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Chapter 10

Human Resources
Management
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

 Human resource management (HRM) is the
strategic and coherent approach to the
management of an organization's most valued
assets - the people working there who individually
and collectively contribute to the achievement of
the objectives of the business.
FRAMEWORK OF HUMAN RESOURCE
MANAGEMENT

Agency mission
Primary Goals of HRM

Getting the right people
Maximizing performance
Maintaining an effective
workforce
Environment

Efficiency Effectiveness Service
Development of Public
Personnel Management
Government by Gentlemen:
The guardian period
(1789-1829)

Government by the Common Man:
The spoils period
(1829-1883)

Government by the Good:
The Reform period
(1883-1906)

:
Government by the Efficient:
The scientific Management period
(1906-1937)

Government by Administration:
The Management period
(1937-1955)

Government by Shared Power
(1955-present)
Government by Shared
Power
►PROFESSIONALS

Government is a major employers of professional and
technical people.

This professionalization has two implications.
- public executives and managers have less control over
personnel selection.
- it has revived the political-administrative debate.

►UNION

Today there are three prominent and powerful public
service unions.

American Federation of State, County and Municipal
Employees (AFSCME)
American Federation of Government Employees (AFGE)
►MINORITIES AND WOMEN

The Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VII prohibits discrimination on the basis
of race, religion, gender, or national origin

►PUBLIC MANAGERS

After the Homeland Security Act, Managers have greater flexibilities in
hiring employees, encouraging early retirement, compensating executives,
and paying for employees’ higher education.

►CONTRACTORS

Implications of privatization for public personnel management:

First, increased workload for agency managers

Second, unions are concerned about the negative effects of privatization
on their members.

Third, an increasingly professionalized public-sector work force.
THE ENVIRONMENT OF
HUMAN RESOURCES
MANAGEMENT
 EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

 INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
EXTERNAL
ENVIRONMENT
1. Civil Service Reform

- Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 split the civil service
commission into two units: the Office of Personnel
Management and the Merit Systems Protection Board.

- The Act created a separate personnel system for the
highest-ranking civil service officials.

- It restated and elaborated one of the fundamental
themes of public personnel administration.

- It brought federal labor relation under one
comprehensive act and established an independent
federal labor relations authority.
2. MAJOR FEDERAL LAWS

- Equal Pay Act, 1963

- Civil Rights Act, Title VII, 1964

- Age Discrimination in Employment Act, 1967

- Americans with Disabilities Act,1990

- Family and Medical Leave Act, 1993
3. PUBLIC EMPLOYEES’ RIGHT AND RESPONSIBILITIES
- POLITICAL RIGHTS
Three determinations are:

The court had to decide whether there was a
substantial infringements of employees’
protected freedom.

Some infringements of liberties may be
justified if the government can demonstrate a
sufficient compelling reason.

Assuming the government action did serve a
“compelling interest”
-FREE SPEECH
Supreme Court has ruled that it essential to
maintain a balance between the rights of public
employees as citizens and the interests of public
employers in providing services.

-PRIVACY
Personal privacy is one of the rights protected by
the constitution

For government employees, concerns about
privacy revolve primarily around four issues: drug
testing, searches, sexual orientation, and living
arrangements.
4.DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS

In the next two decades, three important demographic
trends will play out in the public-sector work force

- Increasing ethnic diversity

- Growing number of aging baby boomers in the population

- Fewer younger people who follow behind them
ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
The predominant value system of the organization

Benefits

- Eases and economizes communications

- Facilitates organizational decision making and control

- Generate higher levels of cooperation and commitment

To effect cultural change, managers must adopt a “symbolic
manager”

Symbolic Manager:

First, articulates vision for organizational change that
generates excitement and that employee can believe in.
Second, encourages day-to-day activities that reinforce that
vision.
GETTING THE RIGHT
PEOPLE
1. RESOURCES PLANNING
It is the forecast of human resource needs and
the projected matching of people with expected
vacancies.

Resources planning begins with three key
questions,
> What new technologies emerging, and how will they
affect the work system?

> What is the volume of work likely to be in the next five to
ten years?
2. RECRUITING

Recruiting means more than just posting an examination
announcement on the bulletin board.

Every possible source of qualified candidates within the
appropriate labor market must be reached.
3. TESTING

Test Validity: Refers to the relationship between one’s score
on a selection device and one’s future job
performance. It will provide high scores that correspond
to subsequence high job performance

Test reliability : Means the employer can count on the test
to measure the same factors in the same way
each time it is given.
4. SELECTION

Once a competitive examination is completed, an
employment list based on the examination results is
established and the names of the highest ranking
candidates are presented to the appointing official for the
selection. This process is called CERTIFICATION.

Personnel systems usually follow the rule of three.
5. CLASSIFICATION AND COMPENSATION

At all levels of government, the basis of the civil service is
the POSITION CLASSIFICATION. It involves identifying
the duties and responsibilities of each position in an
organization and then grouping the position according to
their similarities.

The big five personality dimensions are:

 EXTRAVERSION
 AGREEABLENESS
 CONSCIENTIOUSNESS
 NEUROTICISM
 OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE
Extraversion is consistent with all job performance
criteria for all occupational groups.
For the remaining, the estimated true score correlation
varied by occupational groups.
MAXIMIZING
PERFORMANCE
1. TRAINING AND MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT

Training specifically targeted to improve a person’s
knowledge and skills in the fundamentals of
management. If one is truly serious about
managerial careers, management development
activities should be an important part of one’s
agenda
2. ADVANCEMENT

The evaluation of an employee’s progress measured in
terms of job effectiveness is called PERFORMNCE
APPRAISAL. One criticism of this, as practiced in
government , is that the process is periodic rather than
continuous.
MAINTAINING AN
EFFECTIVE WORKFORCE
DISCIPLINES AND GRIEVANCES

 DISCIPLINES: disciplining employees and
listening to their complaints.

 GRIEVANCES: applies to a circumstance or
condition that, in the opinion of those affected,
constitutes a wrong and gives one just ground
for complaint

In disciplinary matters, the administrative should
strive for improvement in employee performance.
COLLECTIVE BARGAINING

It is a process whereby union and management
officials attempt to resolve conflict of interest, in
a manner that will sustain and possibly enrich
their continuing relationship

UNOORGANISED

ORGANIZE

ELECTION

CERITIFICATION AND RECOGNITION

PREPARATION FOR NEGOTIATION

NEGOTIATION

CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION
Understanding of bargaining process with six
important questions,

3. WHO IS GOING TO BARGAIN FOR MANAGEMENT?

5. WHO IS GOING TO BARGAIN FOR THE UNION?

7. WHAT WILL MANAGEMENT AND LABOR BARGAIN ABOUT?

9. WHAT HAPPENS OF THE NAGOTIATORS CANNOT REACH AN
AGREEMENT?

11. SHOULD PUBLIC EMPLOYEE BE ALLOWED TO STRIKE?

13. HOW IS A CONTRACT ADMINISTERED?
When bargaining fails, two choices appear.

First is the possibility of a strike, although the
federal government and most states prohibit
them.

Second is the process of mediation, fact-finding,
and arbitration.
THANK YOU

PREPARED BY :
GIANTS

-VISHAL

-DHIREN
-VIRAL
-KEYUR