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FE Exam Review

Electrical Circuits
LT Aaron Still
P.E. in Electrical Engineering

Exam Strategies
http://www.ncees.org/exams/fundamentals/
Only 4 minutes per problem.
Dont dwell on a problem.
If it looks like it may take > 4 minutes, then there is
probably a trick (e.g. short, open, extra info).

Do the ones you know. Make an educated


guess at the ones you dont know.
Answers are typically in SI unit. Set your
calculator to engineering notation.
Pay attention to units (degrees vs. radians)
On multiple answer problems, look for the
unique set of answers.
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Exam Strategies
Know your calculator. Start using your
exam calculator now.
The following are allowed for the FE exam:
Hewlett Packard HP 33s
Hewlett Packard HP 9s
Casio 115 MS and 115 MS Plus
Texas Instruments TI 30X IIS and TI 30X IIB
Texas Instruments TI 36X

Important Concepts
Voltage (V) electric potential
V = d {Electric field, distance moved between 2
points}

Current (A) flow or movement of charge


I = dQ / dt

Resistance () opposition to flow of charge


R = L / A {in a conductor}
Rseries = R1 + R2 + . + Rn
Rparallel = (1/R1 + 1/R2 + + 1/Rn)-1

Important Concepts
Ohms Law: V = IR
Joules Law: P = IV = I2R = V2/R
Capacitance (F) = ability to store electric
charge
C = A / d
Cseries = (1/C1 + 1/C2 + + 1/Cn)-1
Cparallel = C1 + C2 + . + Cn
ic(t) = C dvc(t) / dt
W = CV2
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Important Concepts
Inductance (H) = ability to store magnetic
energy
L = N2 A /
Lseries = L1 + L2 + . + Ln
Lparallel = (1/L1 + 1/L2 + + 1/Ln)-1
vL(t) = L diL(t) / dt
W = LI2

DC Transients
T = RC
or
T=L/R
v(t) = VF + (VI VF)e-t/T
i(t) = IF + (II IF)e-t/T

Important Concepts
Circuit Analysis: Know 1 or 2 well and use
them
By Inspection (i.e. 2 || 2 = 1)
KVL
KCL
Nodal Analysis (KCL for each node)
Mesh Analysis
Superposition (for multiple sources)
Thevenin Circuits & Max Power to load
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Important Concepts
AC Circuits
v(t) = Vp sin(t+)

= 2f

f = 1/T

Vrms (root mean square) = Vp/2


Z=V/I

V=Vrmsv

I=Irmsi

Zc = 1/(jC)

ZL = jL

P = VrmsIrmscos(v - i)

PF = cos(v - i)

Q = VrmsIrmssin(v - i)
S = P + jQ

S2 = P2 + Q2

v - i

Important Concepts
Three-phase power
Wye-wye system
Iphase = Iline
Vline = (3)Vphase
Delta-delta system
Vphase = Vline

Ineutral = 0

Iline = (3)Iphase

Op-Amps
I- = I + = 0

V+ = V-

Vout = -Vin(Rf/Rin) or Rf(Va/Ra + Vb/Rb +)


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Sample Problem

Answer = A

What to consider
Capacitors in series
are mathematically
like resistors in
parallel
10 pF in series with
10 pF = 5 pF
10 F in series with
10 F = 5F
5 pF in series with
5 F = 5pF
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Sample Problem
What to consider
16 resistor is in parallel
with the 60V source
When shorting the source
for RTH, 16 is also shorted

RTH = 4 | | 12
V16 = 60V

Answer = A

V12 which is in series with


4
VTH = 60V[12 /(12 +4)]
= 45V
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Sample Problem
What to consider
Magnitude of a
phasor is always the
RMS value
Irms = .7071 x Ipeak

The peak for the


current occurs after
the peak of the
voltage I lags V
Answer = A

If Vphase = 0, then Iphase


must be negative
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Sample Problem
What to consider
Does the summingpoint constraint
apply? Yes
I- = I + = 0 A
V- = 0 V

Answer = B

I1k = I10k = 2V/1k Vo


= -(10k)(I1k)

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Sample Problem

Answer = D

What to consider
Magnitude: square root
of the sum of the
squares
(32 + 42)0.5 = 5
Phase angle: inverse
tangent of imaginary
component over real
component
tan-1(4/3) > 45
angle is positive
because imaginary
component is positive
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Sample Problem

Answer = B

What to consider
Magnitudes:
multiple or divide
Angles: add or
subtract
Note: if you
calculate |z1|/|z2|,
you get 1.49 so (b)
is the answer with
no further work
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Sample Problem
What to consider
After t = 5, the
capacitor acts like an
open circuit
the right 10V source
and the 2 resistor are
not factors to Vx
Use Ohms Law for Ix
Use voltage divider for
Vx
Answer = C
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Sample Problem
What to consider
Total power
dissipated is due to
the voltage, current,
and resistance of the
power line only.
The power lines rating
(10kV) and length(5
km) are extra info.
Answer = C

Use Joules Law


P = I2R
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Sample Problem

Answer = A

What to consider
With terminals
shorted, the only
resistance in the
circuit is the
internal resistance
of the battery.
Use Ohms Law
R=V/I
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Sample Problem
What to consider
Recall it takes ~ 5T for
a capacitor to fully
charge.
T = RC = 15 ms
5T = 75 ms

Answer = D

Only 24 ms > T so it must


be the answer
vc(t) = Vf (Vi-Vf)e-t/T

1-e-5 = 0.993
1-e-x = 0.8 x = 1.6T
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Sample Problem

Answer = B

What to consider
Inductances are
mathematic like
resistors in series and
in parallel.
Leq = L1 + L2
IL = 10 A from current
source
Energy stored in an
inductor:
W(Joules) = 0.5(L*I2)
Recall energy stored in
a capacitor:
W(Joules) = 0.5(C*V2)
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Sample Problem

Answer = C

What to consider
Iavg(AC) = 0 so ignore
the AC Source (short
it)
A fully-stored inductor
has current but no
voltage the 5
resistor is shorted out.
Use Ohms Law:
I = V/R = 12V/10

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Sample Problem
What to consider
Find Req
= 2 + 4 ||4
Use Ohms Law:
I = V/Req
Answer = C

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Sample Problem
What to consider
Pavg = I2rmsR

Answer = B

= I2R/2
= (20 A)2 * 50/2
= 10000 W
= 10 kW

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Sample Problem
Answer = B

Answer = B

What to consider
Iline = Vline / (3) Xline
Xline = (3002+4002)
In a balance wyeconnected circuit,
Iline = Iphase
In a balance
three=phase system,
Ineutral 0

Answer = A
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Sample Problem
What to consider
The input current into an
op-amp is so small that
it is negligible 0 A
if = v1/R1 + v2/R2 =
0.875A
Answer = C vo = - if Rf

Answer = A
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