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Metal Casting

16 October 2012

Lecturer: Dr. Turnad Lenggo Ginta

Lesson Outcomes
By the end of this lessons, students should be able to:
1. Explain the phenomena of fluidity during casting and the
method to investigate the fluidity
2. Explain the Temperature-Time graph of pure metal
3. Calculate the total solidification time during sand casting
4. Explain the phenomena of shrinkage and the method to
prevent it.
5. Explain the cast structure and hydrogen solubility during
casting, and some defects during casting process.


Fluidity testing

A test method for fluidity using a spiral mold. The

fluidity index is the length of the solidified metal in
the spiral passage. The greater the length of the
solidified metal, the greater is its fluidity.

Solidification of metals

Total Solidification time (TST)

Shrinkage during casting

How to prevent Shrinkage?

Basic type of cast structure

Chill, columnar and equ-aixial grains

Sketch of solidified grain structure of an alloy: (a) chill crystals;

(b) columnar grains; and (c) region of coarse equiaxed grains in

Solubility of Hidrogen

Solubility of hydrogen in aluminum. Note the sharp decrease

insolubility as the molten metal begins to solidify

Defect in casting- Hot tears

Hot tears in castings. These defects occur because the casting cannot shrink
freely during cooling, owing to constraints in various portions of the molds and
cores. Exothermic (heat-producing) compounds may be used (as exothermic
padding) to control cooling at critical sections to avoid hot tearing

1. Fluidity plays important roles in casting process.
Fluidity measures the capability of molten metal to flow
and to fill in the cavity before freezing.
2. Total solidification time during casting is affected
significantly by the volume and surface area of the
casting (product).
3. Shrinkage is unavoidable phenomena during sand
casting. Riser can be used to eliminate shrinkage.
4. Casting process leads to the formation of chill structure.
5. Some defects might occur during casting due to the
casting can not shrink freely during cooling.