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Reaming, Boring,


By S K



Reaming removes a small amount of material from the

surface of holes.
It is done for two purposes: to bring holes to a more
exact size and to improve the finish of an existing hole.
Multiage cutting tools that has many flutes, which may
be straight or in a helix are used.
No special machines are built for reaming. The same
machine that was employed for drilling the hole can be
used for reaming by changing the cutting tool.
Only a minimum amount of materials should be left for
removal by reaming. As little as 0.1 mm is desirable, and
in no case should the amount exceed 0.4 mm.
A properly reamed hole will be within 0.025 mm of the
correct size and have a fine finish.


Reamer Flutes

The reamer flutes are either straight or helical.

The helical flutes promote smoother cutting and should be

used specifically for holes that are not continuous, such as

those with keyways parallel to the axis of the hole.
The cutting action of the helical flutes is smoother and
helps in preventing chatter.
The reamers are termed as left hand or right hand,
depending upon the direction in which they are moved,
looking from the shank to the cutting portion.
The right-hand reamer with right-hand helix is used for
roughing cuts, since the tool tends to go into the
workpiece more efficiently and thereby promotes the
material removal.
A right-hand reamer with left-hand flutes is used for
finishing cuts.

Types of Reamers
The principal types of reamers are:
1. Hand reamers
a. Straight
b. Taper
2. Machine or chucking reamers
a. Rose
b. Fluted
3. Shell reamers
4. Expansion reamers
5. Adjustable reamers


To meet quality requirements, including both finish

and accuracy (tolerances on diameter, roundness,

straightness, and absence of bell-mouth at ends of
holes). Reamers must have adequate support for
the cutting edges, and reamer deflection must be
Reaming speed is usually two-thirds the speed for
drilling the same materials. However, for close
tolerances and fine finish, speeds should be slower.
Feeds are usually much higher than those for
drilling and depend upon material.
Recommended cutting fluids are the same as those
for drilling.

Reamers, like drills, should not be allowed to become dull.

The chamfer must be reground long before it exhibits

excessive wear. Sharpening is usually restricted to the
starting taper or chamfer. Each flute must be ground
exactly evenly or the tool will cut oversize.
Reamers tend to chatter when not held securely, when the
work or work holder is loose, or when the reamer is not
properly ground.
Irregularly spaced teeth may help reduce chatter. Other
cures for chatter in reaming are to reduce the speed, vary
the feed rate, chamfer the hole opening, use a piloted
reamer, reduce the relief angle on the chamfer, or change
the cutting fluid.
Any misalignment between the work piece and the reamer
will cause chatter and improper reaming.

Rose Reamer
Rose chucking reamers are ground
cylindrical and have no relief behind the
outer edges of the teeth. All cutting is done
on the beveled ends of the teeth

Chucking Reamer
Fluted chucking reamers have relief behind
the edges of the teeth as well as beveled
ends. They can cut on all portions of the
teeth. Their flutes are relatively short and
they are intended for light finishing cuts.

Shell Reamer
Shell reamers often are used for sizes over
20 mm to save cutting-tool material. The
shell, made of HSS for smaller sizes and
with carbide edges for larger sizes or for
mass-production work.


Trepanning is a annular groove producing

operation which leaves a solid cylindrical core

in the centre. In trepanning a cutter consisting
of one or more cutting edges placed along the
circumference of a circle is used to produce the
annular groove.

Trepanning Tool

IES - 1999
Which one of the following processes
results in the best accuracy of the hole
(a) Drilling
(b) Reaming
(c) Broaching (d) Boring

IES - 1999
regarding reaming process:
1. Reaming generally produces a hole larger
than its own diameter
2. Generally rake angles are not provided on
3. Even numbers of teeth are preferred in
reamer design.
Which of these statements are correct?
(a) 1 and 2(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3 (d) 1, 2 and 3

IES - 1993
A hole of 30 mm diameter is to be produced by
reaming. The minimum diameter permissible is
30.00 mm while the maximum diameter permissible
is 30.05 mm. In this regard, consider the following
statements about the reamer size:
1. The
2. The
3. The
4. The

minimum diameter of the reamer can be less than 30 mm.

minimum diameter of the reamer cannot be less than 30
maximum diameter of the reamer can be more than 30.05
maximum diameter of the reamer must be less than 30.05

Of these statements
(a) 1 and 4 are correct (b)
(c) 2 and 3 are correct (d)

1 and 3 are correct

2 and 4 are correct

IES - 1992
Shell reamers are mounted on
(a) Tool holders (b) Amour plates
(c) Arbor
(d) Shanks


Boring always involves the enlarging of an existing hole,

which may have been made by a drill or may be the

result of a core in a casting.
An equally important and concurrent purpose of boring
may be to make the hole concentric with the axis of
rotation of the workpiece and thus correct any
eccentricity that may have resulted from the drill drifting
off the centerline. Concentricity is an important attribute
of bored holes.
When boring is done in a lathe, the work usually is held
in a chuck or on a faceplate. Holes may be bored
straight, tapered, or to irregular contours.
Boring is essentially internal turning while feeding the
tool parallel to the rotation axis of the workpiece.


The same principles are used for boring as for

The tool should be set exactly at the same
height as the axis of rotation. Slightly larger end
clearance angles sometimes have to be used to
prevent the heel of the tool from rubbing on the
inner surface of the hole.

Because the tool overhang will be greater, feeds

and depths of cut may be somewhat less than

for turning to prevent tool vibration and chatter.
In some cases, the boring bar may be made of
tungsten carbide because of this material's
greater stiffness.
The boring tool is a single-point cutting tool.
Hole quality, finish boring can typically achieve
holes within tolerances of IT9.
Surface finishes better than Ra 1 micron can be

Formula for Boring

D D2
Average diameter of workpiece
Davg 1

Cutting Time,CT L A O

Metal Removal Rate


D12 D22
4 / fN

Davg dfN


IES 1994, ISRO-2008

Enlarging an existing circular hole with a
rotating single point tool is called
(a) Boring (b) Drilling
(c) Reaming (d) Internal turning.


Broaching is a multiple-tooth cutting operation with the

tool reciprocating.
Since in broaching the machining operation is
completed in a single-stroke as the teeth on the cutting
tool, called broach, are at gradually increasing height
corresponding to the feed per tooth of a milling cutter.
The shape of the broach determines the shape of the
machined part.
Broaching was originally developed for machining
internal keyways, but looking at the advantages, it has
been extensively used in the mass production of
automobile component manufacture for various other
surfaces as well.

The material removal using the broach teeth is

shown schematically in Fig. shown in below. The

dotted line in the figure indicates the amount of
individual teeth.


Broach Construction

Broach Construction
The broach is composed of a series of teeth,

each tooth standing slightly higher than the

previous one. This rise per tooth is the feed per
tooth and determines the material removed by
the tooth.
There are basically three sets of teeth present
in a broach as shown in Fig. shown above.
The roughing teeth that have the highest rise
per tooth remove bulk of the material.
The semi-finishing teeth, whose rise per tooth is
smaller, remove relatively smaller amounts of
material compared to the roughing teeth.

Broach Construction
The last set of teeth is called the finishing or sizing

teeth. Very little material will be removed by these

The necessary size will be achieved by these teeth
and hence all the teeth will be of the same size as
that required finally. With the progress of time,
when the first set of teeth wear out, the next set of
teeth will be able to provide the sizing function.
The pull end of the broach (Fig. shown in above) is
attached to the pulling mechanism of the broaching
machine with the front pilot aligning the broach
properly with respect to the workpiece axis before
the actual cutting starts.

Broach Construction
The rear pilot helps to keep the broach to

remain square with the workpiece as it leaves

the workpiece after broaching.
Broaching speeds are relatively low, of the
order of 6 to 15 m/min. However, the production
rate is high with the cycle times being about 5
to 30 seconds, including the workpiece and tool
handling times. The low cutting speeds are
conducive to very high tool life with very small
tool wear rates.

Broach Construction
Broaches are generally made of high speed

steel in view of its high impact strength.

Sometimes, the titanium nitride coating helps to
improve the tool life further. Also, the carbide
insert-type broaches are used more for surface
broaching of cast iron for very large volume
production to reduce the frequent resharpening
of the broach, which is a very difficult operation.
Standard broaches are available for common
and more often used forms, such as round and
square holes, keyways, etc.

Broach Construction
For smooth operation, it is essential that at

least two or three teeth be simultaneously

s 1.75 l , mm
The thumb rule for tooth spacing,
The cut per tooth f is kept in the range 0.05 mm
0.09 mm.
In the normal speed BUE may be a problem. To
avoid this a copious supply of the cutting fluid is

Advantages of broaching
1. It is the fastest way of finishing an operation with a single
2. Since all the machining parameters are built into the
broach, very little skill is required from the operator.
3. Broaching machine is simple since only a single
reciprocating motion is required for cutting.
4. Final cost of the machining operation is one of the lowest
for mass production.
5. Any type of surface, internal or external, can be generated
with broaching.
6. Many surfaces, which are very difficult or impossible by
other means, can be done by broaching. For example, square
hole and internal splines.
7. Good surface finish and fine dimensional tolerances can be
achieved by broaching, often better than boring or reaming

Limitations of broaching
1. Custom made broaches are very expensive and
can therefore be justified only for very large volume
2. A broach has to be designed for a specific
application and can be used only for that application.
Hence, the lead time for manufacture is more for
custom designed broaches.
3. Broaching, being a very heavy metal removal
operation, requires that the workpiece is rigid and
capable of withstanding the large forces.
4. Broaching can only be carried out on the workpiece
whose geometry is such that there is no interference
for the broach movement for the cutting.

IES - 2007
Among the following machining processes,
which can be used for machining flat
1. Shaping 2. Milling 3. Broaching
Select the correct answer using the code given
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3

IES 1993, 2001

Assertion (A): No separate feed motion is
required during broaching.
Reason (R): The broaching machines are
generally hydraulically operated.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is
the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is
not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true

Ch-6: Drilling, Boring & Reaming

Q. No


Q. No