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0 Bearing Capacity

02/24/15

2

shear failure in soil occurs is called the ultimate

bearing capacity.

02/24/15

Bearing Capacity Mr. Jjuuko Samuel, MUK

3

Sudden or catastrophic failure

Well defined failure surface

Bulging on the ground surface adjacent

to foundation

Bearing Capacity Mr. Jjuuko Samuel, MUK

02/24/15

4

Common in sand or clay with medium compaction.

Significant settlement upon loading.

Failure surface first develops right below the foundation

and then slowly extends outwards with load increments.

Foundation movement shows sudden jerks first (at qu1)

and then after a considerable amount of movement the

slip surface may reach the ground.

A small amount of bulging may occur next to the

foundation.

Bearing Capacity Mr. Jjuuko Samuel, MUK

02/24/15

5

02/24/15

6

Punching Failure:

Common in fairly loose sand or soft clay

Failure surface does not extends beyond the zone right

beneath the foundation

Extensive settlement with a wedge shaped soil zone in

elastic equilibrium beneath the foundation. Vertical

shear occurs around the edges of foundation.

After reaching failure load-settlement curve

continues at some slope and mostly linearly.

Bearing Capacity Mr. Jjuuko Samuel, MUK

02/24/15

7

Punching Failure:

02/24/15

8

02/24/15

9

Assumption

L/B ratio is

large plain strain problem

Df B

Shear resistance of soil for Df depth is neglected

General shear failure

Shear strength is governed by Mohr-Coulomb Criterion

Bearing Capacity Mr. Jjuuko Samuel, MUK

02/24/15

10

02/24/15

11

2

1

q u . B 2. Pp 2.C a . sin ' 4 ' B tan

2

1

q u . B 2. Pp B .c '. sin ' 4 ' B tan

'

'

Pp Pp Ppc Ppq

Pp due to only self weight of soil in shear zone

Ppc due to soil cohesion only (soil is weightless)

Ppq due to surcharge only

Bearing Capacity Mr. Jjuuko Samuel, MUK

02/24/15

12

Weight term

Surcharge term

Cohesion term

4

B .( 0.5 ' B . N

c. N

q. N

1) cot '

B .c . N

0.5 ' B . N

K P

1

2 tan ' [

1]

2

cos '

(N

B.q. N

equation

Terzaghis bearing capacity

factors

e2a

N

'

q

2 cos 2 ( 45 )

2

'inrad .

3

a ( 4

) tan '

2

02/24/15

13

02/24/15

14

Modify the strength parameters

such as:

2

c'

3 c'

m

3

3

qu 1.3 c '. N c q . N q 0.4 ' B . N '

qu 1.3 c '. N c q . N q 0.3 ' B . N '

For square

For circular

02/24/15

15

Case I: Dw Df

Surch arg e , q . D

' (D

Surch arg e , q . D

by:

Dw D f

' (

)( ' )

B

No influence of water table.

02/24/15

16

dw

'

( 2 H d w )

sat

( H dw )2

H2

H2

Rupture depth:

H 0.5 B tan( 45

'

)

2

d w Dw D f

02/24/15

17

for cohesive Soils

~ For saturated cohesive soil, = 0

N c 5 (1 0.2

For square/circular

footing:

Df

B

N c 6 (1 0.2

)

Df

B

Nq = 1 and N = 0

with limit of Nc 7.5

Df

B

L

N c 7.5 (1 0.2 B )

L

qu = c.Nc + q

qu = c.Nc

Bearing Capacity Mr. Jjuuko Samuel, MUK

02/24/15

18

Loading

In case of Moment loading

ex

My

Fv

Mx

ey

Fv

some height but the column is

centered on the foundation

M y FHx . d FH

M x FHy . d FH

02/24/15

19

(Meyerhof, 1963)

qu c . N c . s c . d c . i c q . N q . s q . d q . i q 0.5 ' B . N . s . d . i

Shape

factor

Depth

factor

N q tan 2 ( 45

Inclination

factor

). e

2

Empirical correction

factors

N c ( N q 1) cot '

N ( N q 1) tan(1.4 ' )

N 2 ( N q 1) tan( ' )

qu c . N c . s c . d c . i c . g c . bc q . N q . s q . d q . i q . g q . bq 0.5 ' B . N . s . d . i . g . b

Ground factor

Base factor

Bearing Capacity Mr. Jjuuko Samuel, MUK

02/24/15

20

02/24/15

21

Shape

Factors

For 10o

'

s c 1 0.2 B tan 2 ( 45 )

L

2

'

B

2

s q s 1 0.1 tan ( 45 )

L

2

s q s 1

Depth

Factors

d c 1 0.2

Df

L

tan( 45

'

)

2

For 10o

d q d 1 0.1

Df

L

tan( 45

d q d 1

Inclination

Factors

o 2

i c i q ( 1

)

90

2

i (1 )

'

02/24/15

'

)

2

22

Inclination

Factors

FH

ic 1

for ' 0

2 BL . c '

0.5 FH

i q [ 1

]5

FV BL . c '. cot '

Depth For 0

Df

Factors

For 0

d c 0 .4

forD f

1 D f

d

0 . 4 tan

ForD

1

( 1 F H )

i c 1 [ 1

] 2 for ' 0

2

BL . su

0.7 FH

i [1

]5

FV BL . c '. cot '

d c 1 0 . 4

forD

Df

B

forD f

1 D f

d

1 0 . 4 tan

ForD

Df

Df

2

1

d q 1 2 tan '.(1 sin ' ) tan

B

forD

02/24/15

d 1

23

Shape

Factors

B

B

0.2 (1 2 i ). L for ' 0

s c 0.2 ic . for ' 0 s

c

c

L

B

B

s

1 i .( L ) sin ' s 1 0.4 i .( L )

q

q

' 0 qu c . N c .(1 s c d c ic ) q

02/24/15

24

Notes:

1. Notice use of effective

base dimensions B, L by

Hansen but not by Vesic.

2. The values are consistent

with a vertical load or a

vertical load accompanied by

a horizontal load HB.

3. With a vertical load and a

load HL (and either HB=0 or

HB>0) you may have to

compute two sets of shape

and depth factors si,B, si,L and

di,B, di,L. For i,L subscripts use

ratio L/B or D/L.

4. Compute qu independently

by using (siB, diB) and (siL,

diL) and

use min value for

Bearing Capacity Mr. Jjuuko Samuel, MUK

02/24/15

design.

Notes:

1. Use Hi as either HB or HL, or

both if HL>0.

2. Hansen (1970) did not give an ic

for >0. The value given here is

from Hansen (1961) and also used

by Vesic.

3. Variable ca = base adhesion, on

the order of 0.6 to 1.0 x base

cohesion.

4. Refer to sketch on next slide for

identification of angles and ,

footing depth D, location of Hi

(parallel and at top of base slab;

usually also produces eccentricity).

Especially notice V = force normal

to base and is not the resultant R

from combining V and Hi..

25

02/24/15

26

02/24/15

27

Note:

1. When =0 (and 0)

use N = -2sin() in N

term.

2. Compute m = mB when

Hi = HB (H parallel to B)

and m = mL when Hi = HL

(H parallel to L). If you

have both HB and HL use

m = (mB2 + mL2)1/2. Note

use of B and L, not B,

L.

3. Hi term 1.0 for

Bearing Capacity Mr. Jjuuko Samuel,

MUK 02/24/15 i , i (always).

computing

q

Suitability of Methods

28

Use

Terzaghi

Best for

Very cohesive soils where D/B1 or for a

quick estimate of qult to compare with other

methods. Do not use for footings with

moments and/or horizontal forces or for tilted

bases and/or sloping ground

Hansen,

Meyerhof,

Vesic

preference or familiarity with a particular

method.

slopeCapacity

or when

D/B>

Bearing

Mr. Jjuuko

Samuel,1.

MUK 02/24/15

IS:6403-1981 Recommendations

29

q nu c . N c . s c . d c . ic q .( N q 1). s q . d q . i q 0.5 ' B . N . s . d . i

q nu cu . N c . s c . d c . ic whereN c 5.14

Shape

Factors

For rectangle,

s c 1 0.2 B

L

s q 1 0.2 B s

L

B

1 0.4 L

s = 0.8 for square, s = 0.6 for circle

02/24/15

IS:6403-1981 Recommendations

30

Depth

Factors

d c 1 0.2

Df

L

tan( 45

Df

'

)

2

'

d q d 1 0.1

tan( 45 ) for ' 10 o

L

2

d q d 1 for ' 10 o

Inclination Factors

02/24/15

31

Bearing Capacity

Correlations with

SPT-value: Peck,

Hansen, and Thornburn

(1974) & IS:6403-1981

Recommendation

02/24/15

32

SPT-value

Teng (1962):

1

2

2

For Strip Footing: q nu 6 3 N . B . R w 5 100 N . D f . R w

For Square and

1

2

2

Circular Footing: q nu 3 N . B . R w 3 100 N . D f . R w

Water Table Corrections:

D

R w 0.5 1 w

Df

0.5 1

Rw

Dw D f

Df

Rw 1

R/w 1

02/24/15

33

CPT-value

IS:6403-1981 Recommendation:

Cohesionless Soil

Schmertmann (1975):

Bearing Capacity Mr. Jjuuko Samuel, MUK

02/24/15

34

CPT-value

IS:6403-1981 Recommendation:

Cohesive Soil

q nu cu . N c . s c . d c . ic

Soil Type

Point Resistance

Values (qc)

kgf/cm2

Range of

Undrained

Cohesion

(kgf/cm2)

Normally consolidated

clays

qc < 20

qc/18 to qc/15

qc > 20

qc/26 to qc/22

02/24/15

35

Layered Soil

2

'

2

or approximately taken as B

Design using parameters of Layer -1

Case II: Layer-1 is stronger than Layer-2

Distribute the stresses to Layer-2 by 2:1

method and check the bearing capacity at this

level for limit state.

Also check the bearing capacity for original

foundation level using parameters of Layer1Choose minimum value for design

Bearing Capacity Mr. Jjuuko Samuel, MUK

02/24/15

36

Layered Soil

Another approximate method for c- soil:

For effective depth B

'

2 tan 45 2

capacity calculation

c H c H c H

c av 1 1 2 2 3 3

H 1 H 2 H 3

tan av

H 1 H 2 H 3

02/24/15

37

Cohesive Soil

IS:6403-1981 Recommendation:

02/24/15

Soil: Stronger Soil Underlying Weaker

Soil

38

Depth H is relatively small

Full failure surface develops in top

Punching shear failure in top layer

General shear failure in bottom layer layer itself

02/24/15

Soil: Stronger Soil Underlying Weaker

Soil

39

2 C a PP sin

qu qb

1H

B

Ca = caH

ca = adhesion

Ca = adhesive force

Pp = passive force per unit length of the

faces aa and bb

qb = bearing capacity of the bottom soil

layer

= inclination of the passive force Pp

Bearing Capacity Mr. Jjuuko Samuel, MUK

with the horizontal

02/24/15

Soil: Stronger Soil Underlying Weaker

Soil

40

2D f

2 cu H

2

qu qb

1 H 1

B

H

K s tan 1

1H

B

Ks f

q2

,1

q1

width B under vertical load on the surface of

homogeneous thick bed of upper and lower

soil

q1 c1 N c 1 1 1 BN 1

2

q 2 c 2 N c 2 1 2 BN 2

2

Bearing Capacity Mr. Jjuuko Samuel, MUK

02/24/15

Soil: Stronger Soil Underlying Weaker

Soil

2D

41

B

H

B

Where, qt is the bearing capacity for foundation

considering only the top layer to infinite depth

For Rectangular Footing:

q u q b 1 B

L

2 c a H

1 H 2 1 B

B

L

2D f

H

K s tan 1

1 H qt

B

Special Cases:

1. Top layer is strong sand and bottom layer is saturated soft clay

c1 = 0 2 = 0

2. Top layer is strong sand and bottom layer is weaker sand

c1 = 0 c2 = 0

3. Top layer is strong saturated clay and bottom layer is weaker

saturated clay

1 = 0 2 = 0

Bearing Capacity Mr. Jjuuko Samuel, MUK

02/24/15

42

02/24/15

43

for Eccentrically Loaded foundations

(Highter and Anders, 1985)

Case I: e L 1 e B 1

and

3e

B1 B 3 B

2 B

3eL

3

L1 L

2 B

A 1 L1 B1

2

L max( B1 , L1 )

B A

L

02/24/15

44

for Eccentrically Loaded foundations

(Highter and Anders, 1985)

Case II: e L 0.5 and 0 e B 1

L

A 1

2

L1 L2 B

L max

B1 , L1

B A

L

02/24/15

45

for Eccentrically Loaded foundations

(Highter and Anders, 1985)

e

Case III: e L 1

and 0 B 0.5

L

A 1 L

2

B1 B 2

L L

B A

L

Bearing Capacity Mr. Jjuuko Samuel, MUK

02/24/15

46

for Eccentrically Loaded foundations

(Highter and Anders, 1985)

Case IV:

eL 1

e

and B 1

L 6

B 6

A L2 B 1 ( B1 B 2 )( L L2 )

2

L L B A

Bearing Capacity Mr. Jjuuko Samuel, MUK

L

02/24/15

47

for Eccentrically Loaded foundations

(Highter and Anders, 1985)

L A

B

02/24/15

on empirical correlations: (American

Petroleum Institute, 1987)

48

02/24/15

Bearing Capacity

of Footings on

Slopes Meyerhofs

(1957) Solution

49

qu c N cq 0.5 BN q

Granular Soil

c = 0

qu 0.5 BN q

02/24/15

Meyerhofs (1957) Solution

50

Cohesive Soil

=0

qu c N cq

Ns

H

c

02/24/15

Graham et al. (1988), Based on method

of characteristics

51

For

Df

B

02/24/15

Graham et al. (1988), Based on method

of characteristics

52

For

Df

B

02/24/15

Graham et al. (1988), Based on method

of characteristics

53

For

Df

B

0.5

02/24/15

Graham et al. (1988), Based on method

of characteristics

54

For

Df

B

1.0

02/24/15

Bowles (1997): A simplified approach

55

02/24/15

Capacity Vesics (1973) Approach

56

equation.

These correction factors are function of the rigidity of soil.

Gs

Rigidity Index of Soil, Ir:

Ir

tan

c vo

I rc 0.5. e

3.30 0.45 B

L

tan 45

2

02/24/15

Capacity Vesics (1973) Approach

57

For Ir Irc

For Ir < Irc

cc = c q = c = 1

B

0.6 4.4 . tan

L

1 sin

c q c e

For 0 c c 0.32 0.12 B 0.60. log I r

L

1 c q

For 0 c c c q

N q tan

02/24/15

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