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Anatomy of the

Spinal Cord
Prepared by: Maria Michaela Valenzuela, PTRP

Starts from
foramen magnum
to L1 or L2
Entirely enclosed
with Spinal or
Vertebral Bones

External Anatomy of the


Spinal Cord

Dura Mater
Outermost
Arachnoid
Mater
Pia Mater
Innermost

MENINGEAL COVERINGS OF
THE
SPINAL CORD

Named based on the


corresponding region of
the Vertebral Column
Cervical
Thoracic
Lumbar
Sacral
Coccygeal

SEGMENTAL DIVISIONS OF
THE
SPINAL CORD

Each spinal segment will have


corresponding nerves emerging
from it: SPINAL NERVES
31 pairs
Conveys somatic
sensory/motor & autonomic
functions
Later will form the plexuses

SPINAL CORD SEGMENTS


AND SPINAL NERVES

Each spinal nerve will exit via


INTERVERTEBRAL FORAMEN
C6
C6

SKULL

C1

T10
T11

T11

C7

C1

C7

C2

T1

T12

T12

C8
L1

L1

T1

C2

C3

T2

L2

T2

SPINAL CORD SEGMENTS


AND SPINAL NERVES

At the End of the Spinal Cord:


- Conus Medullaris
- Cauda Equina
Anchors of the Spinal Cord
- Filum Terminale
- Denticulate Ligament

Other external structures of the


spinal cord

Internal aggregation of cell bodies in a


distinct Butterfly Shape
- Gray Matter
Periphery comprised of
axons
- White Matter
Law of Bell & Magendie

INTERNAL ANATOMY OF THE


SPINAL CORD

Gray Matter is further divided into 10


Rexeds Lamina
Lamina processed all received info
from the brain or effector organs
Process either sensory or motor info
depending on location

INTERNAL ANATOMY OF THE


SPINAL CORD: gray matter

3 Columns (Funniculi)
- Posterior: between Dorsal Median
Fissure + Dorsal Horn
- Lateral: between Ventral Horn +
Dorsal Horn
- Anterior: between Ventral Median
Fissure + Ventral Horn
Each containing various tracts to
send/receive impulse to/from the brain

INTERNAL ANATOMY OF THE


SPINAL CORD: white matter

White matter is
divided/composed of
8 major tracts
- Sensory : ascending tracts
- Motor: descending tracts

tracts OF THE SPINAL CORD

Tracts

Origin

Lateral
BA 4,6
Corticospin
al
Medial/Ant BA 4,6
Corticospin
al
Tectospinal MB

Term
RL 8,9
& interineuron
RL 8,9
& interineuron
RL 8,9
interneuron

Decu
s

Function/s

MO

Vol. moves distal


muscles

None

Vol. moves axial


& proximal
muscles

BS

Reflexly moves
axial & proximal
muscles in
response to
visual/auditory
stimuli

Tracts

Origi
n

Term

Decu
s

Medial
PONS
Vestibulosp.

RL 8,9 None
& inter- *BS
ineuron

Lateral
MO
Vestibulosp. PONS

RL 8,9 None
& interneuron

Rubrospinal MB

RL 8,9 BS
interne
uron

Medial
PONS
Reticulospin

RL 8,9
D.

None
BS

Function/s
Reflexly
adjust neck
and back
musclesposture
Reflexl moves
limb
extensorsposture
Reflexly
moves
contralat
Limb flexors
Modulation of
pain & spinal

Tracts

Origin Term

Decus Function/s

Dorsal
Column

RL
3,4,6

MO

Post/Ant
Spinocerbell
.
Ant/Lat
Spinothala
m

RL
Paleo
None
Unconscious
3,4,6,7 Cerebel Ant.-SC Proprioceptio
n
RL
Thalam SC
Ant
1,2,5
to BA
pain/temp
3,1,2,
Lat5,7
touch/pres

BA
3,1,2,
5,7

conscious
proprioceptio
n; cortical
sens.

Corticospinal & Spinothalamic Tract


Cervical fibers MEDIAL
Sacral fibers LATERAL
Dorsal Column Medial Lemniscus
Cervical fibers LATERAL
Sacral fibers MEDIAL

Somatotopic Organization in
the Spinal Cord

Blood supply to the spinal cord

1 Anterior Spinal Artery


- Supplies Anterior 2/3 of SC
2 Posterior Spinal Artery
- Supplies Posterior 1/3 of SC

Blood supply to the spinal cord

Radicular Artery
- branch of Intercostal arteries
supply T1-L1
- Great Ventral Radicular Artery:
largest branch found entering T8
L4 (aka Artery of Adamkiewics)

T4 T6 have less blood supply:


WATERSHED AREAS

Blood supply to the spinal cord

EVALUATION

TREATMENT

PRECAUTION TO
PHYSICAL
AGENTS &
OTHER SEQUELA
RX OF
APPROPRIATE
EXERCISE AND
RETRAINING

DERMATOME
MYOTOME
NEURO LEVEL
FUNCTIONAL
PROGNOSIS
DEFINE THE
REAL PROBLEM

Clinical application