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Research?

Research
When some one talks about
research it comes in mind as:

Laboratory
Aprons
Chemicals etc
It is not all that but it is more than
that

Types of Problem/s Questions/ ..

Solvable Problem

Unsolvable Problem

Ordinary Researchable
Problem/Q
Problem

Non Factual
Problem

Which one from the following is a researchable Question?


Candidates applied for admission in IoBM during the
current year?
Girls appeared for admission test in BBA program in
IoBM during the current year?
Candidates applied from diff provinces in admission?
Cause of unrest among the students of Karachi
university?
Causes of unrest among the students of Public
Sector Universities?
Avoiding/control over natural calamities?

Scientific [Methods of Research]

In research, scientific Method refers to:


- Recognized Method of producing
knowledge

Characteristics of Recognized Scientific Methods.

1. Empirical
2. Verifiable
3. Cumulative
4. Deterministic
5. Neutrality
6. Statistical
Generalization

1. Empirical
Information based on:
. Sound and reliable observations,
. sound and reliable experiments and
. Sound and reliable surveys.
Some realities can be determined by observation, e.g
violation of traffic rules.
Some realities can be determined by experiments: e.g
fixing and no fixing price tag on products.

2. Verifiable
Information made are to be verifiable
again to confirm/prove or reject the
previous findings.
Employees of IoBM are motivated.
Such confirmation can be made by
same or other researchers.

3. Cumulative

Link between present and previous study


if any.

Make sure that Study is not repetitive


(lit Rev).

4. Neutrality
In research, findings should not be
influenced by personal affiliations if
any.
[Human beings are not neutral. They are affiliated with some
Culture, Religion, and Politics Ideologies].

5. Deterministic

For scientists nothing just happens. It happens for a


reason.
Every act is caused by something/reason
Example: BS result of XYX university, where 90
students fail. What could be the determinants of such
mass failure?
Students Attitude
Teachers Attitude
Admin
Curriculum
Infrastructure
General Atmosphere etc

6. Statistical Generalization

Research is:
Systematic and Objective
process
of
generating
information
for
making
decisions.
[William G. Zikmund
]

Research is a hard nut to crack.

It is not some thing mysterious/puzzling


piece of cake either.

and even not a

It is not entirely an academic; rather it is an Art as well.

Major points of the definition:


Research consists of:
- Objective,
- Systematic and
- Scientific process
- to Identity the problem or
- to solve PROBLEM
- which helps in decision making.

Research

Problem Identification Research


(when we do not know about any issue)

Problem Solving Research


(when we need to find the solution
of known issue)

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The Role of Business Research


Uncontrollable
Controllable
Variables

Product

Pricing
Promotion
Distribution
etc

Business
Research

Factors
Economy

Technology
Laws & Regulations
Social & Culture
Political Factors

Business Research
Research information is neither intuitive nor
haphazardly gathered.
Literally, research (re-search) -search
again
Business research must be objective
Detached and impersonal rather than biased
It facilitates the managerial decision process
for all aspects of a business.

1.4.

Why is it important for managers


to know about research?

Solve problems
Decision making tool
Competition
Risk
Investment
Hire researchers and consultants
more effectively

A professor of sociology, while assigning


research topics to his students at a
university in India, proposed one group
to conduct its study exploring the future
of 60 students who were studying at a
suburban school. These children
belonged to struggling segments of
society and that school was being run
under problems. The students concluded
their research with their findings that
these kids have no future and they will
not be able to bring any change in their
lives or their families.

Twenty years later another professor at


the same university while finalizing
topics for the students research projects
had a look at the previous reports in the
library, he came across this report on
the school and asked his students to
conduct a follow up study to see if the
results drawn by the first report were
valid. The students carried out the
research and managed to locate 56 of
those students to learn they were all
well placed and managed to bring a
change in their lives and were leading a

Business Research Types


Basic research
Applied research

Types of Business research.


1. Applied research
Is to solve a current problem faced by the
manager in the work setting,demanding a
timely solution.
2. Basic research (fundamental, pure)
Is to generate a body of knowledge by
trying to comprehend how certain
problems that occur in organizations can
be solved.
The findings of such research contribute to the
building of knowledge in the various functional
areas of business.

The BasicApplied Continuum

Basic Research Example


Is executive success correlated with high
need for achievement?
Are members of highly cohesive work
groups more satisfied than members of less
cohesive work groups?
Do consumers experience cognitive
dissonance in low-involvement situations?

Applied Research Examples


Should McDonalds add Italian pasta dinners
to its menu?
Should Procter & Gamble add a high-priced
home teeth bleaching kit to its product line?

Value Should Exceed


Estimated Costs
Costs
Value
Decreased
uncertainty
Increased
likelihood
of a
correct decision
Improved
marketing
performance and
resulting higher
profits

Research
expenditures
Delay of
marketing
decision and
possible
disclosure of
information to
rivals
Possible
erroneous
research results

27

Determining When to Conduct


Business Research

Time constraints
Availability of data
Nature of the decision
Benefits versus costs

Determining When to Conduct


Business
Research
Availability of
Benefits
Time Constraints

Data

Is sufficient time
available before
a managerial
decision
must be made?

Is the information already


on hand
inadequate
for making
the decision?

No

Yes

No

Nature of the Decision vs. Costs


Yes

Is the decision
Yes
of considerable
strategic
or tactical
importance?

Does the value


of the research Yes
information
exceed the cost
of conducting
research?

No

Do Not Conduct Business Research

No

Conducting
Business
Research

Value versus Costs


Potential Value of a Business Research
Effort Should Exceed Its Estimated Costs

Value Should Exceed


Estimated Costs
Costs
Value
Decreased certainty
Increased likelihood
of a correct decision
Improved business
performance and
resulting higher
profits

Research
expenditures
Delay of business
decision and
possible disclosure
of information to
rivals
Possible erroneous
research results

1.5 Ethics and business


research
Ethics in business research refers to
a code of conduct or expected
societal norm of behavior while
conducting research.
Ethical conduct applies to the
organization and the members that
sponsor the research, the
researchers who undertake the
research, and the respondents who
provide them with the necessary

Slide
5-18a
Table
5.5

Areas of Ethical Concern in Marketing


Research
Area of Concern

Example

Ethical Standards

Preserving
participants
anonymity

Keeping the names of survey


This is a basic standard of
respondents anonymous, even
ethical research/
though the client would like to use
them to create a mailing list

Exposing
participants to
mental stress

Arriving late for a scheduled


interview; conducting
experiments in which subjects
are embarrassed at their lack
of knowledge about products

When stress is unavoidable,


researcher should debrief
subjects afterward.

Asking
participants
questions
against their
self-interest

Asking about the acceptability


of various prices in order to
plan a price increase

Such issues tend to place


ethical standards in conflict
with technical standards for
accurate research.

Using equipment to measure


Using special
equipment and physiological responses to a
techniques
product or promotional
message

These must be properly


maintained to avoid injury.

Slide
5-18b
Table
5.5

Areas of Ethical Concern in Marketing


Research
Area of Concern

Example

Involving
participants in
research
without their
knowledge

Secretly observing the behavior of


shoppers

Using
deception

Showing subjects sample


advertisements without telling
them that they will have to take
a recall test afterward

Using
coercion

Harassing by repeatedly
requesting telephone interviews
Changing participants in ways
they could not expect, such as a
taste test in which they cannot
identify their preferred brand and
unexpectedly lose confidence in
their ability to judge

Depriving
participants of
their right to
selfdetermination

Ethical Standards
Informed consent is a basic
ethical standard unless
minimal risk to subjects is
involved and the research
could not be practically carried
out with consent.
Incompletely informed consent
is considered ethical only if
there is minimal risk to
subjects and research cannot
be practically carried out
another way.
Coercion is unethical and
tends to bias results.
Researchers should try to
restore participants to their
original condition when this
occurs.

Source: Adapted from Gilbert A. Churchill, Jr. Basic Marketing Research, 3rd ed. (Fort Worth: The Dryden Press, 1996), pp.67-71.
1992 by the Dryden Press, reprinted by permission of the publisher.