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COLLIGATIVE

PROPERTIES:
FREEZING POINT
DEPRESSION AND
BOILING POINT
ELEVATION
DAY 1 04 FEBRUARY 2015

Colligative Properties
Depends on the NUMBER of solute, not on the
nature of solute particles
Freezing Point Depression
Boiling Point Elevation
Vapor Pressure Lowering
Osmotic Pressure

Electrolyte and Nonelectrolytes


Electrolytes
Non- electrolytes

Separates in water forming


a solution that conducts
electric current
IONIC COMPOUNDS

does not allow the flow of an electric current


COVALENT COMPOUNDS

Freezing
Point
Depressio
n

Freezing Point
Depression
Adding a solute to a solvent decreases freezing point of
the solvent
Freezing
Point of
solvent

Amount of
solute

Tf (pure solvent) > Tf


pure

Freezing point of
solvent 0o

(solution)

Tf = Tf - Tf

Freezing Point
Depression
Formula (nonelectrolytes):

Temperature

Freezing Point Depression


constant (1.860 C /m)
Molality (mol/kg)

Freezing Point
Depression
Tf

Formula (electrolytes):

freezing point

temperature

Tf = i Kf
m

van t Hoff factor (sum of


subscripts)

Kf
Depression
C /m)

Freezing Point
constant (1.860

Molality (mol/kg)

Freezing Point
Depression
EXAMPLES
3PO4point
Tf Nafreezing

CaCl2

NaCl

temperature

Na

Cl2

Cl
1

i=2

Ca

1
2

Na
(PO )

3
van t Hoff factor
(sum of
subscripts)
4

Kf

+
Depression

i=3

Freezing Point

constant (1.860 C /m)

i=4

Molality (mol/kg)

PRACTICE
What is the new freezing point of 200 g
of water (Kf = -1.86 oC) if195 g of
sucrose (C12H22O11) are added to it?

ANSWER
Tf = -5.301C

PRACTICE
What is the molality of barium sulfate
(Ba2SO4) with a freezing a point of
1.12C?

ANSWER
Molality = 0.20 m

PRACTICE
A solution of 3.39 g of an unknown compound in
10.00 g of water has a freezing point of 7.31C.
The solution does not conduct electricity. What
is the molar mass of the compound?

ANSWER
Molar mass = 86.26 g/mol

Boiling
Point
Elevation

Boiling Point Elevation


Temperature difference between a solutions boiling point
and a pure
solvents boiling point
For nonelectrolytes:

Amount of
solute

Tb (solution) > Tb
pure

Boiling Point
Elevation

Boiling Point of
solvent - 100C

(pure solvent)

Tb = Tb + Tb (+)

Boiling Point Elevation


Formula (nonelectrolyte):

Boiling point of
elevation
Molal boiling elevation
constant (0.5120 C /m)
Molality (mol/kg)

Boiling Point Elevation


Tb

Formula (electrolytes):

freezing point

temperature

Tb = i Kb
m

van t Hoff factor (sum of


subscripts)

Kb
Elevation
C /m)

Molal Boiling Point


constant (0.5120

Molality (mol/kg)

PRACTICE
What will be the boiling point of an
aqueous solution containing 55.0 g of
glycerol, C3H5(OH)3, and 250 g of water?
Kb(H2O)= 0.512 c/m

ANSWER
Tb = 1.23C

PRACTICE
What is the boiling point of a solution
containing 34.3 g of magnesium nitrate
dissolved in 0.107 kg of water?

ANSWER
Tb = 3.3C

PRACTICE
A solution containing 28.4 g of sodium
bromate dissolved in water. Find the
mass of the solvent if the boiling point of
the solution is 8.5C.

ANSWER
Mass of solvent = 0.034 kg