Chapter 10 Human Resources Management

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Human resource management (HRM) is the strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization's most valued assets - the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the business.

FRAMEWORK OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Agency mission

Primary Goals of HRM Getting the right people Maximizing performance Maintaining an effective workforce

Environment

Efficiency

Effectiveness Service

Development of Public Personnel Management
Government by Gentlemen: The guardian period (1789-1829) ↓ Government by the Common Man: The spoils period (1829-1883) ↓ Government by the Good: The Reform period (1883-1906) ↓
:

Government by the Efficient: The scientific Management period (1906-1937) ↓ Government by Administration: The Management period (1937-1955) ↓ Government by Shared Power (1955-present)

Government by Shared Power
►PROFESSIONALS Government is a major employers of professional and technical people. This professionalization has two implications. - public executives and managers have less control over personnel selection. - it has revived the political-administrative debate. ►UNION Today there are three prominent and powerful public service unions. American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) American Federation of Government Employees (AFGE)

►MINORITIES AND WOMEN The Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VII prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, religion, gender, or national origin ►PUBLIC MANAGERS After the Homeland Security Act, Managers have greater flexibilities in hiring employees, encouraging early retirement, compensating executives, and paying for employees’ higher education. ►CONTRACTORS Implications of privatization for public personnel management: First, increased workload for agency managers Second, unions are concerned about the negative effects of privatization on their members. Third, an increasingly professionalized public-sector work force.

THE ENVIRONMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
1. Civil Service Reform
- Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 split the civil service commission into two units: the Office of Personnel Management and the Merit Systems Protection Board. - The Act created a separate personnel system for the highest-ranking civil service officials. - It restated and elaborated one of the fundamental themes of public personnel administration. - It brought federal labor relation under one comprehensive act and established an independent federal labor relations authority.

2. MAJOR FEDERAL LAWS
- Equal Pay Act, 1963 - Civil Rights Act, Title VII, 1964 - Age Discrimination in Employment Act, 1967 - Americans with Disabilities Act,1990 - Family and Medical Leave Act, 1993

3. PUBLIC EMPLOYEES’ RIGHT AND RESPONSIBILITIES
- POLITICAL RIGHTS Three determinations are:

The court had to decide whether there was a substantial infringements of employees’ protected freedom. Some infringements of liberties may be justified if the government can demonstrate a sufficient compelling reason. Assuming the government action did serve a “compelling interest”

-FREE SPEECH Supreme Court has ruled that it essential to maintain a balance between the rights of public employees as citizens and the interests of public employers in providing services. -PRIVACY Personal privacy is one of the rights protected by the constitution For government employees, concerns about privacy revolve primarily around four issues: drug testing, searches, sexual orientation, and living arrangements.

4.DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS
In the next two decades, three important demographic trends will play out in the public-sector work force - Increasing ethnic diversity - Growing number of aging baby boomers in the population - Fewer younger people who follow behind them

ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
The predominant value system of the organization Benefits - Eases and economizes communications - Facilitates organizational decision making and control - Generate higher levels of cooperation and commitment To effect cultural change, managers must adopt a “symbolic manager” Symbolic Manager: First, articulates vision for organizational change that generates excitement and that employee can believe in. Second, encourages day-to-day activities that reinforce that vision.

GETTING THE RIGHT PEOPLE
1. RESOURCES PLANNING It is the forecast of human resource needs and the projected matching of people with expected vacancies. Resources planning begins with three key questions,
> What new technologies emerging, and how will they

affect the work

system?

> What is the volume of work likely to be in the next five to

ten years?

2. RECRUITING
Recruiting means more than just posting an examination announcement on the bulletin board. Every possible source of qualified candidates within the appropriate labor market must be reached.

3. TESTING

Test Validity: Refers to the relationship between one’s score
on a selection device and one’s future job performance. It will provide high scores that correspond to subsequence high job performance

Test reliability : Means the employer can count on the test
to measure the same factors in the same way each time it is given.

4. SELECTION

Once a competitive examination is completed, an employment list based on the examination results is established and the names of the highest ranking candidates are presented to the appointing official for the selection. This process is called CERTIFICATION. Personnel systems usually follow the rule of three.

5. CLASSIFICATION AND COMPENSATION
At all levels of government, the basis of the civil service is the POSITION CLASSIFICATION. It involves identifying the duties and responsibilities of each position in an organization and then grouping the position according to their similarities. The big five personality dimensions are:
    

EXTRAVERSION AGREEABLENESS CONSCIENTIOUSNESS NEUROTICISM OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE Extraversion is consistent with all job performance criteria for all occupational groups. For the remaining, the estimated true score correlation varied by occupational groups.

MAXIMIZING PERFORMANCE
1. TRAINING AND MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT Training specifically targeted to improve a person’s knowledge and skills in the fundamentals of management. If one is truly serious about managerial careers, management development activities should be an important part of one’s agenda

2. ADVANCEMENT

The evaluation of an employee’s progress measured in terms of job effectiveness is called PERFORMNCE APPRAISAL. One criticism of this, as practiced in government , is that the process is periodic rather than continuous.

MAINTAINING AN EFFECTIVE WORKFORCE
DISCIPLINES AND GRIEVANCES

DISCIPLINES: disciplining employees and listening to their complaints. GRIEVANCES: applies to a circumstance or condition that, in the opinion of those affected, constitutes a wrong and gives one just ground for complaint
In disciplinary matters, the administrative should strive for improvement in employee performance.

COLLECTIVE BARGAINING It is a process whereby union and management officials attempt to resolve conflict of interest, in a manner that will sustain and possibly enrich their continuing relationship
UNOORGANISED ↓ ORGANIZE ↓ ELECTION ↓ CERITIFICATION AND RECOGNITION ↓ PREPARATION FOR NEGOTIATION ↓ NEGOTIATION ↓ CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION

Understanding of bargaining process with six important questions,
3. 5. 7. 9.

WHO IS GOING TO BARGAIN FOR MANAGEMENT? WHO IS GOING TO BARGAIN FOR THE UNION? WHAT WILL MANAGEMENT AND LABOR BARGAIN ABOUT? WHAT HAPPENS OF THE NAGOTIATORS CANNOT REACH AN AGREEMENT? SHOULD PUBLIC EMPLOYEE BE ALLOWED TO STRIKE? HOW IS A CONTRACT ADMINISTERED?

11. 13.

When bargaining fails, two choices appear. First is the possibility of a strike, although the federal government and most states prohibit them. Second is the process of mediation, fact-finding, and arbitration.

THANK YOU
PREPARED BY :

GIANTS
-VISHAL -DHIREN -VIRAL -KEYUR

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