10 views

Uploaded by MuhammadZakyMubarok

- Ceramics
- 156695_634469355356717500
- 190166_634599660691024384
- PM1 Midterm Exercise
- Origins of the Universal Binding-Energy Relation
- CASTEP Startup
- Chemistry_SQP.pdf
- Second test with answers[1]
- Cs Fns Ph Bsc Semester
- Multiple choice question Material Science
- Untitled
- Curriculum BTech Mech
- Burt Rodin- Schwarz's lemma for circle packings
- Presentation1.pptx
- ece609_1
- Manganese Oxide-based Materials as Electrochemical_Wei
- M. E. Zhitomirsky and Hirokazu Tsunetsugu- Lattice gas description of pyrochlore and checkerboard antiferromagnets in a strong magnetic field
- 00713___eb1a5a2590a6b0f65ac8f8b09bb51f42
- Supplier of Talc Powder Indonesia
- Quasi Particle

You are on page 1of 33

Logam

Cadminu

m

Seng

Magnesiu

m

Cobalt

Zirkon

Panjang kisi,

nm

a

0.297

3

0.266

5

0.320

9

0.250

7

0.323

1

c

0.561

8

0.494

7

0.520

9

0.406

9

0.514

8 1

Jari-jari

atom

rasio

c/a

R, nm

0.149

1.89

0.133

1.856

0.16

1.623

0.125

1.623

0.16

1.593

Six atoms touch each atom in SC, while the eight atoms

touch each atom in the BCC unit cell.

Perbandingan volume atom didalam sel satuan

terhadap volume sel satuan dinyatakan sebagai

faktor kepadatan atom atau atomic packing factor

(APF).

Volume atom pada sel satuan

APF =

Volume sel satuan

Example 3

Calculating the Packing Factor

Calculate the atomic packing factor for the FCC cell.

Example 3 SOLUTION

In a FCC cell, there are four lattice points per cell; if there is

one atom per lattice point, there are also four atoms per cell.

The volume of one atom is 4r3/3 and the volume of the unit

cell is a 3.

4

0

(4 atoms/cell )( r 3 )

3

Packing Factor

3

a0

cells, a 0 4r/

4

(4)( r 3 )

3

Packing Factor

3

( 4r / 2 )

4

0.74

18

Example 4

Determining the Density of BCC Iron

Determine the density of BCC iron, which has a lattice

parameter of 0.2866 nm, Atomic mass = 55.847 g/mol.

Example 4 SOLUTION

Atoms/cell = 2, a0 = 0.2866 nm = 2.866 10-8 cm

3

cm3/cell

Avogadros number NA = 6.02 1023 atoms/mol

Density

(volume of unit cell)(Avog adro' s number)

(2)(55.847)

3

7

.

882

g

/

cm

(23.54 10 24 )(6.02 10 23 )

5

unit cell.

Allotropic or Polymorphic

Transformations

Allotropy - The characteristic of an element being able to

exist in more than one crystal structure, depending on

temperature and pressure.

Polymorphism - Compounds exhibiting more than one

type of crystal structure.

terbuat dari Zirkonia.

Example 5

Calculating Volume Changes in Polymorphs of

Zirconia

Calculate the percent volume change as zirconia

transforms from a tetragonal to monoclinic

structure.

The lattice constants for the monoclinic unit cells are: a =

5.156, b = 5.191, and c = 5.304 , respectively. The

angle for the monoclinic unit cell is 98.9.

The lattice constants for the tetragonal unit cell are a =

5.094 and c = 5.304 , respectively.

Does the zirconia expand or contract during this

transformation? What is the implication of this

transformation on the mechanical properties of zirconia

ceramics?

10

Example 5 SOLUTION

The volume of a tetragonal unit cell is given by

V = a2c = (5.094)2 (5.304) = 134.33 3.

The volume of a monoclinic unit cell is given by

V = abc sin = (5.156) (5.191) (5.304) sin(98.9) = 140.25 3.

Thus, there is an expansion of the unit cell as ZrO2 transforms

from a tetragonal to monoclinic form.

The percent change in volume

= (final volume initial volume)/(initial volume) 100

= (140.25 - 134.33 3)/140.25 3 * 100 = 4.21%.

Most ceramics are very brittle and cannot withstand more than a

0.1% change in volume. The conclusion here is that ZrO 2 ceramics

cannot be used in their monoclinic form since, when zirconia does

transform to the tetragonal form, it will most likely fracture.

Therefore, ZrO2 is often stabilized in a cubic form using different

additives such as CaO, MgO, and Y2O3.

11

Untuk mengetahui posisi atom di dalam suatu sel

satuan digunakan sumbu x, y dan z.

12

sangatlah penting, karena dengan mengetahuinya dapat

diketahui mudah tidaknya logam dideformasi.

Akibat adanya gaya dari luar, maka atom-atom logam akan

bergerak dimana pergerakannya sangat tergantung dari

kerapatan dan posisi atom di dalam sel satuan, sehingga

perlu diketahui di mana arah dan bidangnya.

13

Indeks Miller

Untuk mengetahui bidang suatu bidang kisi dari sel satuan

digunakanlah notasi Miller atau Indeks Miller.

Indeks Miller: kebalikan dari perpotongan suatu bidang dengan

ketiga sumbu yang dinyatakan dengan bilangan untuk bukan

pecahan atau kelipatan bersama.

Langkah yang dilakukan:

1.Tentukan titik potong yang akan diberi indeks dengan sumbu

(x,y,z).

2.Tentukan harga kebalikannya (resiprokal).

Contoh:

No

.

1

2

3

dilakukan

Tentukan titik potong yang

akan diberi indeks dengan

sumbu

Tentukan harga

kebalikannya

Harga indeks Miller

14

1/1

1/~

1/~

( ) = indeks bidang yang bersangkutan

[ ] = indeks dari arah bidang yang bersangkutan

< > = semua kumpulan arah yang sama

{ } = semua bidang yang sama

Contoh:

[100], [010], [0-10], [00-1], [-100] = <100>

15

Example 6

Determining Miller Indices of Directions

Determine the Miller indices of directions A, B, and C

Arah A

1. Titik: 1, 0, 0, and 0, 0, 0

2. 1, 0, 0, -0, 0, 0 = 1, 0, 0

4. [100] indeks Miller

Arah B

1. Titik: 1, 1, 1 and 0, 0, 0

2. 1, 1, 1, -0, 0, 0 = 1, 1, 1

3. [111]

Arah C

1. Titik: 0, 0, 1 and 1/2, 1, 0

2. 0, 0, 1 -1/2, 1, 0 = -1/2,

-1, 1

3. 2(-1/2, -1, 1) = -1, -2, 2

16

17

18

Example 7

Determining Miller Indices of Planes

Determine the Miller indices of planes A, B, and C

Bidang A

1. x = 1, y = 1, z = 1

2.1/x = 1, 1/y = 1,1 /z

=1

3. (111)

Bidang B

19

1. x = 1, y = 2, and z

=~

2.1/x = 1, 1/y =1/2,

1/z = 0

3. (210)

20

Example 8

Drawing Direction and Plane

Draw (a) the [1 2 1] direction and (b) the

cubic unit cell.

21

[2 10] plane in a

Example 8

Drawing Direction and Plane

Draw (a) the [1 2 1] direction and (b) the

cubic unit cell.

22

[2 10] plane in a

Bidang A

Arah dan bidang pada HCP:

1. a = a = a

=~ ,c=1

2. 1/a1 = 1/a2 = 1/a3 = 0, 1/c

=1

3. (0001)

1

Bidang B

1. a1 = 1, a2 = 1, a3 = -1/2, c

=1

2. 1/a1 = 1, 1/a2 = 1, 1/a3 = -2,

1/c = 1

3. (11-21)

Arah C

1. Titik: 0, 0, 1 and 1, 0, 0.

2. 0, 0, 1, -1, 0, 0 = -1, 0, 1

3. [-101]

Arah D

23 1. Titik: 0, 1, 0 and 1, 0, 0.

2. 0, 1, 0, -1, 0, 0 = -1, 1, 0

24

The ABABAB

stacking sequence

of close-packed

planes produces

the HCP structure.

25

planes produces the FCC structure.

26

Interstitial Sites

Interstitial sites - Locations between the normal atoms

or ions in a crystal into which another - usually different

- atom or ion is placed. Typically, the size of this

interstitial location is smaller than the atom or ion that is

to be introduced.

Cubic site - An interstitial position that has a

coordination number of eight. An atom or ion in the

cubic site touches eight other atoms or ions.

Octahedral site - An interstitial position that has a

coordination number of six. An atom or ion in the

octahedral site touches six other atoms or ions.

Tetrahedral site - An interstitial position that has a

coordination number of four. An atom or ion in the

tetrahedral site touches four other atoms or ions.

27

28

Example 9

Calculating Octahedral Sites

Calculate the number of octahedral sites that uniquely

belong to one FCC unit cell.

Example 9 SOLUTION

The octahedral sites include the 12 edges of the unit cell,

with the coordinates

1

,0,0

2

1

0, ,0

2

1

0,0,

2

1

1

1

,1,0

,0,1

,1,1

2

2

2

1

1

1

1, ,0 1, ,1 0, ,1

2

2

2

1

1

1

1,0,

1,1,

0,1,

2

2

2

29

Each of the sites on the edge of the unit cell is shared

between four unit cells, so only 1/4 of each site belongs

uniquely to each unit cell.

Therefore, the number of sites belonging uniquely to each

cell is:

(12 edges) (1/4 per cell) + 1 center location

= 4 octahedral sites

30

31

Example 10

Design of a Radiation-Absorbing Wall

We wish to produce a radiation-absorbing wall composed of

10,000 lead balls, each 3 cm in diameter, in a facecentered cubic arrangement. We decide that improved

absorption will occur if we fill interstitial sites between the

3-cm balls with smaller balls. Design the size of the

smaller lead balls and determine how many are needed.

Calculation of an

octahedral interstitial site

32

Example 10 SOLUTION

First, we can calculate the diameter of the octahedral

sites located between the 3-cm diameter balls. Figure

3.30 shows the arrangement of the balls on a plane

containing an octahedral site.

Length AB = 2R + 2r = 2R 2

r = 2 R R = ( 2 - 1)R

r/R = 0.414

This is consistent with Table 3-6. Since r = R = 0.414, the

radius of the small lead balls is

r = 0.414 * R = (0.414)(3 cm/2) = 0.621 cm.

From Example 3-12, we find that there are four

octahedral sites in the FCC arrangement, which also has

four lattice points. Therefore, we need the same number

of small lead balls as large lead balls, or 10,000 small

balls.

33

- CeramicsUploaded bychinmayghaisas
- 156695_634469355356717500Uploaded byilias1973
- 190166_634599660691024384Uploaded byVijay Kumar
- PM1 Midterm ExerciseUploaded byAmalia Tri W
- Origins of the Universal Binding-Energy RelationUploaded byQuantum Knots
- CASTEP StartupUploaded byMuraleetharan Boopathi
- Chemistry_SQP.pdfUploaded byNirvana Adithya Visiobibliophobiatic Guy
- Second test with answers[1]Uploaded bymariaki_kola
- Cs Fns Ph Bsc SemesterUploaded byAlokdev Mishra
- Multiple choice question Material ScienceUploaded bymanish_agr85
- UntitledUploaded byapi-233404189
- Curriculum BTech MechUploaded byYaser Mohamed
- Burt Rodin- Schwarz's lemma for circle packingsUploaded byGremnDL
- Presentation1.pptxUploaded byKiran Kumar
- ece609_1Uploaded byUdai Singh
- Manganese Oxide-based Materials as Electrochemical_WeiUploaded byTony Stark
- M. E. Zhitomirsky and Hirokazu Tsunetsugu- Lattice gas description of pyrochlore and checkerboard antiferromagnets in a strong magnetic fieldUploaded byKuiasm
- 00713___eb1a5a2590a6b0f65ac8f8b09bb51f42Uploaded bySupriya
- Supplier of Talc Powder IndonesiaUploaded byPratibhaR
- Quasi ParticleUploaded byjamessonian
- 2 LC3Course XRD-RietveldUploaded byJohn Giannakopoulos
- SME08 RE Supply - The Alternatives to China[1]Uploaded byscottleey
- The Effect of Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) Processes on Different Welding Parameters_DoneUploaded byAsim Ali
- Elasticity and Viscosity Type 2 PART 1 of 3 ENGUploaded bysurya
- UT Dallas Syllabus for ee6324.501 05s taught by Robert Wallace (rmw031000)Uploaded byUT Dallas Provost's Technology Group
- D. Chen, M.-L. V. Tse and H. Y. Tam- Super-Lattice Structure Photonic Crystal FiberUploaded byKonnasder
- ch05Uploaded byRoberto Carlos
- Full Text 01Uploaded byBuluc Gheorghe
- HematiteUploaded byHugoman
- Bentonite Perlite Wollastonite June 2014Uploaded bytzeferisp

- Engineering-Physics-Notes_3_U2.pdfUploaded bySanketh Kanugu
- Quasi CrystalsUploaded byAnirudh Dutta
- Introduction to CrystallographyUploaded byJuan Ignacio Gonzalez
- Exam ChemistryUploaded byAshok Pradhan
- Reciprocal Lattice (1)Uploaded bydffdf
- Tutorial 1-Solid State physics-2010 docUploaded byWoon Bing
- Cif - a New Standard Archive File for CrystallographyUploaded byrakesh1521
- 2a modeling moleculesUploaded byapi-298247873
- Symmetry of Charge Ordered Phase in Pr0.5ca0.5Mno3Uploaded byMamu
- 4 MATERIAL SCIENCE Crystal Structure for Viet 1 No3Uploaded byANNAPRASAD
- Dislocations and StrenghteningUploaded byAmber Williams
- space group..CMUploaded bysoumendra ghorai
- Improvement of Wear Resistance of Hot Work Steels by PVD Coating DepositionUploaded byBurak Tarhan
- 3 Crystal and Amorphous structure new with problems 11.9.15.pptxUploaded byharshit Mittal
- Lecture3.3Uploaded byanuesha
- Deformation theoryUploaded byAnjaniAkula
- Material ScienceUploaded byRavindramn7
- Lecture 1- Mineralogy and Crystallography-3 ReviewUploaded byFranc
- 1.1 Crystal StructureUploaded byshivam pandey
- MET-3B.pdfUploaded byVisakh Radhakrishnan
- ch3_p3.pptUploaded bySary Kilany
- Chapter+1 CrystalUploaded byShichibukai Aminnur
- Advanced Mineralogy, Vol.1Uploaded byVioleta Reyes Orozco
- app3Uploaded bySon Tran
- EBSD Shashank presentationUploaded bydebjit123
- The Orthorhombic Phase of WO 3Uploaded byAlex Faudoa
- ORTEP descriptionUploaded byJosé Antônio Nascimento Neto
- PRE4122 Exercise No. 3 Structure of Crystalline Solids I (1)Uploaded byعبداللهأحمد
- 27433Uploaded byFatma Maharani
- Basic XrdUploaded byrahulme43