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Electrical Circuits

LT Aaron Still

P.E. in Electrical Engineering

Exam Strategies

http://www.ncees.org/exams/fundamentals/

Only 4 minutes per problem.

Dont dwell on a problem.

If it looks like it may take > 4 minutes, then there is

probably a trick (e.g. short, open, extra info).

guess at the ones you dont know.

Answers are typically in SI unit. Set your

calculator to engineering notation.

Pay attention to units (degrees vs. radians)

On multiple answer problems, look for the

unique set of answers.

2

Exam Strategies

Know your calculator. Start using your

exam calculator now.

The following are allowed for the FE exam:

Hewlett Packard HP 33s

Hewlett Packard HP 9s

Casio 115 MS and 115 MS Plus

Texas Instruments TI 30X IIS and TI 30X IIB

Texas Instruments TI 36X

Important Concepts

Voltage (V) electric potential

V = d {Electric field, distance moved between 2

points}

I = dQ / dt

R = L / A {in a conductor}

Rseries = R1 + R2 + . + Rn

Rparallel = (1/R1 + 1/R2 + + 1/Rn)-1

Important Concepts

Ohms Law: V = IR

Joules Law: P = IV = I2R = V2/R

Capacitance (F) = ability to store electric

charge

C = A / d

Cseries = (1/C1 + 1/C2 + + 1/Cn)-1

Cparallel = C1 + C2 + . + Cn

ic(t) = C dvc(t) / dt

W = CV2

5

Important Concepts

Inductance (H) = ability to store magnetic

energy

L = N2 A /

Lseries = L1 + L2 + . + Ln

Lparallel = (1/L1 + 1/L2 + + 1/Ln)-1

vL(t) = L diL(t) / dt

W = LI2

DC Transients

T = RC

or

T=L/R

v(t) = VF + (VI VF)e-t/T

i(t) = IF + (II IF)e-t/T

Important Concepts

Circuit Analysis: Know 1 or 2 well and use

them

By Inspection (i.e. 2 || 2 = 1)

KVL

KCL

Nodal Analysis (KCL for each node)

Mesh Analysis

Superposition (for multiple sources)

Thevenin Circuits & Max Power to load

7

Important Concepts

AC Circuits

v(t) = Vp sin(t+)

= 2f

f = 1/T

Z=V/I

V=Vrmsv

I=Irmsi

Zc = 1/(jC)

ZL = jL

P = VrmsIrmscos(v - i)

PF = cos(v - i)

Q = VrmsIrmssin(v - i)

S = P + jQ

S2 = P2 + Q2

v - i

Important Concepts

Three-phase power

Wye-wye system

Iphase = Iline

Vline = (3)Vphase

Delta-delta system

Vphase = Vline

Ineutral = 0

Iline = (3)Iphase

Op-Amps

I- = I + = 0

V+ = V-

9

Sample Problem

Answer = A

What to consider

Capacitors in series

are mathematically

like resistors in

parallel

10 pF in series with

10 pF = 5 pF

10 F in series with

10 F = 5F

5 pF in series with

5 F = 5pF

10

Sample Problem

What to consider

16 resistor is in parallel

with the 60V source

When shorting the source

for RTH, 16 is also shorted

RTH = 4 | | 12

V16 = 60V

Answer = A

4

VTH = 60V[12 /(12 +4)]

= 45V

11

Sample Problem

What to consider

Magnitude of a

phasor is always the

RMS value

Irms = .7071 x Ipeak

current occurs after

the peak of the

voltage I lags V

Answer = A

must be negative

12

Sample Problem

What to consider

Does the summingpoint constraint

apply? Yes

I- = I + = 0 A

V- = 0 V

Answer = B

= -(10k)(I1k)

13

Sample Problem

Answer = D

What to consider

Magnitude: square root

of the sum of the

squares

(32 + 42)0.5 = 5

Phase angle: inverse

tangent of imaginary

component over real

component

tan-1(4/3) > 45

angle is positive

because imaginary

component is positive

14

Sample Problem

Answer = B

What to consider

Magnitudes:

multiple or divide

Angles: add or

subtract

Note: if you

calculate |z1|/|z2|,

you get 1.49 so (b)

is the answer with

no further work

15

Sample Problem

What to consider

After t = 5, the

capacitor acts like an

open circuit

the right 10V source

and the 2 resistor are

not factors to Vx

Use Ohms Law for Ix

Use voltage divider for

Vx

Answer = C

16

Sample Problem

What to consider

Total power

dissipated is due to

the voltage, current,

and resistance of the

power line only.

The power lines rating

(10kV) and length(5

km) are extra info.

Answer = C

P = I2R

17

Sample Problem

Answer = A

What to consider

With terminals

shorted, the only

resistance in the

circuit is the

internal resistance

of the battery.

Use Ohms Law

R=V/I

18

Sample Problem

What to consider

Recall it takes ~ 5T for

a capacitor to fully

charge.

T = RC = 15 ms

5T = 75 ms

Answer = D

be the answer

vc(t) = Vf (Vi-Vf)e-t/T

1-e-5 = 0.993

1-e-x = 0.8 x = 1.6T

19

Sample Problem

Answer = B

What to consider

Inductances are

mathematic like

resistors in series and

in parallel.

Leq = L1 + L2

IL = 10 A from current

source

Energy stored in an

inductor:

W(Joules) = 0.5(L*I2)

Recall energy stored in

a capacitor:

W(Joules) = 0.5(C*V2)

20

Sample Problem

Answer = C

What to consider

Iavg(AC) = 0 so ignore

the AC Source (short

it)

A fully-stored inductor

has current but no

voltage the 5

resistor is shorted out.

Use Ohms Law:

I = V/R = 12V/10

21

Sample Problem

What to consider

Find Req

= 2 + 4 ||4

Use Ohms Law:

I = V/Req

Answer = C

22

Sample Problem

What to consider

Pavg = I2rmsR

Answer = B

= I2R/2

= (20 A)2 * 50/2

= 10000 W

= 10 kW

23

Sample Problem

Answer = B

Answer = B

What to consider

Iline = Vline / (3) Xline

Xline = (3002+4002)

In a balance wyeconnected circuit,

Iline = Iphase

In a balance

three=phase system,

Ineutral 0

Answer = A

24

Sample Problem

What to consider

The input current into an

op-amp is so small that

it is negligible 0 A

if = v1/R1 + v2/R2 =

0.875A

Answer = C vo = - if Rf

Answer = A

25

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