLR may contact SGSN for
location information or paging for voice calls.
It performs the signalling co-ordination For class B mode of
operation through Gs interface and suspends /resumes GPRS
activities through A and Gb interfaces.
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GPRS and EDGE


GPRS can combine up-to 8 time slots with maximum theoretical
rate of 171.2 kbps.
Maximum data rate implemented so far is 40.2 kbps with CS2 and 3
time slots.
Increased data rates are possible through use of EDGE.
EDGE uses new modulation scheme 8-PSK which are moderately
difficult to
implement.

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