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# COLLIGATIVE

PROPERTIES:
FREEZING POINT
DEPRESSION AND
BOILING POINT
ELEVATION
DAY 1 04 FEBRUARY 2015

Colligative Properties
Depends on the NUMBER of solute, not on the
nature of solute particles
Freezing Point Depression
Boiling Point Elevation
Vapor Pressure Lowering
Osmotic Pressure

## Electrolyte and Nonelectrolytes

Electrolytes
Non- electrolytes

## Separates in water forming

a solution that conducts
electric current
IONIC COMPOUNDS

## does not allow the flow of an electric current

COVALENT COMPOUNDS

Freezing
Point
Depressio
n

Freezing Point
Depression
Adding a solute to a solvent decreases freezing point of
the solvent
Freezing
Point of
solvent

Amount of
solute

## Tf (pure solvent) > Tf

pure

Freezing point of
solvent 0o

(solution)

Tf = Tf - Tf

Freezing Point
Depression
Formula (nonelectrolytes):

Temperature

## Freezing Point Depression

constant (1.860 C /m)
Molality (mol/kg)

Freezing Point
Depression
Tf

Formula (electrolytes):

freezing point

temperature

Tf = i Kf
m

## van t Hoff factor (sum of

subscripts)

Kf
Depression
C /m)

Freezing Point
constant (1.860

Molality (mol/kg)

Freezing Point
Depression
EXAMPLES
3PO4point
Tf Nafreezing

CaCl2

NaCl

temperature

Na

Cl2

Cl
1

i=2

Ca

1
2

Na
(PO )

3
van t Hoff factor
(sum of
subscripts)
4

Kf

+
Depression

i=3

Freezing Point

## constant (1.860 C /m)

i=4

Molality (mol/kg)

PRACTICE
What is the new freezing point of 200 g
of water (Kf = -1.86 oC) if195 g of
sucrose (C12H22O11) are added to it?

Tf = -5.301C

PRACTICE
What is the molality of barium sulfate
(Ba2SO4) with a freezing a point of
1.12C?

Molality = 0.20 m

PRACTICE
A solution of 3.39 g of an unknown compound in
10.00 g of water has a freezing point of 7.31C.
The solution does not conduct electricity. What
is the molar mass of the compound?

Molar mass = 86.26 g/mol

Boiling
Point
Elevation

## Boiling Point Elevation

Temperature difference between a solutions boiling point
and a pure
solvents boiling point
For nonelectrolytes:

Amount of
solute

Tb (solution) > Tb
pure

Boiling Point
Elevation

Boiling Point of
solvent - 100C

(pure solvent)

Tb = Tb + Tb (+)

## Boiling Point Elevation

Formula (nonelectrolyte):

Boiling point of
elevation
Molal boiling elevation
constant (0.5120 C /m)
Molality (mol/kg)

## Boiling Point Elevation

Tb

Formula (electrolytes):

freezing point

temperature

Tb = i Kb
m

subscripts)

Kb
Elevation
C /m)

## Molal Boiling Point

constant (0.5120

Molality (mol/kg)

PRACTICE
What will be the boiling point of an
aqueous solution containing 55.0 g of
glycerol, C3H5(OH)3, and 250 g of water?
Kb(H2O)= 0.512 c/m

Tb = 1.23C

PRACTICE
What is the boiling point of a solution
containing 34.3 g of magnesium nitrate
dissolved in 0.107 kg of water?