You are on page 1of 25

Chapte

Understan
ding
Groups and
Managing
Work
Copyright 2011 Pearson
Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall.

Learning Outcomes
Define a group and describe the
stages of group development
Describe the major concepts of
group behavior
Discuss how groups are turned into
effective teams
Discuss contemporary issues in
managing teams
Copyright 2011 Pearson
Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall.

9-2

What Is a Group?
Group
Two or more
interacting and
interdependent
individuals who
come together to
achieve specific
goals

Copyright 2011 Pearson


Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall.

9-3

Copyright 2011 Pearson


Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall.

9-4

What Are the Stages of


Group Development?
Forming Stage
The first stage of group development in
which people join the group and then
define the groups purpose, structure,
and leadership

Storming Stage
The second stage of group
development, which is characterized by
intragroup conflict
Copyright 2011 Pearson
Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall.

9-5

Group Development Stages


(cont.)
Norming Stage
The third stage of group development,
which is characterized by close
relationships and cohesiveness

Performing Stage
The fourth stage of group development,
when the group is fully functional and
works on the group task

Copyright 2011 Pearson


Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall.

9-6

Group Development Stages


(cont.)
Adjourning Stage
The final stage of
group
development for
temporary
groups, during
which groups
prepare to
disband
Copyright 2011 Pearson
Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall.

9-7

Copyright 2011 Pearson


Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall.

9-8

What Are the Major


Concepts of Group
Behavior?
Role

Behavior patterns expected of someone


who occupies a given position in a social
unit

Norms
Standards or expectations that are
accepted and shared by a groups
members

Copyright 2011 Pearson


Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall.

9-9

What Is Status and Why Is It


Important?
Status
A prestige
grading, position,
or rank within a
group

Copyright 2011 Pearson


Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall.

9-10

Does Group Size Affect


Behavior?
Large Groups
are good for gaining diverse input

Small Groups
Are typically faster at implementation

Social Loafing
The tendency for individuals to expend
less effort when working collectively
than when working individually
Copyright 2011 Pearson
Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall.

9-11

Are Cohesive Groups More


Effective?
Group
Cohesiveness
The degree to
which group
members are
attracted to one
another and
share the
groups goals
Copyright 2011 Pearson
Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall.

9-12

Copyright 2011 Pearson


Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall.

9-13

How Are Groups Turned into


Effective Teams?
80 percent of Fortune 500 use teams
Teams typically outperform individuals
when the tasks require multiple skills,
judgment, and experience

Work Teams
Groups whose members work intensely
on specific, common goals using their
positive synergy, individual and mutual
accountability, and complementary skills
Copyright 2011 Pearson
Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall.

9-14

Copyright 2011 Pearson


Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall.

9-15

Types of Work Teams


Problem-Solving Teams
A team from the same department or
functional area thats involved in efforts
to improve work activities or to solve
specific problems

Self-Managed Work Team


A type of work team that operates
without a manager and is responsible
for a complete work process or segment
Copyright 2011 Pearson
Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall.

9-16

Types of Teams (cont.)


Cross-Functional Team
Teams made up of individuals from
various
departments and that cross
traditional departmental lines

Virtual Team
A type of work team that uses
technology to link physically dispersed
members in order to achieve a common
goal
Copyright 2011 Pearson
Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall.

9-17

Copyright 2011 Pearson


Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall.

9-18

WHAT FACTORS MAKE A


TEAM EFFECTIVE?
Adequate Resources
the teams ability is reduced without adequate
resources

Team Leadership and Structure


all members contribute in the work

Trust
Team members must trust each

Performance Evaluation and Reward System


Members have to be accountable both
individually and jointly
Copyright 2011 Pearson
Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall.

9-19

Copyright 2011 Pearson


Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall.

9-20

Processes Related to
Effectiveness
Five team process variables have
been shown to be related to team
effectiveness. These include :
a common purpose
specific team goals
team efficacy
managed conflict
minimal social loafing
Copyright 2011 Pearson
Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall.

9-21

Work Design and Team


Effectiveness
These Important work design
characteristics enhance team
member motivation and increase
team effectiveness
Autonomy
Using a variety of skills
Completing a whole and identifiable task
or product

Copyright 2011 Pearson


Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall.

9-22

Copyright 2011 Pearson


Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall.

9-23

When Are Teams Not the


Answer?
Teamwork takes more time and often
more resources than does individual
work
Teams require managers to
communicate more, manage
conflicts, and run meetings
The benefits of using teams need to
exceed the costs
Copyright 2011 Pearson
Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall.

9-24

Copyright 2011 Pearson


Education, Inc. Publishing as
Prentice Hall.

9-25