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AS Physics

Course Overview
Mechanics
Materials
Waves
DC Electricity
Nature of Light

Course Overview

Unit 1: Physics on the go


40%

of the total AS marks

This unit involves the study of:

Mechanics (motion, forces, energy


and power)

Materials (flow of liquids, viscosity,


and properties of materials,).

Course Overview

Unit 2: Physics at Work


40%

of the total AS marks

This unit involves the study of:


Waves (Refraction, polarisation,

diffraction and standing waves)


DC

electricity

The

nature of light

Course Overview

Unit 3B: Exploring Physics


20%

of the total AS marks

This unit involves the study of:


planning
analysing and
evaluating
practical work. It will be studied as
appropriate while progressing
through the other units.
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

9 10

Unit 1: Physics on the go

Mechanics
Measurement
Motion
Forces
Energy

and Power

Measurement

Measurement

Units

and Standard Notation

Experimental

Errors

Unit 1: Physics on the go

Materials
Fluid

flow
Strength of materials

1.01

SI Units

Measurement

All pupils will be able to:


Use appropriate units for measurements and
calculated values.
Make correct use of standard form and metric
prefixes.
Most pupils will be able to:
Give examples of SI base and derived units.
Derive equivalent base units for simpler quantities
Some pupils will be able to:
Explain the difference between SI base and derived
units.
Derive equivalent base units for more complex
quantities.

Measurement

SI Units
The SI or international system of
units is founded on sevenSI base
units.
Base Quantity

Unit name

Unit symbol

Length

Meter

Mass

Kilogram

kg

Time

Second

Electric current

Ampere

Temperature

Kelvin

Amount of
substance

Mole

mol

Luminosity

Candela

cd

Derived Units

Measurement

Other quantities are calledderived quantities and can


be defined in terms of the seven base quantities in
equations.
TheSI derived unitsfor these quantities are obtained
from these equations and the seven SI base units.

For example:
Force is measured in newtons which is a
derived unit.
An equation for force is F
And so,

newtons

= ma
= kgms-2

Now you try

5 min

Measurement

Copy and complete the following table.


Think of a simple equation for the derived
quantity and substitute the base units.
Derived
Quantity
Frequency
Power
Energy
Force
Charge
Resistance
Pressure

Unit name

Unit
symbol

Base
units

Measurement

Heres how it should look


Derived
Quantity

Unit name

Unit
symbol

Base
units

Frequency

hertz

Hz

s-1

Power

watt

kgm2s-2

Energy

joule

kg ms-2

Force

newton

kgms-2

Charge

coulombs

As

Resistance

ohms

kgm2s-3A-2

Pressure

pascals

Pa

Kgm-1s-2

Measurement

Standard Notation and


Prefixes
Why do we use standard notation?
Watch this video to see the
massive range of measurements
that physics must cover.

5min

Remember the basics?

Measurement

Large numbers:
x103

kilo

x106

mega

x109

giga

x1012 =

tera

Measurement

Small numbers:
x10-3 =

milli

x10-6 =

micro

x10-9 =

nano

x10-12 =

pico

3 min

Measurement

1. Write the following in standard


notation
6 x 10-2 m

a) 60 mm
=
b) 300 m
=
c) 40 MJ
=
d) 0.2 GN
=
e) 200 ns
=

3 x 10-4 m
4 x 107 J
2 x 108 N
2 x 10-7 s

3 min

Measurement

2. Write the following in prefix


notation
50 nm

a) 5 x 10-8 m = 46 km
b) 4.6 x 104 m = 530 ns
c) 5.3 x 10-7 s = 25.5 MJ
d) 2.55 x 107 J = 90 mA
e) 9 x10-2 A =

Real calculations

Measurement

The Large Hadron Collider

Measurement

The large hadron collider at


CERN has a 27 km ring.
Protons are fired around the
LHC at approximately 0.99
times the speed of light.
How long does it take them to
complete one lap?

Measurement

t=d=
27000
= 9.09x10-5 s
v
0.99 x 3x108

Real calculations

Measurement

The Eagle Nebula

The three pillars of the eagle nebula are 2-3


light years tall.

The pillar of the stellar spire is 9.5 light years


tall.

Measurement

Pluto orbits at 5.94 1012 meters from the


Sun.

How many times would the diameter of


Plutos orbit fit into the stellar spire?
The space shuttle could travel at 28 x 10 3
km/h in orbit. How long would it take to travel
the length of the stellar spire at this speed?

Measurement

1light year = 3x108 x 365 x 24 x 60


x 60
= 9.46 x 1015
stellar spire = 9.46 x 1015 x 9.5
= 8.99 x 1016 m
Diameter of plutos orbit = 2 x 5.94 x
1012
= 1.99 x 1013 m
8.99 x 1016 = 7555 times
1.19 x 1013

Real calculations

Measurement

Halleys Comet

Measurement

Halleys Comet has a mass of


between
2.2 1014 kg and 1.7 1015 kg
and is between 15km 7km 7km
and
15km 11km 8km in size.

Find upper and lower bounds for


the volume, in m3, and density, in
kg/m3, of Halleys Comet.

Use these density figures together


with known densities in the table
below to predict what material
Halleys Comet may be made up of:
Material

Measurement

Interstellar
medium
cork

Density
11020
240

Material

Density

Iron

7,870

Copper

8,940

Ice

916.7

Silver

10,500

Water

1,000

11,340

Magnesium

1,740

Lead
Inner Core of the
Earth

Silicon

2,330

Mercury

13,546

Aluminium

2,700

Gold

19,320

Diamond

3,500

19,840

Titanium

4,540

Plutonium
The core of the
Sun

The Earth

5,515

Black hole

13,000

150,000
41017

Vmin = 7.35x1011 m3

Measurement

Vmax = 1.32x1012 m3
max = mmax = 1.7x1015
kg/m3
Vmin
1.32x1012
min = mmin = 2.2x1014
kg/m3
Vmax
7.35x1011

= 1288

= 299

Measurement

Suggest reasons why scientists


and geologists may cast doubt on
these figures.

Measurement

1.02

Experimental Errors
All pupils will be able to:
Select appropriate measurement
instruments.
Make use of good practical techniques, for
example avoiding parallax error.
Most pupils will be able to:
Define the terms precision and accuracy.
Calculate % difference in a measurement.
Some pupils will be able to:
Analyse data graphically by referring to the
equation of a straight line graph.

The Pendulum

Measurement

How does the length of a


pendulum effect its period?
Discuss

with a partner how you would


plan an experiment to find out.
What would you vary and over what range?
What would you measure and how?
What could you do to improve your
measurements?

Precision of measurements

Measurement

The precision of a measurement


instrument is taken to be the
smallest unit shown.
Which would be appropriate to
measure the length of the
pendulum?
Meter rule
= 0.50 mm
Vernier calipers
= 0.1 mm
Micrometer
= 0.01 mmbob

length

What would be the precision in


your measurement of time?

Measurement

Consider what would contribute to


errors in the measurement of time?
How could you improve your
measurement of the period of the
pendulum?

Carry out your experiment.


Measurements must be given to the
appropriate precision.
You should have at least 6 values for
length
over a wide range.
Length (m)

Time for 5
oscillations 1 (s)

Period, T(s)

Conclusion.

Measurement

We started with the question:


How does the length of a
pendulum effect its period?
What is your conclusion?

Using Graphs

Measurement

We can use your measurements to find


the gravitational field strength, g since,

Therefore,
T 2 = 4 2 l
g

What should you plot to give a straight


line graph?

Measurement

How can you find g from this graph?


Plot the graph and find a value for g
(You can use Excel if you have access)

Calculate the difference between your


measured value and the accepted value.
Give this as a percentage of the
accepted value.

Motion

Motion

Measuring Speed and


Acceleration
Graphs of Motion
Vector Graphs of Motion
Acceleration
Equations of Motion
Measuring g in Freefall
Introduction to Projectiles
More on Projectiles

1.03

Measuring Speed and


Acceleration

Motion

All pupils will be able to:


Describe methods of measuring speed in detail.
Calculate speed and acceleration using practical data.
Calculate the mean of a set of results considering
anomalies.
Most pupils will be able to:
Explain the difference between average and instantaneous
speed.
Calculate the absolute and percentage uncertainty in a
repeat measurement.

Some pupils will be able to:


Evaluate and compare a traditional method of measuring
speed and a method using ICT in terms of reliability and
validity of data.

Measuring Speed and


Acceleration

Motion

In experimental measurement
it is important that results are
both reliable and valid.

Reliable

Motion

The idea behind reliability is that any


significant results must be more than a
one-off finding and be repeatable.
Other researchers must be able to
perform exactly the same experiment,
under the same conditions and generate
the same results.

If a number of repeated
measurements are similar with no
anomalies they are said to be
reliable.

Motion

Valid
Validity is a general term and covers the entire
experimental set up. If results obtained are valid
they meet all of the requirements of the scientific
research method.
Has only one variable been changed and all
others carefully controlled? Are precisions of
instruments appropriate for the measurements?
Could any noted relationships be caused by other
factors?

If an experimental design meets all the


requirements of the scientific method
then results are said to be valid.

Method 1 - Traditional

Distance = _______ m
Time taken (s)
1

Ave

Uncertainty

Average
speed
(m/s)

Final speed
(m/s)

Acceleration
(m/s2)

Remember:

Speed = distance Average speed = final speed initial spee


time
2

Method 2 Using ICT


distance

Distance = _______ m
Time taken (s)
1

Ave

Uncertainty

%
Uncertain
ty

Averag
e
speed
(m/s)

Final
speed
(m/s)

Acceleratio
n (m/s2)

Calculating Uncertainty

Motion

The error or uncertainty in a set of


measurements is given by:
maximum minimum
2
The percentage uncertainty is
given by:
uncertainty x 100%
mean

Which method is the most reliable?

Motion

Justify your answer using your


results.

1.04

Graphs of Motion

Motion

All pupils will be able to:


Accurately plot a speed time graph from
collected data.
Describe the motion of an object from a graph
of distance, speed or acceleration against time
Most pupils will be able to:
Calculate distance travelled and acceleration
from a speed / time graph.
Some pupils will be able to:
Link graphs of motion to real world examples.

Have a go at the flash animations:


\\filesrv\sci\PHYSICS\Year 12\Flash Animations\ALL THE FLASH
ANIMATIONS!

Distance Time Graph

Motion

Distance Time Graph 2


Distance Time Graph Challenge!
Acceleration Freefall

time

Stationary

time

Constant speed

Distance

Distance

Distance

Distance

Now complete the following


graphs.

time

Accelerating

time

Decelerating

Stationary

Speed

Speed

Speed

Speed

time

time

Constant speed

time

Accelerating

time

Decelerating

Stationary

Acceleration

Acceleration

Acceleration

Acceleration

time

time

Constant speed

time

time

Accelerating

Decelerating

Matrix Graph

Motion

Click on the picture below to watch the clip


of the car chase from The Matrix.

Complete the following table of information.

Incident

(A)

(B)

(C)

Car
Twin
moves
shoots at
onto
car
motorwa
y
Speed(m/
s)
Time on
stop
watch
Incident
Time in
seconds

20

Gold car
turns
over

20

(D)

(F)

Black car Twin flies


turns
into car
over

20

(E)

25

(H)

(I)

Agent
jumps
onto car

30

30

(J)

(K)

0
(G)
0
Agent
pulls off
top of car

Speed(m/s)

Trinity
Tyre on car
slams on
burst
the brakes

35

25

Car gets
slammed
into wall

Car stops

20

Time on
stop watch

Time in
seconds

Motion

Matrix Graph
1.

Plot these results on a speed time graph, with


time on the bottom axis (the x axis) and speed
on the side axis (the y axis).

2.

Label the points where there is a change in


motion A,B,C,D,E,F,H,I,J and K. Example: point
A is at time 0 and speed 0.

3.

Work out the acceleration between each point.

4.

Work out the total distance travelled during


the car chase.

Motion

1.04

Vectors Graphs of Motion


What do
you
already
know
about
vector
A vector quantity
is
quantities?
defined by
magnitude (size) and
direction.

Motion

Vector Graphs of Motion

All pupils will be able to:


State the definition of a vector and scalar quantity
and give an example of each.
Describe the motion of an object from a velocity / time
graph.
State the definition of displacement and compare with
distance.
Calculate distance and displacement from
velocity/time graphs.
Most pupils will be able to:
Sketch the velocity /time graph of a moving object
with a change in direction.
Sketch the acceleration/time graph of a moving object
with a change in direction.
Some pupils will be able to:

Motion

Scalar

Vector

Speed

Velocity

Distance

Displacement

Time

Acceleration

Mass

Force

Energy

Weight

!
e
s
e
h
t
n
r
Lea

Imagine a tennis ball dropping


from your hand, falling towards the
ground and bouncing back up
again.
Start

Motion

There is a change in direction.

end

How would this motion look on a


velocity / time graph ?

velocity

Label the graph to indicate


where the ball is at each point

Positive
direction
+
0

negative
direction
-

time

Sketch

a velocity / time
graph for a ball thrown
upwards and returning to
your hand.

Motion

Now

draw an
acceleration/ time graph
for the motion. Consider
what is causing the
Start
acceleration of the ball.

end

velocity

Label the graph to indicate


where the ball is at each point.

Positive
direction
+
0

negative
direction
-

time

acceleration
Positive
direction
+
0

time

negative
direction
-9.81
-

Now try the following questions

1. Draw the corresponding velocity /time graph for


the object shown below. The object started from
rest.

Motion

2. Draw the corresponding acceleration /time graph


for the object -2
v / ms
shown below.

t/s

3.

A ball is dropped from rest and bounces several times, losing kinetic
energy at each bounce. Sketch a velocity /time graph to represent

this

Motion

motion.

Answers
1
.

Motion

V / ms-1
30

10
0

t/s

v / ms-2
2
.

t/s

Motion

a / ms-2
5

0
-0.5

-10

3 4

10

t/s

3
.
v / ms-1

Motion

t/s

Distance is a scalar quantity and is


the total length of a path.
The vector measurement of length
is called displacement.
Displacement is the difference in
position from the start to the end
of a path and must include
direction. It is represented by the
symbol s.
Click on the following to see the
difference between the two
measurements

Here is the graph of the ball thrown upwards


and returning to the hand again.
V / ms-1
5

0.5

1.0

t /s

-5

Calculate the distance travelled by the ball


What is its displacement?

V / ms-1
7

Here is the graph of the ball dropped from a


height and bouncing off the floor.

0.7

6.9

1.39

t /s

Calculate the distance travelled by the ball


Find its displacement?

1.06

Acceleration

Motion

All examples so far have shown a


constant or uniform acceleration.
However in many cases
acceleration varies during the
motion.
For example, think about the
launch of the space shuttle and a
racing
dragster.
Dragster
Space shuttle
acceleration

launch

In each case
what happens
to their
acceleration
and why?

Motion

Think

yourself in silence and


write down your ideas on a mini
white board.
Pair up with your neighbour and
see if you can come up with any
more ideas.

Acceleration

Motion

All pupils will be able to:


Give examples where a moving object experiences nonuniform motion.
Calculate acceleration at a particular time from a v/t graph
where an object experiences non-uniform acceleration.
State that an object in circular motion is accelerating.
Most pupils will be able to:
Explain the causes of non-uniform acceleration in
examples.
Explain why an object in circular motion must be
accelerating even if it is moving at constant speed.
Some pupils will be able to:
Link knowledge to unfamiliar examples in different
contexts.

The acceleration of a mass is


caused by an unbalanced force
acting on it.

Motion

Remember F=ma
Therefore acceleration changes if
unbalanced force or mass
thrust
changes.
thrust

drag

drag + weight

Dragster:
As the velocity of a dragster car
increases the air resistance will increase.
This reduces the unbalanced force and
the acceleration of the car will decrease.

Motion

Space shuttle:
As the space shuttle takes off it uses up fuel
which reduces its mass and weight. As it rises
the air becomes less dense which reduces air
resistance and the force of gravity is reduced
which reduces its weight. Therefore the
acceleration of the space shuttle will increase.

time

Motion

velocity

velocity

velocity

Velocity / time graphs

Uniform
acceleration

time

Increasing
acceleration

time

Decreasing
acceleration

On a velocity / time graph:


Acceleration = gradient of the
line
Displacement = area under the

celeration at an instant is found from the gradient of a tange

Now try these questions..

1.

The graph shows how the velocity of a schoolgirl


sprinter varies
with time during a race.
(a) Describe her acceleration over the time shown.
(b) Estimate her displacement after 15 s.
(c) Estimate her initial acceleration.

2.

The graph shows the velocity of a car over a 50s


period.
(a) Calculate the acceleration of the car at a time of
3s.

Answers

Motion

1. (a) Her acceleration starts at a maximum


and decreases to zero after about 8 s.
(b) 100 4 m
(c) 2 ms-2
2. (a) 2.3 0.2 ms-2
(b) The graph has a changing gradient.
This
shows the acceleration is non-uniform.
The acceleration is decreasing as the drag
increases causing a smaller resultant force.

More about acceleration.

Motion

The blue ball


is moving at
constant
speed.
Is it
accelerating?
Explain.
Now write

n
o
i
t
a
r
e
l
Acce

re
e
h
t
t
Ge
!
faster

Imagine your friend


was absent today.
On your mini white
board write a very
brief set of
instructions to teach
them what they
missed.
I
m
e
h
t
l
l
e
t
Dont
a
e
r
e
w
y
e
said th
dummy.

1.07

Equations of Motion

Motion

All pupils will be able to:


State the 4 equations of motion.
Calculate solutions to straight-forward
problems
Most pupils will be able to:
Derive some of the equations of motion.
Calculate solutions to more complex problems

Some pupils will be able to:


Link the use of equations of motion to
unfamiliar contexts
Apply use of equations of motion to real life

Watch how long it takes a formula 1


racing car can to go from 0 to 100km/h.
Calculate its acceleration.

Motion

You have
just used
the first
equation of
motion

100 km =
100000
3600
= 27.8 m/s

Motion

Equation 1

The second we can work out from what


we know already.
v
A2
u
A1
t

Motion

Displacement = area under v/t graph


A1 = lb = ut
A2 = bh = (v-u)t
s = ut + (v-u)t

s = ut + at2

Equation 2

Average velocity can be calculated


using:
average v = u + v
2

Motion

and

displacement = v t

s = (v + u) t Equation3
therefore 2

The 4th equation is found by


combining 2 of the other equations:

Motion

v2 = u2 +2as

Equation 4

You need to know these equations and be


able to select the appropriate one to solve a
calculation.
Often this is easier to do by thinking about
the quantity that is missing from each
equation.

no s

Motion

no v

no a
no t

When you do not have a certain quantity and


are not trying to find it then this helps you to
select the appropriate formula.

Examples
1.
2.

3.

4.

5.

Answers

Motion

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

280 m
51.2 m
19.8 m
16.7 s
(a)(i) height = 21.3 m
(ii) 15.6 m downwards
(b) 34.6 m

Challenge

Motion

In your group work out how to find


out the height of the F-block
balcony using only a tennis ball and
a stopwatch.
When your teacher has checked
your plan you can carry out your
measurements and see which
group gets the most accurate
answer i.e closest to the true value.

And the answer is.


Insert
answer!!!!

Motion

Which group got the most


accurate answer?
Do you remember how to
calculate the percentage
difference in your value?

Motion

What other factors might give you


random or systematic errors?

1.08

Measuring g in Freefall

Motion

All pupils will be able to:


Use real data and equations of motion to
calculate g by graphical method.
Describe experimental procedure to calculate g.
Most pupils will be able to:
Gather data experimentally with care and attention to
precision of measurements.
Explain the experimental procedure with reference to
equations of motion.

Some pupils will be able to:


Evaluate the experimental procedure used with reference
to precision of measurements, random and systematic
errors.

Motion

How could you use this


apparatus to measure the
acceleration of a ball
bearing in freefall?
Use the mini
white board to
describe your
plan.

Start your experimental writeup:


Title
Apparatus

Motion

Method
Results

s
(m)

0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0

t1
(s)

t2
(s)

t3
(s)

Averag Averag Fina


e
ev
lv
t
(m/s) (m/s
(s)
)

Draw

a graph of final velocity


against time.

How

can you find acceleration due


to gravity from this?

Motion

What
How

value did you get?

does this compare with the


accepted value of 9.81 ms-2?

Go for the A!
Can

you calculate your


percentage difference?

Motion

What

factors in the set up could


have contributed to random or
systematic errors?

Now

complete your write-up by


adding a conclusion and
evaluation.

1.09

Introducing Projectiles

Motion

A projectile is an object which is


fired, kicked or thrown. It has
horizontal and vertical motion.
Examples are; footballs, javelins,
cannon balls or .........
Click

on me
to
play..
..
I mea
n
expe
rimen
t

Introducing Projectiles
pupils will be able to:
Describe the trajectory of a projectile.
Describe the horizontal and vertical motions of projectile
motion.
Give examples of projectiles.
Complete straight forward calculations involving projectiles
using equations of motion.

Motion

All

Most

pupils will be able to:


Explain the horizontal and vertical motions of a projectile.
Solve more complex problems involving projectiles.

Some pupils will be able to:


Apply knowledge to describe and explain projectile motion in
different contexts.

Motion

The path of a projectile is called its trajectory.


Compare its horizontal and vertical motions.

An object projected horizontally and one


dropped will take the same time to hit
the ground.

Motion

Also Projectiles
Vertical Time
animation here

Horizontally:

Vertically:

No

Resultant

resultant
force
a=0
Constant velocity

force
due to gravity
a= 9.81 ms-2
down

Example
1. A ball is thrown horizontally from the top of a
vertical cliff. The cliff is 50m high and the ball
lands
60m from the bottom of the cliff.
(a) How long does it take for the ball to reach
the bottom of the cliff?

Motion

Vertically:

50 m

s= 50 m
u= 0
v= /
a= 9.81 m/s
t= ?

60 m

(b) Calculate the horizontal speed of the


ball?
Horizontally:
s= 60 m
u= v =?
a= 0
t= 3.2s

Always use this for


horizontal motion as
a=0

Motion

(c) What is the vertical speed of the ball


as it lands?
Vertically:

Motion

s= 50 m
u= 0
v= ?
a= 9.81
m/s
t= /

Now try these ones yourself

2. A tennis ball is hit horizontally from the top of a high


building. It takes 4 s to reach the ground and it lands
80m from the building.
(a) Find the height of the building?
(b) At what vertical velocity does the ball hit the
ground?
(c) Calculate its horizontal velocity?
3. A student wants to find out how fast he can throw a
ball. He throws the ball horizontally from a height of
2m and it lands 20m away from where he is standing.
Calculate the original velocity of the ball.
4. An object is projected horizontally at a speed of 16ms -1
into the sea from a cliff top of height 45.0m. Calculate:
(a) How long it takes to reach the sea.
(b) How far it travels horizontally.

Motion

Answers

2. (a) 78.5 m
(b) 39.2 m
(c) 20 m/s
3. 0.64 s
4. (a) 3.03 s
(b) 48.5 m

5. A box is released from a plane travelling with a

horizontal velocity of 250 m/s and a height of 300


m.
(a) Calculate the time it takes to hit the ground.
(b) Find the horizontal distance between the
point of impact and the release point.
(c) State and explain the position of the plane
relative to the box at the time of impact.
6. A stunt driver plans to jump across a canal of width
10 m. The drop to the other side is 2 m as shown.
(a)Calculate the horizontal speed required to make
it to the other side.
(b) State any assumptions you have made.

Answers
5. (a) 7.82 s
(b) 1955 m
(c) The plane will be directly above the box at
the
time of impact as they both continue to
travel at a constant speed of 250 m/s.
6. (a) 15.7 m/s
(b) This is assuming a constant horizontal speed
i.e. no unbalance force horizontally. This may
not be the case due to air resistance and wind.

7. An archer fires an arrow horizontally at a

velocity of 60 m/s aiming directly at its


centre. She stands a distance of 30 m away
from the target which is 122 cm in diameter.
(a)
(b)
is
fired.

Show if the arrow will hit the target?


Explain what would happen if the target
released at the instant the arrow is

Answers

7. (a) No. Vertically, s=1.23m and the


radius of the target is 0.6 m. The arrow
will fall below the
target.
(b) The arrow and the target are both
accelerated towards the ground at 9.81
ms-2 due to gravity.
Therefore the arrow
will hit the centre of the
Click target.
me to see the
monkey
and the hunter
experiment.

Post it!

o
t
d
e
ne

Use Post it notes to


record .
Things to remember
from this lesson.
Anything you need
help with.

r
e
b
m
e
m
e
r

h
t
i
w
p
l
e
If you need help with
h
d
e
ne
anything stick your
note to the notice on
the wall.

Motion

1.10

More on Projectiles
All pupils will be able to:
Calculate the horizontal and vertical components of a
velocity vector for a projectile at an angle to the
horizontal.
Calculate the resultant velocity of a projectile from its
horizontal and vertical components.

Most pupils will be able to:


Apply the above skills to projectiles fired at an angle.

Some pupils will be able to:


Apply the above to challenging problems in unfamiliar
contexts.
Describe and explain the trajectory of a projectile with
large air resistance.

Many projectiles are fired at an angle


to the horizontal.
Human
projectile

Motion

In these examples we need to be able


to use 2 skills:
1. Resolve the velocity of a projectile
into horizontal and vertical
components.
2. Combine horizontal and vertical
components of the velocity of a
projectile to give its resultant value.

1. Resolving components of a vector


Vv

Vh

Motion

Remember:

Vh

Vv

SOH-CAH-TOA

Vh = V cos
Vv = V sin

!
e
s
e
h
t
n
r
a
Le

Example:
A shell is fired from a cannon at
50m/s at an angle of 600 to the
horizontal. Find the horizontal and
vertical components of its velocity.

Motion

Answer:
vh = 25 m/s
vv= 43.3 m/s

2. Adding vectors
You can you the parallelogram
method you used at IGCSE or...
Vh

Motion

Vv

These are the horizontal


and vertical velocity
components of a projectile
as
it hits
theso
ground.
Draw
them
that you add
one to the end of the other.
(It doesnt matter which
one you take first)

2. Adding vectors
You can you the parallelogram
method you used at IGCSE or...
Vh

Motion

Vv

These are the horizontal


and vertical velocity
components of a projectile
as
it hits
theso
ground.
Draw
them
that you add
one to the end of the other.
(It doesnt matter which
one
take
Nowyou
draw
thefirst)
resultant

velocity from the start of


the first arrow to the end of
theits
last.
How can we find
magnitude and

direction?

Find the magnitude of the


velocity using Pythagoras
Theorem:

Vh

Motion

Vv

Find the angle from horizontal


using trigonometry:

Again:

SOH-CAH-TOA

Example
A golf ball comes to land on the green with a
vertical velocity of 4 m/s and a horizontal
velocity of 3 m/s. Calculate its resultant
velocity.

Motion

Look out for 3-4-5 triangles

0
=36.9

1.

2.

3. In a science demonstration
mentos are dropped into
bottles of coke. The bottles
are all placed at a 500 angle
to the horizontal. The
coke leaves the bottles at 5m/s.
Calculate:
(a) The horizontal and vertical components.
(b) Calculate the maximum horizontal
distance
travelled by the coke.

Motion

Answers
1. (a) 20m/s
(b) 20.4m
(c) 4.08s
(d) 141m
2. (a) 8s
(b) 379m
3. (a) vh=3.21m/s vv=3.83m/s
(b) 2.5m

Real Projectiles

Motion

In reality other factors can effect


the motion of a projectile.

If a balloon and a tennis ball are


thrown with the same initial velocity
what would happen and why?
Click to try
simulation.

Motion

Projectile path with no air resistance:


Symmetrical
Greater range
Greater maximum height

Projectile path with air resistance:


Falls at a steeper gradient
Smaller range
Smaller maximum height

Forces

Forces

Newtons

1st Law
Centre of Mass
Newtons 2nd Law
Force Vectors
Gravity
Newtons 3rd Law
It is Rocket Science

1.11

Newtons 1st Law


All pupils will be able to:
State Newtons 1st Law.
Describe how Newtons 1st Law applies to everyday
situations.
Draw and interpret free-body diagrams representing forces
acting on an object.

Most pupils will be able to:


Explain the effects of Newtons 1st Law using a
demonstration.

Some pupils will be able to:


Link Newtons 1st Law to the concept of inertia.

Newtons 1st Law

Forces

An object will remain at rest or


continue to move at constant
speed until acted upon by an
unbalanced force.

Click above to try the simulation

Forces

The tendency to resist changes in their


state of motion is described asinertia.

Forces

Inertia: The resistance an object has


to a change in itsstate of motion .
The tendency of an object to resist
changes in its state of motion varies
with mass.

Demo of Newtons 1st Law

Forces

Is Barbie a safe driver?

Free-body Diagrams
An object it taken in isolation and the forces acting on
it are shown using arrows.
The object is represented by a box or a circle.
The arrows start on the object and point away from it.
length of the arrow represents the magnitude of
the force.

Forces

The

Forces

Car

Name

the forces acting on the car.


If all the forces are equal, describe
the motion of the car.

Complete free-body diagrams for the following:

A book at
rest
on a desk

A car
decelerating to
the right.

A girl
hanging
motionless
on a rope.
A skydiver
descending at
constant speed.

A punch bag
supported by
2 ropes as
shown.

A skier
accelerating
down a slope.

Forces

1.12

How does this


work?

Can you draw a free-body


diagram for the ruler?

Forces

Centre of Mass
All pupils will be able to:
State the definition of centre of gravity.
Describe a method to find the centre of gravity
of an extended body.
Successfully carry out experiment to find the
centre of gravity of an extended body.

Most pupils will be able to:


Draw free-body diagrams for extended body at
equilibrium.

Some pupils will be able to:


Explain how the law of moments can be used to
find the mass of an extended, irregular body.

Forces

Centre of Mass
The centre of mass or centre of
gravity is defined as the point from
which the weight of a body acts i.e.
the point at which the entire mass of
the body is assumed to be
concentrated.

Centre of Mass of an Irregular Rod


Balance

the broom on the knife


edge. Mark this point its is its
centre of mass.

Use

hanging masses to
balance the broom from
another position as shown.

Note

the mass of the hanging masses


Measure the distance from the centre of
gravity to the pivot
Measure the position of the hanging masses
to the pivot

Since the broom is at equilibrium


then the law of moments applies:
Distance
from pivot
to centre of
mass

Mass
X
of
broom

Distance
Mass
from pivot to X of
hanging
hangi
masses
ng
mass
es

Forces

Use the above formula to calculate


the mass of the broom.
Now measure the mass of the broom.
How close did we get?

Write an evaluation for the


experiment.

Forces

Describe

any difficulties.
Suggest sources of error.
Suggest any improvements that
could be made.
Give percentage error in the value
of mass.

Forces

1.13

Newtons Second Law


All pupils will be able to:
Describe a method to prove Newtons 2 nd Law.
Use N2 to complete straight forward calculations.

Most pupils will be able to:


Evaluate experimental method to prove N2
discussing sources of error.
Use N2 to complete more complex calculations.

Some pupils will be able to:


Explain why N2 can also express N1
Solve problems linking equations of motion and N2.

Forces

Newtons Second Law


Use the
simulation to
investigate
the
relationship
between
applied force,
mass and
acceleration

Keep friction to a minimum


Set the applied force
here.
Change the mass being accelerated
here.

Note the value of the


acceleration here.

Constant mass:
F/N

m / kg
0.01
0.01
0.01

Forces

0.01
0.01
0.01

Remember W=mg

a / ms-2

F/a

Forces

What can you tell from the data


you have collected?

Newtons 2nd Law can be written


mathematically as:

Forces

Remember that F is the net or the extra


unbalanced force in any direction.
Notice that according to this, when there is no
net force then there is no change in velocity.
Therefore Newtons 2nd law also includes
Newtons 1st Law

Calculations:
1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

1.14

Force Vectors

Forces

Force is a vector quantity.


Therefore when more than one
force acts on an object you need to
use your vector skills to
Remember:
investigate.
1. Resolving components of a
vector
2. Adding vectors

Force Vectors

Forces

All

pupils will be able to:


State that force is a vector.
Resolve components of a force acting on an
object
Find the resultant of 2 forces acting on an object
separated by an angle.

Most pupils will be able to:


Describe the effect of a number of forces acting
on an object at different angles.
Some

pupils will be able to:


Apply knowledge of vector quantities and
newtons laws to problem solving questions.

Forces

1. A kid pulls a wagon full of his


favourite toys with a force of 4N
at an angle of 350 to the
horizontal. A frictional force of
1N acts on the wagon which has
a mass of 1.2kg. Calculate its
acceleration.

Fx

= 4 cos 350
= 3.3 N

FR = 3.3-1

Forces

= 2.3 N
F = ma
a = 2.3
1.2
= 1.9 m/s2

Forces

2. A child rides the zip line over the


water park at Atlantis. Afterwards
he looks at a photograph of himself
and notices the zip line makes a
slight V shape where he is hanging.
(a) Explain why the line must make
this shape and why it will never be
horizontal no matter how light the
child is.
(b) If the boy is 50kg and there is a
30 angle in the line from the
horizontal on each side. Calculate
the tension in the zip line.

other ride at the water park has a slope down a slope into a water pool.

Forces

(a) Calculate

the component of the


weight acting parallel down the
slope.
(b) Calculate the resultant force
acting on the child in the raft.
(c) Calculate the acceleration of the
raft.
(d) Find the final velocity of the raft
at the bottom of the slope.

Answers:

Forces

3. (a) 220N
(b) 40.5N
(c) 0.67N
(d) 8.2m/s2

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Forces

Answers:
4(a)1962N (b) 2262N (c) 1962N (d)
1662N
5(a)(i)2452.5N (ii) 2452.5N (iii) 2952.5N (iv)
1952.5N
(b) 4.19m/s2 (c) If the lift was not fully
loaded.
6. (a) 8m/s (b) 16N
7. (a) 2m/s (b) 40N (c) 20N (d) 12N
8. (a) 3.27 m/s2 (b)6.54N
9. (a) 225.5N (b) 0.376m/s2
10(a) 9.81N

xam Question: June 2010 Qu 17

xam Question: June 2011

Mark Scheme

Useful to check examiners report for this.

Feeling confident with Force Vectors?


Are you ready to move on?

1.15

Gravity

Forces

All

pupils will be able to:


State the relationships for weight and
acceleration due to gravity.

Most pupils will be able to:


Describe the effects of gravitational force.
Briefly describe the development of our
understanding of gravity.

Some pupils will be able to:


Describe in detail the development of our
understanding of gravity.
Apply knowledge of gravity to explanations in
unfamiliar contexts.

Gravitational force is one of the 4


fundamental forces of nature:

Forces

Gravitational force

Surprisingly the force of gravity is the weakest of the forces


of nature which is why a body must be the mass of a planet
before it has a strong enough field to have a noticeable
effect.

Forces

NB: You have to refer to The force of gravity


or Gravitational force not just gravity. Of
course this is also called weight.

Gravitational field strength, g is defined


as the force per unit mass acting on an
object.

N/kg

Sinc
e

g=a

ms-2

then
,

Our understanding of the force of gravity


has developed over hundreds of years
and it is still not fully understood.

Forces

Research the development of our


understanding of gravitational force and
write your own note. Include the
following philosophers or scientists:

Copy and paste is


Aristotle banned!

Galileo
Newton You must understand
Einstein everything you have written
and be able to speak about
it.

1.16

Newtons 3rd Law

Forces

For every action there is an equal


and opposite reaction.

Forces

Explain how Newtons 3rd Law allows you to swim

Forces

Newtons 3rd Law


All pupils will be able to:
State Newtons 3rd Law
Identify Newtons 3rd Law pairs.

Most pupils will be able to:


Describe the effects of Newtons third
Law pairs of forces on different bodies.

Some pupils will be able to:


Predict the outcome of N3 pairs of
forces in more complex contexts.

Forces

Exam Question: June 2011 Qu16


Some technology students build a boat with a fan attached to blow air into a sail.
They expect this to propel the boat forwards. A physics student tells them that
according to Newtons laws of motion this will not work.

(a)(i)
(ii)

Think of Your Own

Forces

Think of an example of a Newtons


3rd Law pair of forces and illustrate
it on you mini whiteboard.

1.17

It is Rocket Science
All pupils will be able to:
Identify the forces acting on examples of rockets.
State how Newtons laws of motion apply to
rockets.

Most pupils will be able to:

a method to investigate launch angle


and range of a bottle rocket.

Forces

Describe

Some pupils will be able to:


Explain

the motion of rockets and projectiles


using Newtons laws of motion.
Apply knowledge to unfamiliar contexts
involving real rockets.

Balloon Rocket

Bottle Rocket

Forces

Try out both the above rockets.


What is the difference between the forces
acting on them?
Can you describe their motion using Newtons
three laws of motion?

How does launch angle effect


range?
Artillery guns can achieve
different ranges with the
same explosive initial
force.

Forces

Your task is to investigate what effect the launch angle of a bottle


rocket has on its range and to find the angle for maximum range.
Consider what you have learned about
measurement.
How will you make sure your results are
reliable?
How will you avoid parallax error?
How will you minimise uncertainties?
Can you calculate the uncertainty in your final

Energy & Power

Energy & Power


Practical

Energy
Energy Problems
Investigating Power
Calculating Power
Applications of Mechanics

Energy & Power

1.18

Practical Energy
All pupils will be able to:
Recall the different forms of energy.
Describe energy transfers for real life
examples.
Recall relationships for kinetic energy,
gravitational potential energy and work done.

Most pupils will be able to:


Describe the law of conservation of energy.
Describe an experiment to find the work done
by friction on a trolley rolling down a slope.

Some pupils will be able to:


Find an uncertainty for the measured value of
work done calculated in the experiment.

Energy & Power

What is Energy?
Energy is defined as the capacity of a
physical system to performwork.
Energy exists in several different forms.

How quickly can you name them all?


Click for
stop watch

Energy & Power

Conservation of Energy
Energy can not be created or
destroyed. It can only be
transferred from one form to
another.
Can you match the energy
transfers of the objects in the card
sort?

Energy & Power

In mechanics we look particularly at


two forms of energy, kinetic and
gravitational potential energies. You
already know the formulae.....

EK =

EP =

When energy is transferred we say that work is done.

Work done is equal to the quantity of energy transferre

Finding work done by friction

How would you calculate the work done


by friction on the trolley as it rolls down
the slope?

More Work

Energy & Power

1.19

All pupils will be able to:


Complete straight-forward calculations
involving kinetic and potential energies and
work done.

Most pupils will be able to:


Explain discrepancies in energy values
referring to conservation of energy.
Complete more complex calculations involving
kinetic and potential energies and work done in
combination.

Some pupils will be able to:


Link knowledge and understanding to further
real life examples.

Energy & Power

Quick Quiz

1.
2.
3.

State the law of conservation of energy.


Write the formula for kinetic energy.
Which of these units is the same as a
joule?
(a) kg.N.m2 (b) kgms-2 (c) W/s

4.
5.

Calculate the EP gained by a 70kg skier


raised to a height of 500m in a cable car.
Calculate the speed of a 40kg cheetah
with a EK of 12500J.

Energy & Power

More work
In physics we say mechanical work is done
when a force acts on something and
makes it move.
No motion - no
work.
Simple as that.
This poor guy
doesnt know it
but he is doing no
mechanical work!

Energy & Power

Applied force

We only consider the


component of the
applied
force in the direction of
motion

Direction of motion

Work done = force

(in direction of motion)

W=
F.s

x displacement

Energy & Power

Example:
A woman pushes a lawn mover with a force of 120
N at an angle of 480 to the ground. If she travels
7m across the grass, how much work has she
done?
Force in the direction of motion = F cos 480
FH = 120 cos 480
= 80.3 N
W = F.s
= 80.3 x 7
= 562N

Energy & Power

Cautious or Confident?

eets
h
s
i on
t
s
e
o qu
t
s
ure
t
c
i
p
i nk
l
r
e
Hyp

Consider how you did in the quiz and


your understanding of energy and
work and choose which questions to
start working on.

1.20

Investigating Power
All pupils will be able to:
State the relationship for power.
Calculate their own power.

Most pupils will be able to:


Describe a method to find their own power.

Some pupils will be able to:


Suggest sources of experimental error and
suggest improvements to method.

Energy & Power

Power is defined as the rate of


doing work.

This is a picture of the annual boat race between Oxford


and
Cambridge universities, taking place at River
Thames in London The first event took place in 1829.
This event is covered by national TV in England.

Energy & Power

Suppose everything such as total mass,


boats size and shape, water resistance
etc. is the same for both teams except
the persons rowing. The winning team
which finishes in the shortest time is
more powerful than the runners up.
Why?

Energy & Power

They have done the same amount of work as


their competitors, but quicker, taking less time.
The winners rate of working is higher.
Rate of working = Work done/Time taken
Rate of working is also called power, P.
Power = Work done / time taken
When work done is in joules and time is in
seconds, power is in joules per second or
watts.

Energy & Power

Power

watts
(W)
Work done
Therefore:

Work done
Time
taken
= Force x distance

Power
time
Power

= Force x distance

= Force x velocity

P = F.v

Energy & Power

How would you measure


your own power?

If you are given a weighing


scale, a steel tape measure
and a stop watch, you can
measure your own average
power.
1. Find your mass m in
kgs.
2. Measure the height, h of
the top of a flight of
stairs.
3. Stand close to the bottom
of the flight of stairs.
4. Start the stopwatch when
you

5. Stop the watch


when youve
reached the top.
6. Record the time
taken, t
7. Calculate P =
mgh/t
This is your average

An old unit for power is


horsepower which is often still
used to describe to power of cars.
1 HP = 750 W
Convert your own power into horsepower.

SSC Tuatara 6.9L V8 Twin Turbo - 1350bhp


Bugatti Veyron 8.0 litre W16 Super Sport 1184bhp
Bugatti Veyron 16.4 Grand Sport Vitesse 1184bhp
SSC Ultimate Aero TT - 1183bhp
Koenigsegg Agera R 5.0 V8 - 1124bhp
Porsche 9FF GT9R - 1120bhp
Koenigsegg Agera 5L V8 - 1100bhp
Hennessey Venom GT - 1030bhp
Koenigsegg Agera S 5.0 V8 Hundra - 1016bhp
Koenigsegg CCX R Special Edition 4.8 V8 S1004bhp

1.21
1.

2.

Power Calculations

3.

4.
5.

6.

Energy & Power

1.22

Efficiency
No machine is 100% efficient.
How can this be true considering
the law of conservation of energy?
Can you remember
how to calculate
efficiency?

Finding the Efficiency of a Motor


What quantities will you need to
measure?
How will you measure them?
Are there variable(s) which need to
be controlled?
What calculations will you need to
carry out?
What are the sources of error?
How can you make your results more
reliable?

Complete an experimental write-up:


Title
Apparatus
Method
Results
Conclusion
Evaluation

1.24
1.25

Applications of Mechanics
This is your chance to showcase what you
have learned so far. Consider the topic areas:
Motion

Acceleration, graphs, equations of motion, projectiles


Forces
Newtons 3 laws, vectors, gravity, centre of mass
Energy and Power
Conservation of energy, EP , EK, power, efficiency

Choose a subject to apply your


knowledge to for example a sport, hobby
or interest of your own
Here are some ideas:
Football, computer games, construction,
travel, ice skating, F1 racing, ballet
dancing, skiing, weapons, archery, water
rides, space flight, parachuting,
childrens toys.........
The list is
endless.....................................................

Your task is to give a 5 min


presentation describing and
explaining how mechanics is involved
in your chosen subject.
You may use any props or resources
you like.
Your presentation will be assessed by
the rest of the class on relevance,

accuracy and interest.