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Best Practices in Maintenance Management for

Process Industries

Session Topic
Right Use of Lubricants
Hasmukh Gohel
Consultant

Speaker
:
Designation :
Organization :

27 May 2014

Speaker Name

Introduction
What is blood to human body, lubricant is to machine.
Lubrication is probably not given required attention at plant
level.
We deploy best skills for maintenance, but put unskilled
person on
Lubrication job.
It is not the costliest lubricant bur the right lubricant will
meet the requirement.
Every rupee spent on lubricant improvement will return 10
times.
Lubrication improvement is express way to reliability.
OEMs recommendations are not always correct.
OEM recommendation changes with development in lube
field.
Best recommendation are available in bearing catalogues.
Now a days we use mineral/RO water, what about m/c.
A doctor relies on pathological test of blood. Do we use oil
27 May
2014
analysis?

Session Content

Lubrication case studies


Storage practice
Correct grease selection
Correct greasing procedure
Accessories to improve m/c performance

27 May 2014

Speaker Name

Lube Oil are generally selected based on


OEMs recommendations. When the OEM is
Indian,
selection
is
easy,
as
their
recommendations are Indian make lubes.
When the OEM is foreign based we have to
refer lube equivalent charts. Some times
lube recommended by such OEM is not
available locally and we have to make
compromises. When repeated failure of
equipment is faced the failed components
are studied. And if the root cause of the
failure is attributed to lubricant. Upgrading
the lubricant is required. Generally this is
done in consultation with OEM. Due to
development in the field of lubricants New
opportunities are available. Our basic
requirement is to enhance the reliability, so
better lubricants are used.

Common mistakes
Lube oils / grease used interchangeably.
Servosystem, Servoprime, Servomesh are used
interchangeably. Servogem 2 & 3 are used
interchangeably. Using Servogem 2/3 in place of HT
or EP
Mixing of lubes: Single can, oil pump, grease
guns used for dispensing of different type of lubes.
Contamination
of
lubes:
Lube
getting
contaminated due to atmospheric dust, water,
chemicals, rust etc.
Wrong
recommendation:
Wrong
recommendation by OEM, while finding equivalent
local make.
Not replacing lubes in time: Replacement
frequency not in line with OEM, or based on the

Fibre Plant : Drum Dryers


Two nos drum dryers, each having 18 drums, each drum fitted
with 22317K- 3nos bearings. Operating temperature 100 o C
Original grease recommended by OEM, Molykot DC 44.Some
grease was procured during project stage. Indian make
Polymol 44 was selected for import substitution. This grease
was turning into rubber like substance in the bearing, and no
of failures were noticed, resulting into plant s/d. Later on IOC
make Servogem HT grease was used for this application. This
grease was also not suitable. It was becoming charcoal like
substance in the bearings.
Failed bearings were studied for failure pattern and it was
observed that the failure of the bearings was due to
lubrication failure.
Now by this time M/s Dow Corning had set up manufacturing
facility in India Molykot 44 grease was procured and used in
the drum dryer bearings.This is probably worst case of
lubrication failure. It had costed company huge amount, at the
same time unsafe working of mech technicians. Damage to
allied parts.

Spinning Gear Pump driving


Unit
This is a open gear drive. Daily in the
morning, lube oil was sprayed on the gears.
Lube oil used Servosystem 150. as per
OEM recommendations.
High wear of the gears was observed. Gears
and pinions were developed locally and were
replaced.
This was a case of intermittent lubrication,
calling for using lubricant having stickiness
property. Since speed was also low, IOC
make Servoline 320 lube oil was procured
and used. Drive become silent and wear
reduced considerably.

Washing Machine, Lower Bevel Gear


Box
In AA plant two nos washing m/c are
installed for removing nitric acid from spun
tow. 32 nos lower bevel gearboxes are
installed in each m/c. Speed of the bevel
gear pair is about 10 to 15 RPM. Quite low.
OEM had suggested to use ISO VG 150 lube
oil for this application. Body of this GB was
changed from CI to SS, due to severe
corrosion due to nitric acid spillage on these
GB. Ingress of nitric acid was seen in the
lube oil through sight glasses. Same was
arrested. Subsequently lube oil was changed
to IOC make Servosystem 320 the thickest
available with plant.

Cyclo Drives
Originally M/s Sumitomo had recommended
ISO VG 220 for cyclo drive accordingly IOC
make Servosystem 220 or HPCL make Enklo
220 was used. Some failure of eccentric
bearings were faced.
M/s Sumitomo in their latest literature have
recommended Servomesh SP 150 for indoor
applications and Servomesh SP 220 for
outdoor applications. Since this lube oil has
EP additive eccentric bearing performance
should improve.

AKAY pumps
M/s AKAY had originally recommend
SAE 40 lube oil in their maintenance
manuals.
Accordingly
IOC
make
Servosystem 150 or HPCL make ENKLO
150 lube oil was selected and being
used by all plants. Now M/s AKAY in
their recent manuals recommend
SAE20 lube oil. Its nearest equivalent
lube oil is Servosystem 68 lube oil.
Thicker oil when used, results in higher
operating temperature of bearing

BPCL Pumps
During lube application survey of all
plants this was noticed. Normally lube
oil having maximum 150 Cst is used
for centrifugal pumps. OEMs manual
was studied and it was observed that
OEM has recommended ISO VG 68 for
this application. Accordingly IOC make
Servosystem 68 is now being used for
these pumps.

Lube oil pumps Turbine driven.


IOC make Servosystem 68 lube was
being used for this application.
Normally for turbines, turbine oils are
used. For making turbine oils base oil
is imported and it is group-II. Better
quality base oil, less oxidation, less
sludge formation etc. Turbine oil has
the additive which gives it water
shading property. Water accumulated
due to steam ingress can be drained
easily. Now HP make Turbinol 68 is

Hydrogen Compressors
During survey of lube oil used for all
the equipments, it was noticed that
IOC make Servosystem 220 was being
used for this application. OEM manual
recommended to use ISO VG 220 with
EP additive.
Accordingly ISO make Servomesh SP
220 lube oil was recommended.

Recycle Gas Compressor


HP make Turbinol 68 is used in the oil
sump. During 2008 shutdown entire
sump was emptied and fresh oil was
charged. But due to water ingress
1000 PPM water was observed in the
oil. Entire turbine oil was replaced with
fresh oil. Permissible limit of moisture
in oil is 100 PPM

Fluid Couplings A205


BB plant had fluid couplings of two
different makes. M/s Voith, Germany
and M/s Pemebril. M/s Voith had
recommended ISOVG 32 lube oil, while
M/s Pembril had recommended ISO VG
46.Plant was using Servosystem 32 for
Pembril make fluid couplings also. Now
IOC
make
Servosystem
46
is
recommended for this application.

Centrifuge Planetary Gear


Box
Plant was using Enklo 220 lube oil for
this application. Once Enklo 220 lube
oil was not available with stores. Plant
wanted to know the equivalent lube
oil. Its equivalent lube oil is IOC make
Servosystem 220. But when OEMs
manual was studied. Shell Omla. 220 &
Esso Spartan 220 were recommended.
Its equivalent nos are IOC Servomesh
SP 220 & HPCL Parathan EP 220

Extruder Gear Box Motor


Extruder is a single line critical
equipment. Extruder gearbox is driven
by HT motor having no ware house
spare. IOC make Servogem3 grease is
used for lubrication of this motor.
Based on recommendation of one
vendor, Selco grease was tried for this
motor. It resulted in temperature shoot
up of the bearings. Servogem 3 grease
was reverted and problem resolved.

Nikkiso Metering Pumps


In Nikkiso metering pumps Servomesh
SP 150 is to be used for power end
lubrication and Spin 12 is to be used
for liquid end. Plant was using
Servomesh SP 150 for liquid end also.
Now for liquid end IOC make spin 12 is
used.

Crane Section: American


Sky horse
During review of Lube practice of
plants it was observed that Enklo 150
lube oil was used for gearbox
application for this crane. Normally for
cranes
automobile
lubes
are
recommended.
OEM
has
recommended SAE 140. We dont have
this lube, so HP90 lube oil was
recommended.

Esterificators
In CC plant Esterificators were operated
in batches. Steaming followed by
vacuum was created. This vacuum was
breaking through the gland packings of
the agitators. When the vacuum was
getting break, Servogem2 grease was
used. The operating temperature was
quite high. Initially Servogem HT grease
was used, results were encouraging.
Finally Molykot 44 grease was used for
this application.

Solid waste Incinerator


Worm Gear Box
Solid
waste
incinerator
was
commissioned in 1997. Within 6
months the worm wheel of the worm
reduction gearbox used for rotation of
the kiln failed. Oil when checked with
fingers appeared to be light. Sample
was tested in laboratory and it was ISO
VG 100. It was confirmed by the
technician that he has used light
hydraulic oil. HP make Parathan EP 320
lube oil was arranged and the gearbox

Vibrating Screen 501


Frequent failure of bearings of this
equipment is chronic problem for DD plant.
Plant was using Servogem HT grease and
spherical roller bearing with metal cage for
this application. OEM literature was not very
clear on this. One file from M/s NTN was
downloaded from internet and they have
recommended spherical bearing for vibrator
application, asymmetrical rollers and with
brass cage, and grease with EP additive.

Agitator A340
M/s New Allanbarry make spiral gearbox is
installed for this agitator. OEM has
recommended Servo Cyclo C460 lube oil for
this gear box. This is thick lubricant. Special
grade so not easily available from IOC. This
oil gets thicker like tar in the gearbox
difficult to drain during short s/d. In
consultation with OEM as well as based on
recommendations for similar gearbox made
by other OEM like M/s Radicon & M/s Elecon,
the lube oil is changed to Servomesh SP
320.

Spiral
Elevator
Four nos spherical roller bearings
suitable
for
vibrating
screen
applications are installed. Initially
SS150 lube oil was used since this was
a rotating load application, the lube oil
was not suitable. Castrol make Tribol
lube oil was also tried. Ultimately the
bearings were changed to grease
lubrication. Now Mobil make Mobilth
SHC 220 grease having synthetic oil is
used satisfactorily.

Baler
For Baler Servoprime 46 is being used.
Servoprime 46 is a turbine oil. For
hydraulic systems Servosystem 46 or
Servosystem HLP 46 is to be used. It
has anti-wear additives. Plant has
agreed to change the lube oil during
major plant s/d.

AKAY pumps
For both the plants, Servosystem 46
lube oil is used for majority of
imported & KSB pumps as per OEMs
recommendations.
Plant
had
standardized on Servosystem 46 for all
CF pumps including AKAY pumps. For
AKAY pumps Servosystem 68 is
recommended by OEM.

Poly Reactor Agitator Gear


Box
There are three poly reactor agitators
installed in EE plant. IOC make
Servosystem 320 lube oil is being used
for this gear boxes. When reviewed. It
was
observed
that
OEM
had
recommended Shell make Turbo 220
lube oil for this application. Turbo
stands for turbine oil. Since we dont
have turbine oil with ISO VG 220
viscosity. It was decided to use
Servosystem 220 or Enklo 220 for this
application.

FF plant: Pumps
FF
mech
has
standardized
on
Servomesh SP 320 for all its lube
application. Servomesh SP 320 is
mainly used for gearbox applications.
But for all pumps also EQ is using
Servomesh SP 320 lube oil.
Generally
for
centrifugal
pumps
Servosystem 68 or 100 lube oil is used.

Geared Motor for Aerator


18 nos installed.
5 to 6 always out.
Gearbox oil going in to
motor

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Gas Turbine: Load Gear


Box
IOC make Servoprime 32 lube oil was
used for this application. Wear of load
gears is observed over a period of
time.
M/s IOC has now developed new
product, Servoprime 32T. It has
additive which reduces wear of the
gears.
Plant has switched over to Servoprime
32T

Reformer Compressor
Reformer compressor is GHH make
Screw Compressor. It has one helical
gear pair to maintain timing of both
the screws. Oil spray is provided on
the gear pair for lubrication of this
gear pair. Once the filter in the lube oil
line was partially chocked. This
resulted in to inadequate supply of
lube oil to the gear pair. This damaged
the gear pair and resulting in to plant

Hydraulic Oils for Power


packs
For our old balers IOC make Servosystem 46,
68, 100 lube oil is used as per the oil
available at that time.
Now Oil companies have improved the lube
oil for hydraulic systems. It has better
additives for wear and oxidation. It is known
as Servosystem HLP 46, 68 & 100. Its anti
oxidation property is also better. New baler
procured for PBR1 has Servosystem HLP 46
lube oil.

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Spherical Roller Greasing


Spherical roller bearings with a lubrication
groove and three lubrication holes in the
outer ring should be oriented correctly when
mounting inside the machine. This is to
ensure that there is adequate amount of
lubricant in the outer ring raceway of the
bearing. Make sure the lubrication hole is
not located at the six o'clock position
otherwise the lubricant will drain out from
the bearing and reduce the level of lubricant
inside the bearing. This tip is very important
for bearing lubrication with grease, oil spray
or oil drop lubrication.

Relubrication Volume

One of the more important and frequently botched components of


the greasing strategy is relubrication volume. When asked how
individuals determine the amount of grease to apply to a particular
component, a common response is however much it takes. This
is obviously not a precise method. There are many acceptable
methods for estimating the appropriate relubrication volume. A
common method is recommended by SKF, where grease
replenishment volume is defined by the following equation:
Gp = 0.005 * D * B
where
Gp = grease replenishment amount (gm)
D = bearing outside diameter (mm)
B = total bearing width (mm)

Greasing Procedure
Use grease gun with correct grease
Remove grease plug.
If equipment is stopped remove hardened
grease from the plug. Wipe around grease
nipple. Pump out and discard one stroke of
grease. Put the nozzle on the grease fitting
and slowly inject proper amount of grease
strokes. Stop if clean grease comes out. With
equipment running allow grease to purge
out of open plug for 15 minutes. Replace
plug. Wipe out plug and grease fitting.
Report any abnormal noise.

Grease Compatibility
Grease
with
different
soaps
may
be
incompatible.
-Chemical interaction between thickeners
/additives
-Mixtures breakdown (usually softens) in
service.
-More severe at high temperature and shear
rates
When changing grease
-Purge the old grease to the degree possible
-Decrease re-lubrication interval to complete
purge

Subject:- Lube oil leakage from CF pumps


Leaka
ge
from

Leak
age
Path

Probable reason

Remedial actions

While
chargi
ng

Spill
age

Oversized dispensing can

Use funnel or can with


suitable nozzle

Drain
plug

Threa
ds

Damaged threads
Not fully tightened
PTFE tape not used
Make shift arrangement

Use magnetic drain plug


of correct size with PTFE tape

Oil
cup

Threa
ds

Damaged threads
Not fully tightened
PTFE tape not used

Use PTFE tape, and replace oil cup having damaged threads

Oil
cup

Body

Oil level more in brg housing during initial oil top up

Lube oil top up, by seeing level in the elbow of the cup

Oil
cup

From
dome

Damage to the dome


Manufacturing defect

Replace it

BRG
covers

Gask
ets

Damaged gaskets

Use new gaskets with RTV compound

Oil
seals

ID

Damaged oil seal


Incorrect oil seal size (This happens when MM size
oil seal is used in place of inch size. Vent plug hole
chocked

Use Parker, Vako or Pioneer make oil seals


Clean vent plug.

Oil
Seals

ID

Shaft step worn out

Use new or reconditioned shaft by hard chrome plating or use


Speedi sleeve supplied by SKF or JM Clipper make

Oil
Seals

OD

Incorrect oil seal size

Use correct size. Pl check MM or inch

Vent
plug

Vent
plug

Bearing housing remaining hot due to incorrect lube


oil, inadequate cooling water flow in the brg hosing

Use correct lube oil and ensure cooling water flow, clean water
passages

LUBE OIL QUALITY


USE OF HIGH PERFORMANCE
LUBE OILS
USE OF CORRECT RECOMMENDED
OILS

PROPER/CORRECT MAINTENANCE
PRACTICE
ARREST LEAKAGES(ONE DROP PER
MINUTE COSTS 500 LTS PER ANNUM)
MAINTAIN PROPER SEALING
KEEP FILTERS CLEAN
CHECK AND MAINTAIN OIL LEVEL
AVOID ALL LOSS SYSTEM OF
LUBRICATION
AVOID OVER AND UNDER
LUBRICATION

GOOD STORAGE AND HANDLING


PRACTICE
GUARANTEES PRODUCT QUALITY
ELIMINATES CONTAMINATION
ELIMINATES INCORRECT USAGE
OF PRODUCT
DAMAGE TO MACHINERY IF USED
INCORRECT/DETERIORATED
LUBRICANTS
REDUCES LOSSES, WASTAGE
AND HIGHER MAINTENANCE
COSTS
AVOID LOSS OF PRODUCTION

STORAGE PRACTICE
PREFERABLE IN DOORS(AWAY FROM ANY
POSSIBLE CONTAMINATION)
DRUMS STORED ON THEIR SIDES WITH
BUNGS IN TIGHT POSITION
OIL DRUMS ARE ALWAYS STORED IN
HORIZONTAL POSITION WITH BUNGS IN 3
AND 9 O CLOCK POSITION
GREASE DRUMS ARE ALWAYS STORED IN UPRIGHT POSITION
USE WOODEN BATTENS FOR MULTISTORAGE
AVOID DROPPING OF DRUMS

HANDLING AND DISPENSING


PRACTICE
FIRST IN FIRST OUT SYSTEM
ISSUE DRUMS TO SECTIONS IN CASE OF
LARGE CONSUMPTION
USE BARREL PUMPS OR BRASS TAPS FOR
ISSUES
USE TRAYS TO COLLECT SPILLAGE
USE METALLIC PADDLES FOR GREASE
DISPENSING
NEVER USE GALVANISED CONTAINERS FOR
TRANSFER OF PRODUCT

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Lub oil facility-MGCC

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Sample calculations for common pump bearings


OD ID

Mean
Dia
Dm

Dm*
RPM
1450

Suggested
Lube oil

Dm*
RPM
2900

Suggested
Lube oil

6306

72

30

51

73950

VG 100

147900

VG 68

6307

80

35

58

84100

VG 100 *

168200

VG 68 *

6309

100 45

73

10585
0

VG 100 *

211700

VG 68 *

Bearing
No

xt higher VG lube oil is selected for simplicity, and as recommended by M

KSB

AKAY & Goulds

Flowserve

Kirloskar

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As an overall checklist to help guide users,


the
following factors are among the
most
significant in selecting the lubricant for
bearing:
machine type
bearing type and size
operating temperature
operational load conditions
speed range
cooling conditions
sealing efficiency
external environment

Lubrication Failure Mapping Worksheet :


Area of Investigation

Lubricant / Lubrication System Examples (Not Exhaustive)

Equipment / Material
problem
Defective or failed part

Filter, seal, pump, slinger ring, spray, nozzle, vacuum


dehydrator etc.

Defective or failed material

Lubricant, filter media etc.

Defective weld, braze of soldered joint

Piping hoses, valves, filter housing etc.

Manufacturer shipping error

Improper lubricant labeling, lubricant cross-contamination etc.

Electrical or instrument noise

Pressure gauge, flow meter, online oil analysis instrument etc.

contamination

Particles, moisture, air, heat, glycol, fuel, process chemicals,


radiation etc.

Procedure Problems :
Defective or inadequate procedure

Relubrication, oil change, filter change, inspection, sampling,


oil analysis etc.

Lack of procedure

Relubrication, oil change, filter change, inspection, sampling,


oil analysis etc.

Personnel Problems

Inadequate work environment

Poorly equipped lubrication room

Inattention to detail

Affects all lubrication tasks and activities

Violation of requirement or procedure

Affects all lubrication procedures and requirement

Verbal communication problem

Affects all aspects of lubrication, particularly interface with


other organizational groups

Other human error

Design Problems

Inadequate man-matching interface

Cant access grease zerks, no place to draw representative


sample, lube maintenance and/or sampling requires ___ etc.

Inadequate or defective design

Lubricant delivery system, filtration system, coolers etc.

Equipment material selection error

Wrong lubricant specified, incompatible materials etc.

Drawing specification or date errors

Lube flow system, filtration system etc.

Training Deficiency Problems :


No training provided

Machinery lubrication, contamination control, oil analysis

Insufficient practice of hands-on


experience

Machinery lubrication, contamination control, oil analysis

Inadequate content

Machinery lubrication, contamination control, oil analysis

Insufficient refresher training

Machinery lubrication, contamination control, oil analysis

Inadequate presentation of materials

Machinery lubrication, contamination control, oil analysis

Management Problems

Inadequate administrative control

No lubrication program metrics, such as overall lubrication


effectiveness (OLE), consumption ratio etc.

Work organization planning deficiency

Planning and scheduling system not capable of supporting


proper lubrication and oil analysis.

Inadequate supervision

Lack of basic awareness training renders management


incapable of supervision.

Improper resource allocation

Insufficient lube tech staffing, training, tools, supplies etc.


and/or lube techs called away to perform other duties.

Policy not adequately defined,


disseminated or enforced

Failure to make proper lubrication a priority.

Other
External Phenomena :
Weather of Ambient Condition
Power Failure or Transient
External Fire or Explosion
Theft, Tempering, Sabotage,
Vandalism

Failure to select lubricant or lubrication system that can deal


with the adverse conditions.

Why Oil goes bad


There are three primary causes that
necessitate an oil change: degradation of
the base oil, depletion of additives and
contamination. Some of these conditions can
be remediated, yet others cannot.
The most common type of base oil failure is
likely oxidation. When oil oxidizes, the
primary by-products are acid and insoluble
materials, which can lead to serious surface
deposits and corrosive wear. To address this
problem, most lubricants are formulated
with antioxidants, but they don't last forever.

Like many lubricant additives, oxidation


inhibitors are used up as they perform their
intended function. Once these additives are
consumed, the base oil begins to oxidize
Contaminants also cause significant changes
to the rate of oxidation, acting as catalysts
for the reaction or, in the case of air,
providing one of the reagents.
Additive Depletion: Although many additives
such as antioxidants enhance the properties
of the base oil, other additives perform
functions the base oil cannot. Anti-wear,
extreme
pressure,
detergents
and
dispersants are examples of such additives.
Even if a lubricant's base oil is in good
condition, the lubricant can no longer
perform all of its duties when certain
additives are depleted and, therefore, must

Contamination: Many types of contaminants


contribute to the degradation of lubricating oils, but
that's not the worst of it. Of course, we all know
that contaminants such as particles are responsible
for the majority of mechanical wear in many
machine components. Because of this, we often
change oil before it fails, simply to remove the
contamination.
For systems with no means of contamination
removal, such as mechanical filters, this is the only
way to control contaminants and ensure proper
lubricating conditions. However, changing oil to
remove contamination will be only partially
effective, at best. When the oil is changed in most
machines, a significant portion of the old
contaminated oil is left behind.
Just remember to keep the oil clean, cool and
dry

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Hydrolert
TRICO

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LSC Colfax

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83

Descase, Parker, Stauff, Donaldson

Bearing Isolator
Parker, SKF, Inpro, Garlok

Speedi Sleeve
Parker, SKF
INA Bushing

Hydraulic Oil

Hydraulic Oil

Premium (Radicon)Recommendation for Lube oil for worm gearbox

Thank You

27 May 2014

Speaker Name

91