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Object-Based Image

Dominic Aloc
Analysis
Melanie Gaspa

Framework
1

DATA
PREPARATION

CLASSIFICATION
3

RED
GREE
N
BLUE

2 SEGMENTATION

FINAL
5 OUTPUT

4
FEATURE
GENERALIZATION

Terms
Image
Image Layer
Image Object
Image Object Level
Feature
Class
Rule Set
Process

An image is a set of raster image


data. An image consists of at least
one image layer based on pixels.
Each image layer represents a type
of information.
RED
GREEN
BLUE

BLUE

Algorithm

Image

Image layer

Terms
Image
Image Layer
Image Object
Image Object Level
Feature
Class
Rule Set
Process

An image is a set of raster image


data. An image consists of at least
one image layer based on pixels.
Each image layer represents a type
of information.
RED
GREEN
BLUE

BLUE

Algorithm

Image

Image layer

Terms
Image
Image Layer
Image Object
Image Object Level
Feature
Class
Rule Set
Process
Algorithm

Segmentation is performed by
splitting the image into zoned
partial areas of differing
characteristics. The segments
are called image objects.

Terms
Image
Image Layer
Image Object
Image Object Level
Feature
Class

Face
Segment
Example

the
image
by
homogeneity of Red, Green and
Blue mean values of RGB layers

Rule Set
Process
Algorithm
Image

Segmented
Image

Terms
Image
Image Layer
Image Object
Image Object Level
Feature
Class

Face
Example
Segment the image by
homogeneity of Oiliness Mean
value of Oiliness Layer

Rule Set
Process
Algorithm
Image

Segmented
Image

Terms
Image
Image Layer
Image Object
Image Object Level
Feature
Class

Face
Example
Segment the image by
homogeneity of Wrinkle Mean
value of Wrinkle Layer

Rule Set
Process
Algorithm
Image

Segmented
Image

Terms
Image
Image Layer
Image Object
Image Object Level
Feature
Class
Rule Set
Process
Algorithm

A scene, representing an image, is


segmented into image objects during the
process of image analysis. Image objects
are organized into image object levels.

Terms
Image
Image Layer
Image Object
Image Object Level
Feature
Class
Rule Set
Process
Algorithm

Face
Example
Face

foundatio
n
blus dar fair
k
h

Entire
Image
eye
s
Iris,
pupil

nos
e
nose

lips
pink
red
lipstick lipline
r

Image
Object
Levels

Pixel

Terms

Image

Image
Image Layer
Image Object
Image Object Level
Feature
Class
Rule Set
Process

Image
Object Level
1
Foundatio
n

Eye
s

Nos
e

Lips
Pixel

Algorithm

Face
Example

Terms
Image
Image Layer
Image Object
Image Object Level
Feature
Class
Rule Set
Process
Algorithm

A feature is an attribute
that
represents
certain
information
concerning
objects of interest (i.e.,
measurements,
attached
data or values).

Terms
Image
Image Layer
Image Object
Image Object Level
Feature
Class
Rule Set
Process
Algorithm

A class is a category of image objects.


It can both be used to simply label
image objects or to describe its
semantic meaning. Classification is a
procedure
that
associates
image
objects with an appropriate class
labeled by a name and a color.

Terms
Image
Image Layer
Image Object
Image Object Level
Feature
Class

Face Example
Assign class
based on RGB
mean values
classification.

Rule Set
Process
Algorithm

Level 2
Level 1

Terms
Image
Image Layer
Image Object

Face Example
Assign class for oily and not oily
classification

Image Object Level


Feature
Class
Rule Set
Process
Algorithm

Segmented
Image

Classified
segmented
image

Terms
Image
Image Layer
Image Object
Image Object Level
Feature
Class
Rule Set
Process
Algorithm

Rule Set is a set of processes


that is stored in the Process
Tree window.
Rule Set

Process
Sequence

Single
Process

Terms
Image
Image Layer
Image Object
Image Object Level
Feature
Class
Rule Set
Process
Algorithm

Processes are the main working


tools for developing rule sets.
1.Single process
2.Process sequence

Terms
Image
Image Layer
Image Object
Image Object Level
Feature
Class
Rule Set
Process
Algorithm

The algorithm defines the operation the


process will perform.

Process related operation


Segmentation algorithms
Basic Classification algorithms
Advanced Classification algorithms
Variables operation algorithms
Reshaping algorithms
Level operation algorithms
Interactive operations algorithms
Sample operation algorithms
Image layer operation algorithms
Thematic layer operation algorithms
Export algorithms
Workspace automation algorithms

End. Thank you.

Object-Based Image Analysis

Segmentat
ion

Classificat
ion

Exportati
on

DITCH
DITCHEXTRACTION
An
Definition
object-oriented approach

Ditch
- A long narrow excavation designed or

intended to collect and drain off surface water.


(Road Watch Project: Procedures Manual for Road Construction and
Maintenance Ver. 2.1, August 2008)

- An artificial open channel or waterway

usually constructed parallel to the dike to


drain the overflow or seepage water from the
river.
(DPWH Technical Standards and Guidelines for Planning and Design,
March 2002)

Types of Ditches

roadside ditch
irrigation ditch

drainage ditch

BACKGROUND
1) Limited number of literatures

BACKGROUND
2) Available literatures are not detailed
enough
3) No generic methodology (Bailly,
2007)

Scope and Limitation


1)

Applicable to plain area


only

2)

Assumed to extract
ditches with at least 1m in
width

RULE SET
DEVELOPMENT
Get the big picture
Choose, Process,
and Import Data
Translate Strategy
into Rule Set
Review Result
Refine/Expand
Strategy
Ready for Export

General rules
1.Begin with an end in mind.
Develop strategy!
2.Dwell on the class/es that needs
to be classified.
3.Think of layers that best
segment/classify the desired
class/es
What are the properties of
ditch?
consider geomorphological

Framework
1

DATA
PREPARATION

CLASSIFICATION
3

RED
GREE
N
BLUE

SEGMENTATION
2

FINAL
5 OUTPUT

4
FEATURE
GENERALIZATION

Workflow

RULE SET
DEVELOPMENT

Get the big picture


Choose, Process,
and Import Data
Translate Strategy
into Rule Set
Review Result
Refine/Expand
Strategy
Ready for Export

Workflow
RULE SET
DEVELOPMENT
Get the big picture
Choose, Process,
and Import Data
Translate Strategy
into Rule Set
Review Result
Refine/Expand
Strategy
Ready for Export

RULE SET
DEVELOPMENT
Get the big picture
Choose, Process,
and Import Data
Translate Strategy
into Rule Set
Review Result
Refine/Expand
Strategy
Ready for Export

Choosing Layers
Curvature
is the second derivative of a surface or the slope of the slope.
Digital Terrain
Model
bare earth

RULE SET
DEVELOPMENT
Get the big picture
Choose, Process,
and Import Data
Translate Strategy
into Rule Set
Review Result
Refine/Expand
Strategy
Ready for Export

Translate Strategy
into Rule Set
1
1
1
1
2
2
3
3
2
2

4
4

4
4
5
5
3
3
5
5
6
6

6
6

RULE SET
DEVELOPMENT
Get the big picture
Choose, Process,
and Import Data
Translate Strategy
into Rule Set
Review Result
Refine/Expand
Strategy
Ready for Export

Tiled Processes of Ditch


Extraction

An Object-Based Approach
For Wetland Mapping Using Seath
Algorithm

Wetlands are
Wetlands important.
are those areas that are inundated

or saturated by surface or ground water at a


frequency and duration to support and under
normal
circumstances
do
support,
a
prevalence of vegetation typically adapted
for life in saturated conditions.
--Ramsar Organization

Wetland
1Types
Highland Lake
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
0
1
1
1
2
1
3
1

Swamps
Peatland
Water Impound (Rice
Terraces)
Marsh
River
Irrigation
Fishpond
Lake
Reservoir
Estuaries
Tidal Flats
Mangrove Forest
Seagrass Beds
Coral Reefs

Study
Paitan Lake
Area

in Cuyapo, Nueva
Ecija

RULE SET
DEVELOPMENT
Get the big picture
Choose, Process,
and Import Data
Translate Strategy
into Rule Set
Review Result
Refine/Expand
Strategy
Ready for Export

General rules
1.Begin with an end in mind.
2.Dwell on the class/es that needs
to be classified.
3.Think of layers that best
segment/classify the desired
class/es

Get the big picture

Feature Selection Method

Suppor
t
Vector
Machin
e

Classificatio
n Tree
Analysis
Feature
Space
Optimizatio
n

Separabilit
y and
Threshold

Separability and Threshold (Seath)


Algorithm

Threshold
Separability

Framework
1

DATA
PREPARATION

CLASSIFICATION
3

SEGMENTATION
2

FINAL
5 OUTPUT

4
FEATURE
GENERALIZATION

DSM
DTM
nDSM
CTI
Aerial
Intensi
ty
Intensit
yGLCM

Multiresolution
Segmentation
Selection of Object
Features
Manual
Classification of
training samples
Exportation of
Object Statistics
Object
Statistics
Feature Selection
and Threshold

Classification of
wetland and nonwetland
Clean-up operation
Wetland
Shapefile
Process/Performed in:
ArcGIS
ArcGIS, ENVI
ArcgGIS, LasTools
Seath
eCognition

Flowchart on Wetland

RULE SET
DEVELOPMENT
Get the big picture
Choose, Process,
and Import Data
Translate Strategy
into Rule Set
Review Result
Refine/Expand
Strategy
Ready for Export

Choosing
Layers
Orthophoto
orthophotographororthoimage; anaerial photographgeometrically
corrected ("orthorectified") such that the scale is uniform: the photo
has the same lack of distortion as a map. Unlike an uncorrected aerial
photograph, an orthophotograph can be used to measure true distances,
because it is
an accurate representation of the Earth's surface, having
been adjusted for topographic relief,lens distortion, andcamera tilt.
Digital Elevation
Modelused as a generic term for DSMs and DTMs, only representing
often
height information without any further definition about the surface
Digital Surface Model
represents the earth's surface and includes all objects on it
Digital Terrain Model
represents the earth's surface and excludes all objects on it
normalized Digital Surface Model (nDSM)
the terrain is everywhere set to a standard of zero. The NDSM is
accordingly generated by subtracting theDigital
Terrain Model
(DTM)from the digital surface model (DSM).

RULE SET
DEVELOPMENT
Get the big picture
Choose, Process,
and Import Data
Translate Strategy
into Rule Set
Review Result
Refine/Expand
Strategy
Ready for Export

Choosing
Layers
Intensity
a measure, collected for every point, of the return strength of the laser
pulse that generated the point. It is based, in part, on the reflectivity of
the object struck by the laser pulse.
Gray level Co-Occurrence Matrix
(GLCM)
A statistical method of examining texture that considers the spatial
relationship of pixels is the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), also
known as the gray-level spatial dependence matrix. The GLCM functions
characterize the texture of an image by calculating how often pairs of
pixel with specific values and in a specified spatial relationship occur in
an image, creating a GLCM, and then extracting statistical measures
from this matrix.

Processed Layers
RULE SET
DEVELOPMENT
Get the big picture
Choose, Process,
and Import Data

DSM

DTM

nDSM

Intensity

Intensity Gray
Level CoOccurrence
Measures

Aerial Image

Translate Strategy
into Rule Set
Review Result
Refine/Expand
Strategy
Ready for Export

CTI

RULE SET
DEVELOPMENT
Get the big picture
Choose, Process,
and Import Data
Translate Strategy
into Rule Set
Review Result
Refine/Expand
Strategy
Ready for Export

DSM

Multiresolution
Segmentation

DTM

Manual
Classification of
training samples

nDSM
Selection of
Object Features
CTI

Aerial
Intensit
y
Intensit
yGLCM

Exportation of
Object Statistics
Object
Statistics
Feature Selection
and Threshold

Figure 1. Flowchart on wetland extraction

Classification of
wetland and not
wetland by
Nearest Neighbor

Clean-up
operation

Wetland
Shapefile

Process/Performed in:
ArcGIS
ArcGIS, ENVI
ArcgGIS, LasTools
Seath
eCognition

Translate Strategy
into Rule Set
DSM

1
1

Multiresolution
Segmentation

2
2

Selection of
Object Features

DTM

nDSM

3
3
CTI

Aerial

4
4

Exportation of
Object Statistics

Classification of
wetland and not
wetland

7
7

Clean-up
operation

8
8

Wetland
Shapefile

1
1

2
2 Not shown in
the rule set
5
5

3
3
4
4
6
6
7
7

Object
Statistics

Intensit
y
Intensit
yGLCM

Manual
Classification of
training samples

6
6

5
5

Feature Selection
and Threshold

8
8

NOTE: Algorithms mentioned in


literatures are masked into
general statements. Decipher.