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OISD-STD-117:2012

FIRE PROTECTION FACILITIES


FOR
PETROLEUM DEPOTS ,TERMINALS,
PIPELINE INSTALLATIONS AND LUBE
OIL INSTALLATIONS

1.Definitions
Petroleum Depots & Terminals: A portion of the property,
where combustible/flammable liquids are received by tanker,
pipelines, tanks wagons, tank trucks and are stored or blended
in bulk for the purpose of distribution by tankers, pipelines,
tank wagons ,tank trucks, portable tanks or containers.
Pipeline Installations: Pipeline installations are those
facilities on cross -country pipelines which have pumping
and /or delivery station with or without storages.
Lube Oil Installations: The facilities meant for receipt,
storage and blending of base oils & additives into finished Lube
products. It includes lube blending plants, grease
manufacturing plants & small can filling plants

Definitions
Aviation Fuelling Stations: The facilities where ATF is
received by tanks wagons, tank trucks & pipeline and
stored in bulk for dispatch of product by pipeline. It also
includes storage of methanol and other additives in drums.
Hazardous Area: Petroleum having flash point below
65 C or any flammable gas or vapor in a concentration
capable of ignition is likely to be present.
Petroleum having flash point above 65C is likely to be
refined blended or stored at above its flash point.

2.Petroleum Classification
Petroleum Class A: means petroleum having a flash
point below 23C

Petroleum Class B: means petroleum having a flash


point of 23C and above but below 65C.
Petroleum Class C: means petroleum having flash
point of 65C and above but below 93C
Excluded Petroleum : means petroleum having flash
point above 93C and above.

3.Fire Protection

Fire Water System


Foam System
Clean Agent Protection System
First Aid Fire Fighting Equipment
Mobile Fire Fighting Equipment
Carbon Dioxide System
Dry Chemical Extinguishing System
Portable Fire Fighting Equipment

4.Design Criteria
The fire water system shall be provided based on single
largest fire contingency for all locations where total
tankage in the terminal is up to 30,000 KL.
The fire water system shall be provided based on two
largest fire contingencies simultaneously for all locations
where total tankage in the terminal is more than
30,000KL.
Class A petroleum ground tanks shall have fixed water
spray system however installations above 1000 KL
storage fulfilling the following both conditions are
exempted from the provision of fixed water spray system.

I.

Aggregate above ground storage of Class A & B


petroleum up to 5000 KL
II. Floating roof tank storing Class A petroleum having
diameter up to 9 m.
. Class 'B' above ground Petroleum storage tanks (fixed
roof or floating roof) of diameter larger than 30 m shall
be provided with fixed water spray system.
. Fixed foam system or Semi-fixed foam system shall be
provided on tanks (floating roof or fixed roof) exceeding
18 m diameter storing Class A or Class B petroleum.

Automatic actuated Rim Seal fire detection and


extinguishing system shall be provided on all existing
tank storing Class A Petroleum products.
Clean Agent (Halon substitute) based flooding system
should be provided for control rooms, computer rooms/
repeater station and pressurized rooms in major
locations having automated pipeline receipt and
dispatch.

4.1.1Design Flow Rate


Water flow rate of 3 lpm/m for cooling tank on fire.
Water flow calculated for exposure protection for all other
tanks falling within a radius of (R+30) m from center of
the tank on fire (R-Radius of tank on fire) and situated in
the same dyke at a rate of 3 lpm/m of tank shell area.
Water flow calculated for exposure protection for all other
tanks falling outside a radius of (R+30) m from center of
the tank on fire and situated in the same dyke at a rate of
1lpm/m of tank shell area.
Various combinations shall be considered in the tank farm
for arriving at different fire water flow rate and the largest
rate to be considered for design

I.

Fire water flow for pump house shed at cross country


pipeline installations shall be at a rate of 10.2
lpm/m.
II. Fire water flow rate for TW loading gantry and
product pump house in a depot or terminal shall be
calculated at a rate of @ 10.2 lpm/m.
III. For Pump of volatile product/s located under pipe
rack fire water flow rate shall be calculated at a rate of
20.4 lpm/ m.
IV. Fire water flow rate for supplementary streams shall
be based on using 4 single hydrant outlets. Capacity of
each hydrant outlet as 36 m3/hr shall be considered
at a pressure of 7kg/cm (g).

4.1.2 Storage
The effective capacity of the reservoir/tank shall be
minimum 4 hours of the aggregate rated capacity of
pumps.
For all locations with total storage capacity upto
30,000KL, wherever reliable water replenishment @
50% or more is available, the fire water storage capacity
can be reduced to 3 hours of the aggregate rated capacity
of pumps.
For all locations with total storage capacity more than
30,000KL, wherever reliable water replenishment @
50% or more is available, the single largest fire
contingency shall be considered for Fire water storage.

4.1.3 Fire Water Pumps


The pumps shall be capable of discharging 150% of its rated
discharge.
At least one standby fire water pump shall be provided up
to 2 nos. of main pumps. For main pumps upto 3 and
above, minimum 2 standby pumps of the same type,
capacity & head as the main pumps shall be provided.
The fire water pump(s) including the standby pump(s) shall
be of diesel engine driven type. where electric supply is
reliable, 50% of the pumps can be electric driven.
Fire water pumps & storage shall be located far away from
the potential leak sources / tankage are and shall be at least
30 m (minimum) away from equipment or where
hydrocarbons are handled or stored

A standby jockey pump of similar type capacity and head


shall be provided. The capacity of jockey pumps shall be
5% minimum and maximum 10% of the design fire water
rate

4.1.4 Fire Water Network


The fire water network steel piping should normally be
laid above ground at a height of at least 300 mm.
The fire water main ring shall have at least 1 m earth
cushion in open ground, 1.5 m cushion under the road
crossings.
The mains shall be supported at regular intervals not
exceeding 6 m. For pipeline size less than 150 mm,
support interval shall not exceed 3 m.
Fire water ring main shall be sized for 120% of the design
water flow rate.

4.1.5 Hydrants & Monitors


At least one hydrant post shall be provided for every 30 m of
external wall measurement or perimeter of battery limit in case
of high hazard areas, For non-hazardous area, they shall be
spaced at 45 m intervals
Hydrants shall be located at a minimum distance of 15 m from
the periphery of storage tank.
Double headed hydrants with two separate landing valves or
monitor shall be used.
All hydrant outlets/monitor isolation valves shall be situated at
workable height of 1.2 meter
Monitors shall not be installed within 15 m of hazardous
equipment.
The location of the monitors shall not exceed 45 m from the
hazard to be protected.

For marketing terminals & Petroleum Depots, the


remote operated high volume long range water cum
foam monitors (Capacity 500/750/1000 GPM and above
) to fight tank fires shall be provided.
High volume long range monitors shall be located at
distance of 15m to 45 m from the hazardous equipment.
Minimum two nos. of fixed type HVLR monitors shall be
installed for each tank farm containing storage tanks of
Class A products having aggregate storage capacity up to
10,000 KL

In tank farm having aggregate storage capacity more


than 10,000 KL of Class A product, additional monitor/s
should be provided to meet foam application rate of 8.1
LPM/m.
Minimum one no. trolley mounted mobile type water
cum foam HVLR monitor shall be placed for covering the
tank farms storing Class B/C products.
Numbers & Capacity of monitor shall be provided in
such a way that the foam application rate from the
monitor meets requirement of foam application rate (8.1
LPM/m) for full surface tank fire.
Hydrants and monitors shall not be installed inside the
dyke areas.

4.1.6 Material Specifications


Pipes
Carbon Steel as per IS: 3589/IS: 1239/IS: 1978
In case saline, blackish or treated effluent water is used,
the fire water ring main of steel pipes, internally cement
mortar lines or glass reinforced epoxy coated or pipes
made of material suitable for the quality of water shall be
used.
Isolation Valves
Gate or butterfly type isolation valves made of Cast Steel
having open/close indication shall be used. Other
materials such as cupro-nickel for saline/blackish water
can be used.

Hydrants
Stand post - Carbon Steel
Outlet valves - Gunmetal/ Aluminum/ Stainless/ Steel/AlZn Alloy
Fire Hoses
Reinforced Rubber Lined Hose as per IS 636 (Type
A)/Non-percolating Synthetic Hose.
Fire water mains, hydrant & monitor stand posts, risers of
water spray system shall be painted with Fire Red paint
as per of IS: 5.
Hose boxes, water monitors and hydrant outlets shall be
painted with Luminous Yellow paint as per IS: 5.
Corrosion resistant paint shall be used in corrosion prone
areas.

4.1.7 Fixed Water Spray System


Fixed water spray system is a fixed pipe system
connected to a reliable source of water supply and
equipped with water spray nozzles for specific water
discharge and distribution over the surface of area to be
protected.
Spray nozzles shall be directed radially to the tank at a
distance not exceeding 0.6 m from the tank surface.

4.2 Foam System


Foams are classified according to IS: 4989 2006
This system consists of an adequate water supply, supply
of foam concentrate, suitable proportioning equipment,
a proper piping system, foam makers and discharge
devices designed to adequately distribute the foam over
the hazard.
There are three types of systems: i) Fixed
ii) Semi-Fixed
iii) Mobile

4.2.1Floating Roof Tank Protection


Foam shall be poured at the foam dam to blanket the
roofs
Foam shall be applied to the burning hazard
continuously at a rate high enough to overcome the
destructive effects of radiant heat.
A minimum of two foam pourers shall be provided.
Foam makers/foam pourers shall be located not more
than 24 M apart on the shell perimeter based on 600
mm foam dam height.

4.2.2 Fixed Roof Tank Protection


The vapor seal chamber shall be provided with an
effective and durable seal, fragile under low pressure, to
prevent entrance of vapor into the foam conveying
piping system.
Where two or more pourers are required these shall be
equally spaced at the periphery of the tank and each
discharge outlet shall be sized to deliver foam at
approximately the same rate.
Tanks should be provided with foam discharge
outlets/pourers as:-

Fixed Roof Tank Protection


Tank Diameter (m)

Foam Pourer (minimum no.)

Above 18 & up to 20

Above 20 & up to 25

Above 25 & up to 30

Above 30 & up to 35

Above 35 & up to 40

Above 40 & up to 45

Above 45 & up to 50

10

4.2.3Protection for Dyke Area


Portable monitors/foam hose streams shall be provided
for fighting fires in dyke area and spills.
Class A tanks:
2 nos. Fixed type foam generators for each tank dyke
Class B tanks:
Two nos. portable foam generator for each location

4.2.4 Foam Application Rate


For cone roof tanks, the foam solution delivery rate shall
be at least 5 lpm/m2 of liquid surface area of the tank to
be protected.
For floating roof tanks containing liquid hydrocarbons
foam solution delivery rate shall be at least 12 lpm/ m2.

4.2.5 Foam Quantity Requirement


Foam solution application at the rate of 5 lpm/ mfor the
liquid surface of the single largest cone roof tank or at
the rate of 12 lpm/ m of seal area of the single largest
floating roof tank whichever is higher.
Size of Terminal (In
KL)

Water/Foam
Monitor
(Number)

For installation having


Nil.
Aggregate capacity of 1000KL
For Installation having
aggregate capacity above
1000KL & upto 10,000 KL

Minimum 2
Numbers

For Installation having


aggregate capacity more than
10,000 KL

More than 2
Numbers

4.3 First Aid Fire Fighting Equipment

For Pipeline Installations

4.4 Hoses, Nozzles & Accessories


(i) Hoses
Reinforced rubber lined canvas or Non-percolating
synthetic fire hoses conforming to IS- 636/UL 19 (Type A
or B) shall be provided.
The length and diameter of the hoses shall be 15 m and 63
mm respectively fitted with instantaneous type male &
female couplings of material as specified in IS 636/UL 19.
The number of hoses stored in an oil installation shall be
30% of the number of hydrant outlets. The minimum No.
of hoses stored, however, shall not be less than 10.

(ii) Nozzles
In addition to the jet nozzle provided in each hose box,
there shall be at least two nozzles in each category viz. Jet
nozzle with branch pipe, Fog nozzle, Universal nozzle,
Foam branch pipe and Water curtain nozzle as per relevant
IS/UL Codes maintained at the location.
(iii) Accessories
The following minimum no. of Personal Protective
Equipment, First Aid Equipment & Safety Instrument shall
be provided as indicated against each item.
Sand drum with scoop: 4 Nos.
Safety helmet: 1 No. per person.

Stretcher with blanket: 2 Nos.


First Aid box: 1 No.
Rubber hand glove: 2 Pairs.
Explosimeter : 1 No.
Fire proximity suit: 1 Suit.
Resuscitator: 1 No.
Electrical siren (3 Km range): 1 No.
Hand operated siren: One each at strategic locations such as Admn
Bldg, Laboratory, T/L
Loading/Unloading Facility, T/W Loading/Unloading Facility, Tank
Farm, FW Pump House &
Product Pump House (s).
Water jel blanket: 1 No.
Red & Green flag for fire drill: 2 Nos. in each color.
SCBA Set (30 minute capacity): 1 set with spare cylinder.
PA system - 1 No.
Hose box: Between two hydrant points.
Fire hose: 2 Nos. per hose box.
Jet nozzle: 1 No. in each hose box.

5. Fire Alarm System


Hand operated sirens shall be provided at strategic locations
and clearly marked in the installation.
Electric fire siren shall be installed at suitable location with
operating switch located near the risk area at a safe, identifiable
and easily accessible place.
The following fire siren codes should be followed for different
emergency situations.
FIRE: For fire situation, the siren shall be wailing sound for 2
minutes.
DISASTER: For disaster situation, the siren shall be wailing
sound for 2 minutes repeated thrice with a gap of 10 seconds.
ALL CLEAR: For all clear situation, the siren shall be straight
run sound for 2 minutes.
TEST SIREN: For testing, the siren shall be straight run
sound for 2 minutes.

6.Inspection and Testing


Fire Water Pumps:
Every pump shall be test run for at least half an hour
twice a week at the rated head & flow.
Each pump shall be checked, tested and its shut-off
pressure observed once in a month.
Each pump shall be checked & tested for its performance
once in six month by opening required nos. of
hydrants/monitors depending on the capacity of the
pump.
The testing of standby jockey pump, if provided shall be
checked weekly.

Fire Water Ring Mains:


The ring main shall be checked for leaks once in a year by
operating one or more pumps & keeping the hydrant
points closed to get the maximum pressure.
All valves on the ring mains, hydrants, monitors & water
spray headers shall be checked for leaks, smooth
operation and lubricated once in a month.
Fire Water Spray System:
Water spray system shall be tested for performance i.e. its
effectiveness & coverage once in six months.
Spray nozzles shall be inspected for proper orientation,
corrosion and cleaned, if necessary at least once a year.

Fixed/Semi Fixed Foam System:


Fixed/Semi fixed foam system on storage tanks should be
tested once in six months.

Hoses:
Fire hoses shall be hydraulically tested once in six months
to a water pressure as specified in relevant
IS/UL/Equivalent codes.

Fire Water Tank/Reservoir:


Above ground fire water tanks should be inspected
externally & internally as per OISDSTD-129.
The water reservoir shall be emptied out & cleaned once in
3 years. However, floating leaves, material or algae, if any
shall be removed once in 6 months or as & when required.

Fire Extinguishers:
Inspection, testing frequency and procedure should be in
line with OISD-STD-142.

SAMPLE CALCULATION OF
FIRE WATER FLOW RATE

1. DESIGN BASIS
The fire water system in an installation shall be
designed to meet:
i) The fire water flow requirement of fighting single
largest fire contingencies for locations where total
aggregated storage capacity in the location is upto
30,000KL
ii) The fire water flow requirement of fighting two
largest fire contingencies simultaneously for all
locations where total aggregated storage capacity in the
terminal is more than 30,000 KL

FIRE WATER FLOW RATE FOR FLOATING ROOF TANK


PROTECTION
Data
Total storage capacity in one dyke area = 20,000 m.
No. of tanks = 2.
Capacity of each tank = 10,000 m.
Diameter of each tank = 30 m.
Height of each tank = 14.4 m.
a) Cooling water flow rate
(i) Cooling water required for tank on fire
Cooling water rate = 3 lpm/mof tank area for tank on
fire

Cooling water required = x 30 m x 14.4 m x 3 lpm/m.


= 4073.1 lpm.
= 4073.1 x 60 m/hr = 244 m/hr.
1000
Assuming that second tank is also located within the same
tank dyke at a distance more than 30 m from the tanks
shell. Therefore, in such case cooling required is at the rate
of 1 lpm/m of tank shell area.
(ii) Cooling water required for tank falling beyond
(R+30) from center of tank on fire
Cooling water rate = 1 lpm/m of tank area
Cooling water required = x 30 m x 14.4 m x1lpm/m.
= 1357.7 lpm.
= 1357.7 x 60 m/hr
= 81 m/ hr
1000

Total Water required for cooling of tanks (item i +


ii) = 244+81 = 325 m/ hr
b) Foam water flow rate
Water flow required for applying foam on a largest tank
burning surface area (rim seal area)
For floating roof tank of 30 M diameter,
Diameter of the tank (D1) = 30M
Distance of foam dam from shell = 0.8M
Diameter of roof up to foam dam (D2) = 30 - (2X0.8) =
28.4
Rim seal area = ( /4) x (30-28.4)
= ( /4) x 93.44
= 73.4 m
Foam solution rate @ 12 lpm/ m = 880.8 lpm
Foam water required = 0.97 x 880.8 lpm
(For 3% foam concentrate) = 854.4 lpm.

= 854.4 x 60 m/hr =51 m/hr


1000
Total water flow rate (item a + item b) for
floating roof tank protection:
i) Tank cooling = 325 m/hr.
ii) Foam solution application = 51 m/hr.
Total (item i + ii) = 376 m/hr.

FIRE WATER FLOW RATE FOR CONE ROOF TANK


PROTECTION
Data
Total storage capacity in one dyke area = 10,000 m.
No. of tanks = 2
Capacity of each tank = 5000 m.
Diameter of each tank = 24 m.
Height of each tank = 12 m.
a) Cooling water flow rate
(i) Cooling water required for tank on fire
Cooling water rate = 3 lpm/m of tank area for tank on
fire.
Cooling water required = x 24 m x 12 m x 3 lpm/m.
= 2715.4 lpm.

2715.4 x 60 m/hr =163 m/ hr


1000
Assuming that other tank is also located within the
same tank dyke at a distance less than 30 m from the
tanks shell. Therefore, in such case cooling required is
at the rate of 3 lpm/mof tank shell area.
(ii) Cooling water required for tank falling
within (R+30) from centre of tank on fire
Cooling water rate = 3 lpm/m of tank area.
Cooling water required = x 24 m x 12 m x 3 lpm/m
= 2715.4 lpm.
= 2715.4 x 60 m/hr = 163 m/ hr
1000
Total cooling water required = 163 + 163 = 326
m/hr. (item i+ ii)

b) Foam water flow rate


Foam solution application rate = 5 lpm/m of liquid
surface area.
Foam solution required = x (24 m) x 5 lpm/m.
4
=2262.9 lpm.
Foam water required = 0.97 x 2262.9 lpm = 2195 lpm.
(For 3% foam concentrate) = 2195 x 60 m/hr
1000
= 132 m/hr.
Total water flow rate (item a + b) for cone roof
tank protection:
(a)Tank cooling = 326 m/hr.
(b)Foam solution application = 132 m/hr.
Total = 458 m/hr.

FIRE WATER FLOW RATE FOR COOLING POL TANK


WAGON LOADING GANTRY
a) Data
Total No. of loading points = Conventional or BTPN.
Width of tank wagon gantry = 12 m.
(Cooling two spur)
b) Cooling water flow rate
Divide total area of gantry into equal segments such that
each segment measuring
15 m X 12 m and consider 3 segments operating at a
time.
Water rate required = 3 x 15 m x 12 m x 10.2 lpm/m.
= 5508 lpm
= 330 m/hr

Fire water calculation for full surface fire on largest


floating roof tank
Data:
Total storage capacity in one dyke area = 20000 m
No. of tanks = 2
Capacity of each tank = 10,000 m
Diameter of each tank = 30 m
Height of each tank = 14.4 m
a) Cooling water requirement:
Cooling water rate @ 3 lpm/ mof tank shell area for
tank-on-fire
Cooling water required = x 30 x 14.4 x 3
= 4073.1 lpm
= 244 m/hr

Assuming that second tank is located within the tank dyke at


a distance more than 30M from the tank shell.
Then, cooling water requirement @ 1 lpm/ m2of tank shell
area = x 30 x14.4 x 1
= 1357.7 lpm
= 81 m/hr.
Total cooling water = (244 + 81) m/hr
= 325 m/hr
b) Water requirement in foam application
Foam Application Rate@ 8.1 lpm/m
Foam Solution Requirement = ( x 30m x 30m) / 4 x 8.1
lpm/m
= 5727.9 lpm
= 344 m/hr
Water required for the foam solution = 0.97 x 344 m/hr
= 334 m/hr

Total water required for roof sink case:


Tank cooling 325 m/hr
Foam application 334 m/hr
Total 659 m/hr
Total water requirement = 659 m/hr

TOTAL DESIGN FIRE WATER FLOW RATE FOR SINGLE FIRE


CONTEGENCY
The total fire water flow requirement will be highest of one
of the fire water requirement calculated in 1 (376 m/hr) &
2. (458 m/hr), 3. (330 m/hr) and 4 (659 m/hr) above
i.e. 659m3/hr plus supplementary water (36 x 4 = 144
m/hr) = 803 m/hr.
WATER STORAGE REQUIREMENT
Case 1: When make-up water is not available:
Let us assume two main pumps of capacity 410 m/hr each
and one stand-by pump of equal capacity and equal head
are provided.
Water requirement is 410 x 2 = 820 m/hr
Design flow rate (Fire water pump discharge) = 820 m/hr
Fire water storage required (4 hrs) = 820 x 4
= 3280 m

Case-2: When 50% or more make up water is


available
Fire water storage requirement (3 hrs) = 820 x 3
= 2460 m

FIRE WATER DEMAND FOR TWO MAJOR FIRES


SIMULTANEOUSLY
FIRE WATER FLOW RATE FOR FLOATING ROOF TANK
PROTECTION
Data
Total storage capacity in one dyke area = 32,000 m.
No. of tanks = 2.
Capacity of each tank = 16,000 m.
Diameter of each tank = 40 m.
Height of each tank = 14.4 m.
a) Cooling water flow rate
(i) Cooling water required for tank on fire
Cooling water rate = 3 lpm/m of tank area for tank on fire.
Cooling water required = x 40 m x 14.4 m x 3 lpm/m.
= 5430.8 lpm.
= 5430.8 x 60 m/hr =326 m/hr

Assuming that second tank is also located within the same


tank dyke at a distance more than 30 m from the tanks
shell. Therefore, in such case cooling required is at the
rate of 1 lpm/m of tank shell area.
(ii) Cooling water required for tank falling beyond
(R+30) from centre of tank on fire
Cooling water rate = 1 lpm/m of tank area.
Cooling water required = x 40 m x 14.4 m x 1 lpm/m2.
= 1810.3 lpm.
= 1810.3 x 60 m/hr
=109 m/hr.
1000
Total fire water requirement for cooling of tanks
(item i + ii) = 326 + 109
= 435 m/ hr

b) Foam water flow rate


Water flow required for applying foam on a largest tank
burning surface area (rim seal area)
For floating roof tank of 40 M diameter,
Diameter of the tank (D1) = 40M
Distance of foam dam from shell = 0.8M
Diameter of roof up to foam dam (D2) = 40 - (2X0.8) =
38.4
Rim seal area = ( /4) x (40-38.4)
= ( /4) x 125.44
= 98.6 m
Foam solution rate @ 12 lpm/ m = 1183.2 lpm
Foam water required = 0.97 x 1183.2 lpm
(For 3% foam concentrate) = 1147.7 lpm.

= 1147.7 x 60 m/hr =69 m/hr.


1000
Total water flow rate (item a + b) for floating
roof tank protection
Tank cooling = 435 m/hr.
Foam solution application = 69 m/hr.
Total water requirement = 504 m/hr.

FIRE WATER FLOW RATE FOR CONE ROOF TANK


PROTECTION

Data
Total storage capacity in one dyke area = 50,000 m.
No. of tanks = 4.
Capacity of each tank = 12,500 m.
Diameter of each tank = 37.5 m.
Height of each tank = 12 m.
a) Cooling water flow rate
(i) Cooling water required for tank on fire
Cooling water rate = 3 lpm/m of tank area for tank on fire.
Cooling water required = x 37.5 m x 12 m x 3 lpm/m.
= 4242.8 lpm.
= 4242.8 x 60 m/hr = 255 m/hr.
1000

Assuming that other three tanks are also located within


the same tank dyke at a distance less than 30 m from the
tanks shell. Therefore, in such case cooling required is at
the rate of 3 lpm/m of tank shell area.
(ii) Cooling water required for tanks falling within
(R+30) from centre of tank on fire
Cooling water rate = 3 lpm/m2 of tank area.
Cooling water required = x 37.5 m x 12 m x 3 lpm/m x
3
= 12728.6 lpm.
= 12728.6 x 60 m/hr = 764 m/hr.
1000
Total cooling water required (item i + ii) for cone roof
tank protection:
= (255+764) m/hr
= 1019 m/hr

b) Foam water flow rate


Foam solution application rate = 5 lpm/m of liquid
surface area.
Foam solution required = x (18.75 m) x 5 lpm/m.
= 5524.5 lpm.
Foam water required = 0.97 x 5524.5 lpm = 5358.7 lpm.
(For 3% foam concentrate) = 5358.7 x 60 m/hr
1000
Total Foam water required = 322 m/hr
Total water flow rate (item a + b) for cone roof
tank protection
Tank cooling = 1019 m/hr.
Foam solution application = 322 m/hr.
Total = 1341 m/hr..

FIRE WATER FLOW RATE FOR COOLING POL TANK


WAGON LOADING GANTRY
a) Data
Total No. of loading points = Conventional or BTPN.
Width of tank wagon gantry = 12 m.
(Cooling two spur)
b) Cooling water flow rate
Divide total area of gantry into equal segments such that
each segment measuring 15 m X 12 m and consider 3
segments operating at a time.
Water rate required = 3 x 15 m x 12 m x 10.2 lpm/m.
= 5508
= 330 m/hr

Fire water calculation for full surface fire on largest


floating roof tank (roof sinking case)
Data:
Total storage capacity in one dyke area = 32,000 m
No. of tanks = 2
Capacity of each tank = 16,000 m
Diameter of each tank = 40 m
Height of each tank = 14.4 m
a) Cooling water requirement:
Cooling water rate @ 3 lpm/ mof tank shell area for tankon-fire
Cooling water required = x 40 x 14.4 x 3
= 5430.9 lpm
= 326 m/hr

Assuming that second tank is located within the tank dyke


at a distance more than 30M from the tank shell.
Then, cooling water requirement @ 1 lpm/ mof tank shell
area = x 40 x14.4 x 1
= 1810.3 lpm
= 109 m/hr.
Total cooling water = (326 + 109) m/hr
= 435 m3/hr
b) Water requirement in foam application
Foam Application Rate@ 8.1 lpm/m
Foam Solution Requirement = ( x 40m x 40m) / 4 x 8.1
lpm/m
= 10182.9 lpm
= 610.9 m/hr
Water required for the foam solution = 0.97 x 610.9 m/hr
= 593 m/hr

Total water required for roof sink case:


Tank cooling 435 /hr
Foam application 593 m/hr
Total water requirement = 1028 m/hr
TOTAL DESIGN FIRE WATER FLOW RATE FOR
TWO SIMULTANEOUS FIRE SCENARIO
The total fire water flow requirement will be sum of the two
largest fire water requirement 1. (504 m/hr) & 2 (1341
m/hr), 3 (330 m/hr) above i.e. (1341+504) =
1845 m3/hr plus supplementary water (36 x 4 = 144 m/hr)
= 1989 m/hr.
OR water requirement alone as calculated i.e. 1028
m/hr plus supplementary water (36 x 4 = 144
m/hr) = 1172 m/hr
Hence water requirement for double contingency
locations shall be 1989 m/hr

WATER STORAGE REQUIREMENT


Case 1: When make up water is not available:
Let us assume three main pumps of capacity 750 m/hr
each and two stand-by pump of equal capacity and equal
head are provided.
Water requirement is 750 x 3 = 2250 m/hr
Design flow rate (Fire water pump discharge) = 2250
m/hr
Fire water storage required (4 hrs) = 2250 x 4
= 9000 m
Case-2: When 50% or more make up water is
available (consider single largest fire
plus supplementary firing)
Fire water storage requirement (3 hrs) = (1341+144) x 3
= 1485 x 3
= 4455 m

FIRE WATER FLOW RATE FOR COOLING POL TANK


WAGON LOADING GANTRY
a) Data
Total No. of loading points = Conventional or BTPN.
Width of tank wagon gantry = 12 m.
(Cooling two spur)
b) Cooling water flow rate
Divide total area of gantry into equal segments such
that each segment measuring 15 m X 12 m and consider
3 segments operating at a time
Water rate required = 3 x 15 m x 12 m x 10.2 lpm/m2.
= 5508 lpm
= 330 m/hr

a) Water Requirement for supplementary Hose:


Water for 4 single hydrant streams = 4 x 36 = 144
m/hr.
Total water requirement = 144 m / hr.
Total water flow rate for gantry protection
(a) Gantry cooling = 330 m/hr.
(b) Supplementary hose requirement = 144m/ hr
Total = 474m/hr.

SAMPLE CALCULATION OF FOAM COMPOUND REQUIREMENT


FOR A DEPOT/ TERMINAL
FOAM COMPOUND CALCULATION FOR SINGLE FIRE
CONTIGENCY
Tank Data
Total storage capacity in one dyke area = 20,000 m.
No. of tanks = 2.
Capacity of each tank = 10,000 m.
Diameter of each tank = 30 m.
Height of each tank = 14.4 m.
Foam compound requirement for tank
Foam solution application rate = 12 lpm/m of rim seal area of tank.
Foam dam height = 800 mm.
Diameter of the tank (D1) = 30M
Distance of foam dam from shell = 0.8M
Diameter of roof up to foam dam (D2) = 30- (2X0.8) = 28.4
Rim seal area = ( /4) x (30-28.4)
= ( /4) x 250.2 = 73.4 m

Foam solution rate @ 12 lpm/ m = 880.8 lpm


3% Foam Compound required = 26.4 lpm
Foam Compound required for 65 mins. = (26.4 x 65) litres = 1,716
litres
Foam compound calculation for single largest cone roof tank in
a dyke.
Tank Data
Total storage capacity in one dyke area = 10,000 m.
No. of tanks = 2
Capacity of each tank = 5,000 m.
Diameter of each tank = 24 m.
Height of each tank = 12 m.
Foam compound requirement for tank
Foam solution application rate = 5 lpm/m2 of liquid surface area of tank.
Foam solution required = ( x (12)2 x 5) lpm = 2262.9 lpm
Foam compound required (3%) = 0.03 x 2262.9 lpm = 67.9 lpm.
Foam compound required for 65 minutes = 65 minutes x 67.9 lpm =
4,414 litres

FOAM COMPOUND CALCULATION FOR


FLOATING TANK ROOF SINKING SCENARIO
Capacity of Tank = 10,000 m
Diameter of each tank = 30 m.
Height of each tank = 14.4 m.
Foam solution requirement = (( /4) x (302) x 8.1) lpm
= 5728 lpm (1500 GPM approx.)
Nos. of HVLRs (assuming 750 GPM) = 750 GPM X 2 Nos.
Foam compound required (3%) = 0.03 x 5728 lpm =
171.84 lpm.
Foam compound required for 65 minutes = 65 minutes x
171.84 lpm = 11,170 litres.

FOAM COMPOUND CALCULATION FOR TWO


HOSE STREAMS OF FOAM EACH WITH A
CAPACITY OF 1140 LPM.
Foam compound requirement for two foam hose
streams of 1140 lpm capacity
Foam solution required = 2 x1140 lpm.
Foam compound required (3%) = 0.03 x 2280 lpm = 68.4
lpm.
Foam compound required for 65 minutes = 65 minutes x
68.4 lpm = 4,446 litres.

AGGREGATE QUANTITY OF FOAM COMPOUND


FOR SINGLE FIRE CONTIGENCY
The aggregate quantity of foam solution shall be largest
of the foam requirements calculated in 1 (1,716 litres),
2 (4,414 litres), 3 (11,170 litres), 4. (4,446 litres)
i.e.
11,170 litres
Therefore, foam compound to be stored = 11,170
litres

FOAM COMPOUND CALCULATION FOR TWO MAJOR FIRES


SIMULTANEOUSLY
Foam compound calculation for single largest floating roof
tank in a dyke.
Tank Data
Total storage capacity in one dyke area = 32,000 m.
No. of tanks = 2.
Capacity of each tank = 16,000 m.
Diameter of each tank = 40 m.
Height of each tank = 14.4 m.
Foam compound requirement for tank
Foam solution application rate = 12 lpm/m of rim seal area of tank.
Foam dam height = 800 mm.
Diameter of the tank (D1) = 40 m
Distance of foam dam from shell = 0.8 m
Diameter of roof up to foam dam (D2) = 40 - (2X0.8) = 38.4 m
Rim seal area = ( /4) x (40-38.4)
= 98.6 m

Foam solution rate @ 12 lpm/ m2 = 1183.2 lpm


3% Foam Compound required = 35.5 lpm
Foam Compound required for 65 mins. = 2308 litres
Foam compound calculation for single largest cone roof
tank in a dyke.
Tank Data
Total storage capacity in one dyke area = 50,000 m.
No. of tanks = 4.
Capacity of each tank = 12,500 m
Diameter of each tank = 37.5 m.
Height of each tank = 12 m.
Foam compound requirement for tank
Foam solution application rate = 5 lpm/m2 of liquid surface area of
tank.
Foam solution required = ( x (18.75)2 x 5) lpm = 5524.6
Foam compound required (3%) = 0.03 x 5524.6 lpm = 165.7 lpm.
Foam compound required for 65 minutes = 65 minutes x165.7 lpm =
10,771 litres.

In case of double fire, foam will be required to


pour in both tanks simultaneously.
Foam compound requirement for 65 minutes
= (2308 + 10,771) litres = 13,079 litres.

FOAM COMPOUND CALCULATION FOR ROOF SINKING


SCENARIO

Foam application rate of 8.1 lpm/m


Data:
Total storage capacity in one dyke area = 32,000 m.
No. of tanks = 2.
Capacity of each tank = 16,000 m.
Diameter of each tank = 40 m.
Height of each tank = 14.4 m.
Foam solution requirement = (( /4) x (40) x 8.1) lpm
= 10183 lpm (2690 GPM)
Nos. of HVLRs (assuming 1000 GPM) = 1000 GPM X 3 Nos.
Foam compound required (3%) = (10183 x 0.03) lpm
= 305.5 lpm
Foam compound required for 65 minutes = 65 minutes x 305.5
lpm = 19858 litres.

FOAM COMPOUND CALCULATION FOR TWO HOSE


STREAMS OF FOAM EACH WITH A CAPACITY OF
1140 LPM.
Foam compound requirement for two foam hose
streams of 1140 lpm capacity
Foam solution required = 2 x1140 lpm.
Foam compound required (3%) = 0.03 x 2280 lpm = 68.4 lpm.
Foam compound required for 65 minutes = 65 minutes x 68.4
lpm = 4446 litres.
AGGREGATE QUANTITY OF FOAM COMPOUND FOR TWO
FIRES SIMULTANEOUSLY
The aggregate quantity of foam solution shall be largest of the
foam requirements calculated in 1 (13,079 litres), 2.(20,000
litres) or 3. (4,446 litres) i.e. 20,000 litres
Therefore, foam compound to be stored = 20,000
litres

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