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Comunicacin Especializada

en Ingls
UNIDAD 1: Expresin de opniones, requisitos y procesos.
R.A. 1.1: Argumenta propuestas, opiniones y acuerdos
mediante el anlisis de informacin especfica.
TEMA: 1.1.1: Expresin de acuerdos.
DOCENTE: Luis Enrique Romero Jordn

Giving Advice
Should
Should have
Ought to
Ought to have

Giving Advice
CONTENTS
Presentation
Examples
Pronunciation tips
Past tense forms
Practice
Review
Free practice
Further practice

Should is a modal auxiliary that


we use very frequently in English:

To give advice or a
recommendation:

To give our opinion about


something.

To say what we think is a


good idea or the right thing
to, do in our opinion.

Should is not as strong as:


had better
must
have to

Consider these examples . . .


You should stop smoking.
(I suggest that you stop smoking)

You must stop smoking.

(It is necessary that you stop)

The negative of should is


SHOULD NOT
The contraction (short) form is often
used with the negative, especially in
spoken English:

The mother told her child:


You shouldnt eat too much candy,
or youll get sick.

Ought to

is another way to say


should; however should is more
common.

Be careful!
Should and ought to are both
auxiliaries. Remember this
important rule.

After an auxiliary verb use


the simple form of verbs.

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CONTENTS

Examples
You should study before an important
exam.
You ought to exercise more often.
Mark shouldnt go out to play with his
friends.
Important note:
we dont usually use ought to
in the negative; shouldnt is preferred.
Back to
CONTENTS

Pronunciation tips
When Americans use OUGHT TO, it
often sounds like OTTA.
Practice saying these sentences:
1. You ought to study for the test tonight.
2. The government ought to raise the
minimum wage.
3. We ought to get together for lunch.
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CONTENTS

Practice makes perfect!


Make sentences with SHOULD and OUGHT TO
What would you say in the following situations:

Use should:
Your sister needs to get into shape.
Your classmate doesnt understand the
grammar.

Use ought to:


Your friend wants to take a computer class.
Your mother doesnt feel well.

Past tense forms:


should + ought to
Some auxiliaries have a past tense
form. For instance:
The past tense of CAN = COULD
The past tense of WILL = WOULD
BUT, SHOULD and OUGHT TO dont
have a simple past tense construction
like CAN or WILL .

To use SHOULD and OUGHT TO in


the past, we do the following:
Should
or

Ought to

+ HAV +
E

Past
participle of
main verb

Examples:
1. The

party was great!

You should have come.

2. I feel sick. I shouldnt have eaten so much.


3. I didnt pass the test. I ought to have studied
more.

Contractions with SHOULD are


common, especially in spoken in
English:

We missed a lot of grammar practice this


morning. We SHOULDVE come to class
earlier.
I SHOULDNT HAVE spent so much
time at the caf with my friends. Now,
Im late for work.

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CONTENTS

Now its your turn to practice using


SHOULD and OUGHT TO in the past:

Your friend has a terrible headache.


You ask him if he took any aspirin, and he tells you
no.
What do you say to him?
You SHOULD/OUGHT TO take an aspirin.

Your friend had a job interview yesterday,


but she was late because she got lost.
She didnt look up the companys address
before the interview.

You SHOULD/OUGHT TO HAVE looked up the


address.

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CONTENTS

Review:
1. SHOULD and OUGHT TO are both used to give
advice, suggestions, recommendations, or a
persons opinion.
2. They are NOT as strong as had better, must, or
have to.
3. SHOULD is more common than ought to.
4. To make the negative form, SHOULD is preferred.
5. When ought to is used, its typically pronounced
OTTA.

6. SHOULD and OUGHT TO are modal


auxiliaries. They are followed by the
simple form of the main verb .
7. When we use SHOULD and OUGHT TO in
the past, they are followed by HAVE +
the past participle of the main verb.
8. Contractions (short forms) are frequently
used for SHOULD.
Examples:

SHOULDNT= SHOULD NOT

SHOULDVE= SHOULD HAVE

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CONTENTS

Free practice:
Now use SHOULD and OUGHT TO
in present or past forms,
either in affirmative or negative form.

Im not good at sports.

I got bad grades this


semester.

Im always late for school.

Im a bit overweight.

I dont have many friends.

My car broke down.

I had an argument with my


girlfriend.

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CONTENTS

If you have difficulties understanding


this grammar, YOU SHOULDNT KEEP
QUIET.
You should ask a classmate or your
teacher for help or for more
explanation.
You should also keep practicing!
GOOD LUCK!

FURTHER PRACTICE
For more practice on line check out
the following web pages on line.
http://www.learn-english-today.com/lessons/lesson_contents
/exercises/should-ought-need_quiz1.htm
http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/330/grammar/330-m
odals-advice1.htm
http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/330/grammar/330-m
odals-advice2.htm
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