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Reaz Choudhury

Before Mid-Term
HRM Functions and Integration with Staffing &
Fundamentals of Staffing
Job Analysis and Competency Model
Attracting Talent Pool
Staffing and & Selection Legal Issues
Bias and Fairness

HRM-How will you be Judged?

Termed Exam (Mid and Final)
Class Participation
Quality of the Report (Case Studies,
Presentation (Use of Tech) and
Discussion of report output



Textbook/ Reference Materials : Course Outline


HRM Functions
Organizations are not mere bricks, mortar,
machineries or inventories. They are people. It is the
people who staff and manage organizations.
- HRM involves the application of management
functions and principles. The functions and
principles are applied to acquisitioning, developing,
maintaining, and remunerating employees in
- Decisions relating to employees must be
integrated. Decisions on different aspects of
employees must be consistent with other human
resource (HR) decisions.

HRM Functions
- Decisions made must influence the
effectiveness of an organization. Effectiveness
of an organization must result in betterment of
services to customers in the form of highquality products supplied at reasonable costs.
- HRM functions are not confined to business
establishments only. They are applicable to
non-business organizations, too, such as
education, health care, recreation, and the

HRM Functions

management function that helps managers
recruit, select, train and develop members for
an organization. HRM is concerned with the

HRM Functions
The core functions of HR, or Human Resources,
may vary but there are six main functions. The
functions are stated as: recruitment, selection,
orientation, development, performance evaluation,
and career path management. Each function has
multiple responsibilities and steps that are
Recruitment is the process of attracting employees.
Selection is the process of selecting the people
most suited for the job position.

HRM Functions
Orientation is the training of new employees to
perform each job responsibility that is listed in
their job description.
Development is used to improved
effectiveness of the employees.
Performance evaluation assesses the person's
productivity during a certain time period.
Career path management is the process of
actively managing the employee skills for a
successful career

HRM Functions
After an organization's structural design is
in place, it needs people with the right
skills, knowledge, and abilities to fill in that
structure. People are an organization's
most important resource, because people
either create or undermine an
organization's reputation for quality in
both products and service.

HRM Functions
In addition, an organization must respond
to change effectively in order to remain
competitive. The right staff can carry an
organization through a period of change
and ensure its future success. Because of
the importance of hiring and maintaining
a committed and competent staff,
effective human resource management is
crucial to the success of all organizations.

HRM Functions
Understanding the fundamentals of HRM can
help any manager lead more effectively. Every
manager should understand the following three
All managers are human resource managers.
Employees are much more important assets
than buildings or equipment; good employees
give a company the competitive edge.
Human resource management is a matching
process; it must match the needs of the
organization with the needs of the employee.


Staffing and selection are both about choosing the
right candidates out of the pool and getting them
through the recruiting funnel and into the
leadership pipeline.
Staffing is the process of acquiring, deploying, and
retaining a workforce of sufficient quantity and
quality to create positive impacts on the
organizations effectiveness. This process is
performed by management functions, in effect, all
managers are human resource managers,
although human resource specialists may perform
some of these activities in large organizations

Acquisition comprises the recruitment
processes leading to the employment of staff.
It includes human resource planning to identify
what the organization requires in terms of the
numbers of employees needed and their
attributes (knowledge, skills and abilities) in
order to effectively meet job requirements. In
addition the selection techniques and methods
of assessment to identify the most suitable
candidates for a particular job.

Deployment involves decisions about how those
recruited will be allocated to specific roles according to
business demands. It also concerns the subsequent
appointment to more advanced jobs through internal
recruitment, promotion or reorganization.
Retention deals with the management of the outflow of
employees from an organization. This includes both
managing voluntary activities such as resignation, and
controlling involuntary measures whereby employees
are managed out of the organization through
redundancy programs or other types of dismissal.

The overriding objective is to minimize the
loss from the organization of valued
employees through strategic and tactical
measures whilst enabling the organization
to reduce employment costs where
circumstances dictate.

Importance of Staffing
Staffing has been an important aspect in
all types of organizations development.
More and more companies have noticed a
good staffing plan could increase
productivity and reduce operation costs in
terms of lower turnover rate and transition
costs. Good staffing could be able to
minimize cost in order to maximize profit,
because it could assist the company to
stay more competitive within the industry.

Importance of Staffing

Filling the Organizational positions

Developing competencies to challenges
Retaining personnel - professionalism
Optimum utilization of the human

Staffing Process
1.Manpower requirements- The very first step in
staffing is to plan the manpower inventory
required by a concern in order to match them
with the job requirements and demands.
Therefore, it involves forecasting and
determining the future manpower needs of the
2.Recruitment- Once the requirements are
notified, the concern invites and solicits
applications according to the invitations made
to the desirable candidates.

Staffing Process
3.Selection- This is the screening step of
staffing in which the solicited applications
are screened out and suitable candidates
are appointed as per the requirements.
4.Orientation and Placement- Once
screening takes place, the appointed
candidates are made familiar to the work
units and work environment through the
orientation programmes. placement takes
place by putting right man on the right job.

Staffing Process
5.Training and Development- Training is a part
of incentives given to the workers in order to
develop and grow them within the concern.
Training is generally given according to the
nature of activities and scope of expansion in
it. Along with it, the workers are developed by
providing them extra benefits of indepth
knowledge of their functional areas.
Development also includes giving them key
and important jobs as a test or examination in
order to analyze their performances.

Staffing Process
6.Remuneration- It is a kind of compensation
provided monetarily to the employees for their
work performances. This is given according to
the nature of job- skilled or unskilled, physical
or mental, etc. Remuneration forms an
important monetary incentive for the
7.Performance Evaluation- In order to keep a
track or record of the behavior, attitudes as well
as opinions of the workers towards their jobs.
Regular assessment is done to evaluate and
supervise different work units in a concern.

Staffing Process
It is basically concerning to know the
development cycle and growth patterns of
the employees in a concern.
8.Promotion and transfer- Promotion is said
to be a non- monetary incentive in which
the worker is shifted from a higher job
demanding bigger responsibilities as well
as shifting the workers and transferring
them to different work units and branches
of the same organization.

Job Analysis and Competency


Job Analysis
Job analysis is the important process of
identifying the content of a job in terms of
activities involved and attributes needed to
perform the work and identifies major job
Job analyses provide information to organizations
which helps to determine which employees are
best fit for specific jobs. Through job analysis, the
analyst needs to understand what the important
tasks of the job are, how they are carried out, and
the necessary human qualities needed to complete
the job successfully.

Purpose of Job Analysis

One of the main purposes of conducting job analysis is to
prepare job descriptions and job specifications which in
turn helps hire the right quality of workforce into an
organization. The general purpose of job analysis is to
document the requirements of a job and the work
Job and task analysis is performed as a basis for later
improvements, including: definition of a job domain;
description of a job; development of performance
appraisals, personnel selection, selection systems,
promotion criteria, training needs assessment, legal
defense of selection processes, and compensation plans.

Purpose of Job Analysis

The human performance improvement
industry uses job analysis to make
sure training and development
activities are focused and effective. In
the fields of human resources (HR)
and industrial psychology, job analysis
is often used to gather information for
use in personnel selection, training,
classification, and/or compensation.

Purpose of Job Analysis

Job analysis aims to answer questions such as:
Why does the job exist?
What physical and mental activities does the
worker undertake?
When is the job to be performed?
Where is the job to be performed?
How does the worker do the job?
What qualifications are needed to perform
the job?

Six Steps of Job Analysis

1. Decide how to use the information since this will
determine the data to collect and how to collect
it. Some data collection techniques such as
interviewing the employee and asking what the
job entails are good for writing job descriptions
and selecting employees for the job. Other
techniques like the position analysis
questionnaire do not provide qualitative
information for job descriptions. Rather, they
provide numerical ratings for each job and can be
used to compare jobs for compensation purposes.

Six Steps of Job Analysis

2. Review appropriate background information like
organization charts, process charts, and job
descriptions. Organization charts show the
organization-wide work division, how the job in
question relates to other jobs, and where the job fits in
the overall organization. The chart should show the
title of each position and, through connecting lines,
show reports to whom and with whom the job
incumbent communicates. A process chart provides a
more detailed picture of the work flow. In its simplest,
most organic form, a process chart shows the flow of
inputs to and outputs from the job being analyzed.

Six Steps of Job Analysis

3. Select representative positions. This is
because there may be too many similar jobs to
analyze. For example, it is usually unnecessary
to analyze jobs of 200 assembly workers when
a sample of 10 jobs will be sufficient.
4. Actually analyze the job by collecting data on
job activities, necessary employee behaviors
and actions, working conditions, and human
traits and abilities required to perform the job.
For this step, one or more than one methods of
job analysis may be needed

Six Steps of Job Analysis

5. Verify the job analysis information with
the worker performing the job and with his
or her immediate supervisor. This will help
confirm that the information is factually
correct and complete. This review can also
help gain the employee's acceptance of the
job analysis data and conclusions by giving
that person a chance to review and modify
descriptions of the job activities.

Six Steps of Job Analysis

6. Develop a job description and job
specification. These are two tangible products
of the job analysis process. The job
description is a written statement that
describes the activities and responsibilities of
the job as well as its important features such as
working conditions and safety hazards. The job
specification summarizes the personal
qualities, traits, skills, and background required
for completing a certain job. These two may be
completely separate or in the same document.

Uses of Job Analysis


1. Recruitment and Selection: Job analysis provides

information about what the job entails and what
human characteristics are required in order to
perform these activities. This information, in the
form of job descriptions and specifications, helps
management officials decide what sort of people
they need to recruit and hire and select.
2. Compensation: Job analysis provides the information
to determine the relative worth of each job and its
appropriate class. Job analysis information is crucial
for estimating the value of each job and its
appropriate compensation.

Uses of Job Analysis

3. Performance Appraisal: A performance
appraisal compares each employee's
actual performance with his or her
performance standards. Managers use job
analysis to determine the job's specific
activities and performance standards.
4. Training: The job description should show
the activities and skills, and therefore
training, that the job requires

Uses of Job Analysis

5. Discovering Unassigned Duties: Job Analysis can also
help reveal unassigned duties. For example, a
company's production manager says an employee is
responsible for ten duties, such as production
scheduling and raw material purchasing. Missing,
however, is any reference to managing raw material
inventories. On further study, it is revealed that none
of the other manufacturing employees are responsible
for inventory management, either. From review of
other jobs like these, it is clear that someone should
be managing raw material inventories. Therefore, an
essential unassigned duty has been revealed.

Uses of Job Analysis

6. Compliance: Job analysis plays a large
role in legal compliance. For example,
employers must be able to show that their
selection criteria and job performance are
actually related. Doing this requires
knowing what the job entails, which in turn
requires job analysis.

Competency Modeling is a corporate initiative
designed to align the skills, knowledge, and
abilities of employees with the companys
strategic goals and objectives. The term
competency refers to an ability, skill, or attribute
that is associated with superior job performance.
Competencies are typically defined in terms of
behaviors. Examples include:
Decision Making: Ability and willingness to make
tough decisions in a timely manner. Follows
through on decisions and actions.

Customer Service: Maintains a
consistent focus on meeting or
exceeding the customers
expectations while staying in touch
with changing customer needs.
The value of competency modeling lies
in defining and implementing the
competencies that are critical to the
success of an organization.

Core competencies describe the behaviors
that are key to the success of an
organization. In a sense, core
competencies define the skills and abilities
that all employees must demonstrate in
order to drive business results. Core
competencies are directly aligned with and
support the primary goals and strategies
of the organization.

Technical competencies describe the
behaviors that key to the success of an
individual job or position within the
organization. These are the knowledge and
abilities required to drive results in the
particular Job position, and are often built
upon the foundation of the organizations
core competencies.


Looking for talent? The smartest
employers, who hire the best people,
recruit a pre-qualified candidate pool of
potential employees before they need to
fill a job
You can develop relationships with
potential candidates long before you need
them. you will experience wars for talent
as the baby boomer generation retires.

To better understand the differences
among unique populations of job
seekers, Gallup surveyed a targeted
sample of people looking for jobs and
asked them a series of questions
about what was important to them in
their job search. Some key findings

Highly educated people place high
importance on a company's mission and

Job seekers with advanced or graduatelevel education place higher importance on

the mission and culture of a company than
do those with lower levels of education.
They also view working for an innovative
company as more important than do job
seekers with lower levels of education

Applicants looking for full-time work
place heavy emphasis on long-term
benefits and growth prospects.
Those seeking a full-time job place more
importance on a company's pay and benefits,
growth and advancement opportunities, and
financial outlook than do those seeking parttime work. This might be because part-timejob seekers are looking for a job for very
different reasons than full-time-job seekers.

Different kinds of job seekers require
different kinds of messages.
Not all job seekers are the same, so companies
must try to understand the differences to create a
compelling reason for people to want to work for
them. Companies should tailor recruitment
messages to different types of job seekers. Those
interested in entry-level, individual contributor roles
might be looking for very different things in a
company compared with a job seeker who has
years of experience and who is looking for a
management role.

Identify and prioritize different types of
positions and job seekers.
Often, it's not feasible for a company to study every
role, so executives may want to focus on roles that
have the biggest impact in the company or on
those with the most job openings. An efficient way
to do this is to group job opportunities into larger
categories that make sense to your applicants.
Start by asking: What groupings or categories
might applicants look for when searching for a job?
How can we make their search easier?

Study applicants for -- and employees in -- your
high-priority positions.
Once your company has identified the positions that
are most important and that should have unique
recruitment messaging, gather information from top
performers and top applicants in these roles. Start by
identifying your best employees and managers and
your ideal applicants. Then invite them to participate
in a survey, interview, or focus group, Ask your best
employees questions about why they like their jobs
and what attracted them to your company, share it
with potential candidates

Communicate and integrate
After reviewing all the data from the
employees, companies will see common
themes and patterns from the interviews.
Those themes should be instilled in the
staffing strategy.


A job description that tells potential employees the exact
requirements of the position is useful
Spread word-of-mouth information about the position
availability, or eventual availability, to each employee so
they can constantly look for superior candidates in their
networks of friends and associates. In this age of online
social and professional networking, the chances are, you
and your employees are instantly connected to hundreds,
and even thousands, of potential candidates. Tap into this
potential audience on Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter, to
name just a few.

Use trade show to meet and get to
know potential candidates as well as
customers. Encourage employees to
gather business cards from, and
develop relationships with, high
potential possible employees. And,
don't stop with employees alone; tap
the networks of your social, board,
funder and academic connections, too.

Use extensive telephone networking.
Bring people in for interviews before you
have an available position. You may even
want to consider starting a periodic
company newsletter to keep your master
lists of potential employees, customers
and interested others up-to-date about
company progress and happenings. You
can use online and/or mail distribution to
send these out.

Does your "Join Our Team" section of your
company Web site tell and even, "sell,"
potential employees about the vision,
mission, values and culture of your company?
Do you present a message about how people
are valued? Do you express your
commitment to quality and to your
customers? If not, you are missing out on one
of the most important recruiting tools you
have to appeal to prospective high-potential

Bias and Fairness

How correct our decisions are can be
thought of in terms of two properties:
Fairness - The social justice issues
surrounding the employment of the test
Bias - A statistical artifact in the test
which makes it respond differently to
different groups

Fairness is a social rather than a
psychometric concept. Its definition
depends on what one considers to be
fair. Fairness has no single meaning
and, therefore, no single definition,
whether statistical, psychometric, or
social. The Standards notes four
possible meanings of fairness.

The first meaning views fairness as requiring equal
group outcomes (e.g., equal passing rates for
subgroups of interest). Outcome differences in and of
themselves do not indicate bias.
The second meaning views fairness in terms of the
equitable treatment of all examinees. Equitable
treatment in terms of testing conditions, access to
practice materials, performance feedback, retest
opportunities, and other features of test administration,
including providing reasonable accommodation for test
takers with disabilities when appropriate, are important
aspects of fairness under this perspective.

The third meaning views fairness as requiring
that examinees have a comparable
opportunity to learn the subject matter
covered by the test.
The fourth meaning views fairness as a lack
of predictive bias. For example, a selection
system might exhibit no predictive bias by
race or gender, but still be viewed as unfair if
equitable treatment (e.g., access to practice
materials) was not provided to all examinees.

Bias is an inclination of temperament or
outlook to present or hold a partial
perspective and a refusal to even consider
the possible merits of alternative points of
view. People may be biased toward or against
an individual, a race, a religion, a social class,
or a political party. Biased means one-sided,
lacking a neutral viewpoint, not having an
open mind. Bias can come in many forms and
is often considered to be synonymous with
prejudice or bigotry.

In judgment and decision making (Cognitive
A cognitive bias is the human tendency to make
systematic decisions in certain circumstances
based on cognitive factors rather than evidence.
Bias arises from various processes that are
sometimes difficult to distinguish. These processes
include information-processing shortcuts,
motivational factors, and social influence. They
include errors in judgment, social attribution, and
memory. Cognitive biases are a common outcome
of human thought.

Bias in Test
A bias exists in a test if gives different
results for different populations

Example: Army Alpha

Soldiers almost always
scored lower than


Ensuring Legal Compliance

Ensuring Legal Compliance
One of the functions of human resource
management is perhaps the least glamorous but
arguably of utmost importance. Ensuring legal
compliance with labor and tax law is a vital part
of ensuring the organization's continued
existence. The government impose mandates on
companies regarding the working hours of
employees, tax allowances, required break times
and working hours, minimum wage amounts and
policies on discrimination. Being aware of these
laws and policies and working to keep the
organization completely legal at all times is an
essential role of human resources.

Legal Compliance-S & S

Articles 27 and 28 have provided a guideline
to the legislator to make the discrimination
free environment in every walk of national life.
Article 27 of the Constitution is stated as
----All citizens are equal before Law and are
entitled to equal protection of Law

Types of Discrimination
Equal Pay/Compensation
Genetic Information
National Origin
Sexual Harassment

Discrimination in

Bangladesh Labor Law 2006

Child : In the present law child means a
person who has not yet completed his
fourteen years of age.
Adolescent: Adolescent means a person who
has completed her/his fourteen years but has
not completed her/his eighteen years of age.
Certificate of fitness
Section 37 of the new labor law requires an
adolescent to obtain a fitness certificate to be
employed in any occupation or in a factory.

Legal Compliance-S & S

Article 28 of the Constitution is stated
as follows:
----The State shall not discriminate
against any citizen on the grounds of
religion, race, caste, sex or place of
Therefore, discrimination on the
grounds of any of the above issues is
prohibited in the country.

Legal Compliance-S & S

Labor Law
Section 345 of the new labour law is,
however, noteworthy in this connection.
The section is stated as follows: In
determination of the wages for a worker or
in fixation of the minimum wages equality
irrespective of the sex of the worker, shall
be maintained. No discrimination in this
regard shall be tolerated by law.

Legal Compliance-S & S

Appointment Letter and ID Card
Section 5 of the new Labour Law 2006 provides
that each and every worker should be given
appointment letter and ID card by their employer free
of charge.
Probationary period
Period of probation:
Six months for the worker employed in clerical
Three months for other workers.

Legal Compliance-S & S

Section 100 makes a provision of 8 working
hours a day
Night-shift work of female workers: Section 109
of the labour law, 2006 creates a bar on the
night works of the female workers. The section
states as follows:
No female worker shall be engaged for work in
any establishment without her consent
between 10 pm and 6 am

Legal Compliance-S & S

Maternity leave
In section 46 of the new labour law 2006
provisions have been created for maternity
leave of 16 weeks (8 weeks before and 8 weeks
after the delivery). But the law also makes a
provision that no worker shall be entitled to
receive the benefit unless she has served under
the owner for a minimum period of six months
prior to the notice of the probability of the