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You are on page 1of 45

Performance

Chapter 4. Modelling and Analysis for

Process Control

The copyright holder provides a royalty-free license for use of this

material at non-profit educational institutions

ANALYSIS FOR PROCESS CONTROL

When I complete this chapter, I want to be

able to do the following.

of first and second order

Express dynamic models as transfer

functions

Predict important features of dynamic

behavior from model without solving

ANALYSIS FOR PROCESS CONTROL

Outline of the lesson.

Laplace transform

Solve linear dynamic models

Transfer function model structure

Qualitative features directly from model

Frequency response

Workshop

I can model this;

what more do

I need?

I would like to

model elements

individually

combine as needed

determine key

dynamic features

w/o solving

T

A

T

A

I would like to

model elements

individually

This will be a

transfer function

elements to model

many process

structures

T

A

Now, I can combine

elements to model

many process

structures

I can combine to

derive a simplified

model!

st

L( f (t )) f ( s ) f (t )e dt

0

Constant : L(C ) Ce

0

st

C st

dt e

s

t

t 0

f(t)=0

t=0

We have seen

this term

often! Its the

step response to

a first order

dynamic system.

st

L( f (t )) f ( s ) f (t )e dt

0

1

e (1/ s )t dt

e (1/ s )t

s 1/

L((1 e t / )) (1 e t / )e st dt e st dt e t / e st dt

1/ s

1

1

1

s s 1 / s s 1 s( s 1)

1

s 1/

Lets learn a new

dynamic response

& its Laplace

Transform

backmixing; we can think of this a a hockey puck

traveling in a pipe.

(e.g., concentration) to a step change in the inlet fluid

property?

Lets learn a new

dynamic response

& its Laplace

Transform

What is the value of

dead time for

plug flow?

Xout

= dead time

Xin

time

dynamic response

& its Laplace

Transform

Is this a

dead time?

0.5

What is the

value?

-0.5

0

5

time

10

5

time

10

0.5

-0.5

0

Lets learn a new

dynamic response

& its Laplace

Transform

Our plants have

pipes. We will

use this a lot!

X out (t ) X in (t )

The Laplace transform for a variable after dead time is

L( X out (t )) L( X in (t )) e

X in ( s )

I am in desperate

need of examples!

derivatives for solving dynamic models.

constant

df (t )

L

sf (s ) f (t ) t 0

dt

First

derivative:

General:

d n f (t )

dt n

constant

s f (s ) s

n 1

f (t ) t 0 s

n 1 df ( t )

dt

....

t 0

d n 1f (t )

dt n 1

t 0

TRANSFORM

Textbook Example 3.1: The CSTR (or mixing tank)

experiences a step in feed composition with all other

variables are constant. Determine the dynamic response.

dC' A

V

F(C' A0 C' A ) VkC' A

dt

dC A'

V

F

'

'

C A KC A0 with

and K

dt

F kV

F kV

I hope we get the same

answer as with the

integrating factor!

F

CA0

CA

A B

rA kC A

TRANSFORM

Textbook Example 3.2Two isothermal CSTRs are initially

at steady state and experience a step change to the feed

composition to the first tank. Formulate the model for

CA2.

dC' A1

F(C' A0 C' A1 ) V1k1C' A1

dt

dC' A2

V2

F(C' A1 C' A2 ) V2 k 2 C' A2

dt

V1

integrating factor!

F

CA0

dC A' 1

1

C A' 1 K1C A' 0

dt

dC A' 2

2

C A' 2 K 2C A' 1

dt

CA1

V1

CA2

V2

A B

rA kC A

TRANSFORM

Textbook Example 3.5: The feed composition experiences a

step. All other variables are constant. Determine the

dynamic response of CA.

Non-linear!

F

CA0

A B

rA

2

kC A

CA

ANY INPUT FUNCTION

Lets rearrange the Laplace transform of a dynamic model

Y(s) = G(s) X(s)

X(s)

G(s)

Y(s)

divided by the input variable, X(s), with all initial

conditions zero.

G(s) = Y(s)/X(s)

ANY INPUT FUNCTION

G(s) = Y(s)/ X(s)

X(s)

conditions for every model?

We dont have primes on the

variables; why?

Is this restricted to a step input?

What about non-linear models?

How many inputs and outputs?

G(s)

Y(s)

ANY INPUT FUNCTION

G(s) = Y(s)/ X(s)

X(s)

Some examples:

C A (s)

Mixing tank :

G( s ) ?

C A0 ( s )

C A2 ( s )

Two CSTRs :

G( s ) ?

C A0 ( s )

G(s)

Y(s)

ANY INPUT FUNCTION

G(s) = Y(s)/ X(s)

X(s)

G(s)

Y(s)

To torture students.

We have individual models that we can

combine easily - algebraically.

We can determine lots of information

about the system without solving the

dynamic model.

I chose the

first answer!

ANY INPUT FUNCTION

Lets see how to

combine models

3

F0 ( s )

m

/s

Gvalve ( s )

.10

% open

v( s)

T ( s)

G tank1 ( s ) 1

F0 ( s )

1.2 K

m 3 /s

250 s 1

Tmeasured ( s )

Gsensor ( s )

T2 ( s )

Gtank2 ( s )

T2 ( s ) 1.0 K / K

T1 ( s )

300 s 1

1 .0 K / K

10 s 1

(Time in seconds)

ANY INPUT FUNCTION

The BLOCK DIAGRAM

v(s)

F0(s)

Gvalve(s)

T1(s)

Gtank1(s)

T2(s)

Gtank2(s)

Individual models can be replaced easily

Helpful visualization

Cause-effect by arrows

Tmeas(s)

Gsensor(s)

ANY INPUT FUNCTION

Combine using BLOCK DIAGRAM ALGEBRA

v(s)

F0(s)

Gvalve(s)

T1(s)

T2(s)

Gtank1(s)

v(s)

Gtank2(s)

G(s)

Tmeas(s)

Gsensor(s)

Tmeas(s)

T1 ( s ) F0 ( s )

F0 ( s ) v( s )

Gs ( s )GT 2 ( s )GT 1 ( s )Gv ( s )

Tmeas ( s )

Tmeas ( s )

G( s )

v( s )

T2 ( s )

T2 ( s )

T1 ( s )

ANY INPUT FUNCTION

Key rules for BLOCK DIAGRAM ALGEBRA

FINAL VALUE THEOREM: Evaluate the final valve of the

output of a dynamic model without solving for the entire

transient response.

Y (t ) t lim sY(s)

s

C A (t ) |t lim s

s 0

C A0 K p

s( s 1)

C A0 K p

What about dynamics

can we determine

without solving?

expansion to prove the following

key result.

With i the solution to the denominator of the transfer

function being zero, D(s) = 0.

1t

Y (t ) A0 A1e

2t

A2 e

qt

Real, distinct i

pt

Complex i

q is Re( i)

...

Real, repeated i

With i the solutions to D(s) = 0, which is a polynomial.

1t

Y (t ) A0 A1e

2t

A2 e

pt

qt

...

If any one i is ???, Y(t) is unstable

2. If all i are ???, Y(t) is overdamped

(does not oscillate)

If one pair of i are ???, Y(t) is

underdamped

Complete statements

based on equation.

With i the solutions to D(s) = 0, which is a polynomial.

1t

Y (t ) A0 A1e

2t

A2 e

pt

qt

...

If any one real [ i] is 0, Y(t) is unstable

2. If all i are real, Y(t) is overdamped (does not

oscillate)

If one pair of i are complex, Y(t) is underdamped

1

dC A' 1

dt

dC A' 2

2

C A' 2 K 2C A' 1

dt

A B

rA kC A

F

CA0

CA1

V1

CA2

V2

2. Is this system over- or underdamped?

Without

solving!

(Order = the number of derivatives

between the input and output variables)

4. What is the steady-state gain?

(Well solve this in class.)

FREQUENCY RESPONSE:The response to a sine input of

the output variable is of great practical importance. Why?

periodic disturbances occur and other inputs can be

represented by a combination of sines.

For a process without control, we want a sine input to

have a small effect on the output.

Amplitude ratio = |Y(t)| max / |X(t)| max

Phase angle = phase difference between

input and output

P

output

0.4

0.2

0

-0.2

-0.4

X, inlet to system

3

time

3

time

input

0.5

0

-0.5

-1

Amplitude ratio = |Y(t)| max / |X(t)| max

Phase angle = phase difference between

input and output

For linear systems, we can evaluate directly using transfer function!

Set s = j, with = frequency and j = complex variable.

Im(G ( j ))

Re(G ( j ))

standard programming languages.

Example 4.15 Frequency response of mixing tank.

Time-domain

behavior.

frequency response for

a range of frequencies

Log (AR) vs log()

Phase angle vs log()

CA2

F

CA0

CA1

V1

CA2

V2

Must have

fluctuations

amplitude = 1 mol/m3

frequency = 0.20 rad/min

Kp

| C A2 |

| G ( j ) |

| C A0 |

(1 2 2 )

| C A 2 || C A0 |

Kp

(1 2 2 )

to reduce the variability.

How about feedback

control?

Transfer function and block diagram

We can determine

individual models

and combine

1. System order

2. Final Value

3. Stability

4. Damping

5. Frequency response

We can determine

these features without

solving for the

entire transient!!

Goal:

Assumptions:

Data:

Combining Chapters 3

and 4

System : volume within which variables are indepen dent of position

Fundam ental Ba lance: e.g. material, energy

DOF = 0

Is model linear?

Yes

Check

D.O.F.

No

DOF 0

-Fundament al balance

-Constitutive equations

Group param eter s to evalua te [ga ins (K), time-constants (), dead-times()]

Take Laplace transform

Substitute specific input, e.g.,

step, and solve for output

(ste p)

- causality

- order

- stability

- damping

integrated system

We can use a

standard modelling

procedure to

focus our

creativity!

and out. It has achieved initial steady state when a step

decrease occurs to the flow in. Determine the level as a

function of time.

T

A

1. System order

2. Final Value

3. Stability

4. Damping

5. Frequency response

Appendix C. A specific example

has the following transfer

function.

T (s)

( 6.07 s 45.83)

2

Fc ( s ) ( s 1.79 s 35.80)

Determine the features

in the table for this

system.

Answer the following using the MATLAB program

S_LOOP.

Using the transfer function derived in Example 4.9,

determine the frequency response for CA0 CA2. Check one

point on the plot by hand calculation.

F

CA0

CA1

V1

CA2

V2

We often measure pressure for process monitoring and control.

Explain three principles for pressure sensors, select one for P1

and explain your choice.

T6

Feed

T1

T2

T5

F1

T4

T3

F2

P1

L1

F3

Process Steam

fluid

Vapor

product

A1

L. Key

Liquid

product

ANALYSIS FOR PROCESS CONTROL

When I complete this chapter, I want to be

able to do the following.

and second order

from model without solving

Read the textbook

Review the notes, especially learning goals and workshop

Try out the self-study suggestions

Naturally, well have an assignment!

LEARNING RESOURCES

- Instrumentation Notes

- Interactive Learning Module (Chapter 4)

www.pc-education.mcmaster.ca/

- Tutorials (Chapter 4)

Software Laboratory

- S_LOOP program

1. Why are variables expressed as deviation variables when

we develop transfer functions?

2. Discuss the difference between a second order reaction

and a second order dynamic model.

3. For a sine input to a process, is the output a sine for a

a. Linear plant?

b. Non-linear plant?

4. Is the amplitude ratio of a plant always equal to or

greater than the steady-state gain?

5. Calculate the frequency response for the model in

Workshop 2 using S_LOOP. Discuss the results.

6. Decide whether a linearized model should be used for

the fired heater for

PIC

1

a. A 3% increase in the

fuel flow rate.

b. A 2% change in the

feed flow rate.

c. Start up from ambient

temperature.

d. Emergency stoppage

of fuel flow to 0.0.

feed

AT

1

FT

1

PI

4

TI

1

PI

5

TI

5

TI

2

TI

6

PT

1

TI

3

TI

7

TI

4

TI

9

TI

8

FT

2

PI

2

air

TI

10

FI

3

PI

3

TI

11

PI

6

fuel

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