You are on page 1of 20

Genes

Hormones

&

Environment
Primary determinants of Craniofacial growth

…………..Growth Theories
Sutural Theory (Sicher)

Old school of thought : the sutures had innate growth potential

Disproved by transplantation experiments

Sutures do not grow actively, they respond with passive deposition


Of bone between the stretched edges of the sutures
Cartilagenous Theory (James Scott)

Primary cartilage in the nasal septum—nasomaxillary growth

Condyle cartilage– mandibular growth


Mandible considered as a diaphysis of a long bone

Nasal septum considered growth center


Transplantation experiments---positive

Removing the nasal septum from rabbits produces a retrusive midface

Transplanting a condyle produces no condylar growth

Transplanting the sphenooccipital synchondrosis into tissues does


Produce growth of this cartilage
FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION
Functional Matrix hypothesis
(Melvin Moss)
Functional cranial component:

Micro skeletal units


Functional matrix Skeletal unit

Tissues
Organs Skeletal structures
Functioning spaces

Macro skeletal units


Periosteal Capsular
matrix matrix
Servosystem theory of Growth
Alexander Petrovic, 1972

Cyernetics- Model for Craniofacial growth

Hormonally regulated growth of midface and


anterior cranial base through constantly changing
reference input via occlusion

The rate limiting effect this midface growth on the


growth of mandible
Enlow’s expanding V principle

Enlow’s counterpart principle

Neurotrophism
Van Limborgh’s Theory

Intrinsic genetic factor


Chondrocranium Local epigenetic factor
General epigenetic factor
Local environmental factor
Desmocranium General environmental factor

Epigenetic factors – factors affecting the gene activity but not its structure
Current Thought:
Development & facial patterning are influenced by a combination of
Environmental forces on homeobox genes

Primary determinants-cartilage & soft tissues

Adequate growth hormone titre required