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East & Southern

Africa
Chapter 14

Map

Geographic Overview

Mostly high plateaus


Mt. Kilimanjaro
Mt. Kenya

The Great Rift Valley

Rivers

The Zambezi: Victoria Falls

The Limpopo

The Cape of Good Hope

Geographic Overview
The

climate

South Africa: temperate


Other countries: considerable heat and extreme
in rain or drought, depending on the time of year
In high elevations: comfortable
Low coastal areas: hot and steamy

Agriculture

Traditional crops of the subsistence farmers:


corn, legumes, sweet potatoes, potatoes, millet,
sorghum, & banana
Livestock: cattle, goats, & sheep

History/ Early Inhabitants


Olduvai

GorgeTanzania
Tsodilo HillsBotswana
Matobo, Domboshawa and
Ngomakurira in Zimbabwa
Punt
The most successful early settlements
Aksum
Great Zimbabwe

History/ Foreign Involvement


Triggered

religion

by interest in trade &

Portuguese

Explorers
Bartolomeu Diaz & The Cape of Good Hope

Vasco da Gama: revealed the strong


presence of Arabian and Indian traders
John Prester
The

Dutch, the French, and English

For the slave trade and the Middle


Passage

History / North from the Cape of


Good Hope
Bantu
Dutch

East India Company


Voortrekkers
Afrikaans
The Coloreds
The

divisive policy of apartheid


Some benefits in terms of development and
organization from White rulers in Southern
Africa

A Cheetah on the Serengeti


Plain

Market Day in Kenya

Culture
Religion

Christian denominations: Influences of


Missionaries during the colonial period
Muslims in some parts of Africa
Hindus
Strong belief in Animism
The

Arts

Music: the marimba and a variety of drums and


rattles, horns, & religious songs
Storytelling
Native dancing

Culture cont.
Festivals

Making the Seeds Grow in Zimbabwe


Rainmaking celebration
Circumcision of both adolescent boys and
girls

Food Patterns
Meal

Patterns

Two meals a day


Diets reflect:
the crops that
The suitability

can be grown in the various regions


of the climate for raising livestock

Insects and some creatures


Considered as delicacies
Termites and mice

Porridge of Cornmeal in Calabashes


Mealie meal (South Africa)
Sadza (Zimbabwe)
Ugali (Kenya)

Food Patterns cont.


Health

concerns

Safe water
particularly

in the tropical areas


Boiling is necessary

Lack of refrigeration

Food Patterns cont.


East

regions

The climate and topography: well suited to


farming and ranching
Foundation of the diet: Cassava, corn, millet,
sorghum, peanuts, and plantains
Exporting crops: coffee, tea, cashews, & cloves
The cuisines are predominantly vegetarian,
influenced in part by Arab, Asian Indian, and
British fare
Dishes made with taro greens or other leafy
vegetables
Side dishes of local grains and produce

Food Patterns cont.


South

African

Very temperate climate: favorable to many fruits


and vegetables
The cuisine: strongly influenced by the European
settlers of the region, including Dutch, British,
and French
Muslim slaves from Malaysia and India:
significant impact on South African fare
Mutton, beef, pork, fish, & seafood are popular
Common sweets: dried fruit, fruit leathers, fruit
preserves or jams

India and Its


Neighbors
Chapter 15

Geographic Overview/ Map


India
Afghanistan
Pakistan
Nepal
Bhutan
Bangladesh
Sri

Lanka

Geographic Overview
Agriculture

India: diverse agricultural areas


Excellent tea & rice
Wheat, some barley, sorghum, and millet
Various fruits and vegetables, coconuts, &
some spices
Legumes for the vegetarian diets
Cooking oils from cottonseed, peanuts,
rapeseed, & sesame
Buffalo milk is common dairy product
Lamb is popular, some beef in the north

History and Culture (H/C):


India
Dravidians

Early dark-skinned people of southern India


Language, Tamil, is different from the Aryan
languages
Aryans

Came from the north


Began to settle in the region around 2000 BCE
The spiritual home of two major religions
Hinduism:

the Vedas

Buddhism

Caste system
The language of Sanskrit

History and Culture (H/C):


India
Powers

in India

Persian invaders
Alexander the Great from Greece
Mauryans
People of the Gupta empire
Muslim invaders
People of the Mughal Empire
Europeans Great Britain

History and Culture (H/C):


India

Arts

Architecture
The
The

Tai Mahal
beautiful palaces and forts in Rajasthan in northern and
northwestern India

Music

Based

on individual creativity as well as melodies from gurus


or teachers of music
Sitar

Storytelling and dancing

Official languages of India


Hindi & English
Different dialects
Tamil and Sanskrit

History and Culture (H/C):


India
The Taj Mahal: Check it out @
http://www.tajmahal.org.uk/

Nepal
Wild

tigers and elephants!!


Mountainous
Borders Tibet and India
The Durbar Squares in Kathmandu,
Patan, & Bhaktapur in the Kathmandu
Valley

Tibet
Seat

of Tibetan Buddhism
Original home of the Dalai Lama
Jokhang Temple
Currently controlled by China

Pakistan
Muslim

country
Modern technologies in the cities
Rural traditions in remote areas
4 regions to Pakistan

Punjab
Sindh
Baluchistan
The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP)
Each regions has its own language and
cultures

Afghanistan
Muslim

country
Food patterns are Islamic

Bangladesh
Broke

away from Pakistan in 1971


High population
Few resources
Hunger is a devastating problem

Sri Lanka
South

of India
Religion
Hindu and
Buddhism are
prominent
Some Islam and
Christianity
Dominant

culture

Sinhalese (Aryan)
Tamils
(Descendents of
Chola)

A Fruit Stand in Sri Lanka

Food Patterns

Food patterns reflect the religion of the people


In India

The traditional foods vary from north to south, east to


west, region to region, & among religious and caste
groups.
Few individual foods are eaten throughout all of India
Rice is the most common single food
Concentrate on legumes and cereals: the basis of the
vegetarian diet
Fruits and vegetables predominate in the vegetarian
cuisine
Masala (blend of spices)

Distinctive mixtures of spices and herbs.

In the north, wheat is more common; dry & aromatic


masalas are used
In the south, rice is more common; wet & spicy masalas
are used

Food Patterns cont.


Variety

of spices and seasonings


Curry extremely varied; accompanied by
chutney
Dairy foods are used, partially fermented
milk products like yogurt. Gheepurified,
clarified butteris found throughout the
country.
Meat and poultry: very popular in Pakistan
Beef avoided by Hindu; pork prohibited for
Muslims

Food Patterns cont.


Tea

is common in northern
India/Pakistan; coffee in southern India
Dishes in Indian menu
Ghee, naan, samosas, curry, chutney,
paratha, roti, and puri

Interesting Websites
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7520

286.stm
http://www.exploresouthafrica.net/cult

ure/food.htm
http://www.food-india.com/
http://indianfood.about.com/

Please Review the Guest


Lecture on India now
thanks!