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Electrical Machines

LSEGG216A
9080V

Parallel Operation
&
Auxiliary equipment

Introduction

Identify

Parallel Operation
Why not get a bigger one?
Can carry many of the same size so
maintenance is easier & cheaper
If one fails can still supply some load
Can turn one off if load reduces

Parallel Operation
Both transformers must have:

Same voltage
Frequency
Roughly the same VA rating
Same polarity

Parallel Operation
Single Phase

High circulation
currents will flow

Incorrect Polarity

Parallel Operation
Single Phase

Correct Polarity

Parallel Operation
Testing for Polarity

Place a voltmeter across


the transformer terminal
and the supply line

Correct polarity = 0 Volts


Incorrect polarity = Transformer voltage or higher

3 Phase
Transformers
Types

PRIMARY
Star

SECONDARY
Star

No Phase Shift
Reference

3 Phase
Transformers
PRIMARY

Types

Delta

Delta

No Phase Shift
ce
n
re
e
f
Re

SECONDARY

3 Phase
Transformers
PRIMARY

Types

Star

Reference

SECONDARY
Delta

V2 Leads V1 by
30

30

3 Phase
Transformers
PRIMARY

Types

Delta

ce
n
re
e
f
Re

SECONDARY
Star

V2 Lags V1 by 30

30

Paralleling 3 Phase
Transformers
Must be from the same vector group
Must have the same effect on voltage:
- paralleled with -
- paralleled with -
- paralleled with - Provided that the line
voltages are equal

Paralleling 3 Phase
Transformers
Must be from the same vector group
Must have the same effect on voltage:
- paralleled with -
- paralleled with -
- paralleled with -
- -30 & - +30
The voltage phase difference would be 60

Auxiliary Equipment
Protection

Voltage adjustment

Over temperature
Over pressure
Low oil level
Oil quality
Reduction of water

Tap changers

Transformer Construction
Most large transformers are oil filled
The oil level must be high enough to cover the
transformer
Oil must be kept dry and clean

Transformer Construction
Conserver Tank
Sealed Tank

Tank always stays full

Transformer Construction
Buchholz relay monitors oil
between transformer and
conserver tank

Pressure relief valve allows


over pressure oil to escape
Over temperature thermostat
trips circuit breaker if
transformer gets too hot

Buchholz relay
Monitors

Presence of air bubbles due to


faulty initial filling or faulty seal of
gaskets
Formation of gas due to burning
of oil or solid insulation
Lowering of oil level due to leak of
the tank
Oil flow from tank to conservator
due to explosion or short circuit

Buchholz relay
On a slow accumulation of gas,
due to slight overload
accumulates in the top of the
relay and forces the oil level
down. A float operated switch in
the relay is used to initiate an
alarm signal

Buchholz relay
rapid gas accumulation, flow of oil
operates a switch attached to a
vane

Test port to allow the accumulated


gas to be withdrawn for testing

Buchholz relay
Dry air test

Gas testing

Oil to conserver

Oil & Gass from Tx

Oil for testing

Tap Changers
Two types:
Off Load
On Load
Can be located on the primary or
secondary of the transformer

Off Load
Basically a multi-position switch
Open circuits output between
positions
Contacts not rated to open circuit
under load

Transformer Open circuited

On Load

Manual
Automatic

Common
terminal

Sliding switch

Transformer
windings

On Load
Inductors carry
current when contact
is between taps

On Load
Contact moves to new tap