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Sergio Osmena
Manuel Roxas
Elpidio Quirino
Ramon Magsaysay
Carlos. Garcia
Diosdado P. Macapagal
Ferdinand Marcos

Sergio Osmena

Second President of the

Term: August 1, 1944- May
27, 1946
Filipino statesman, founder
of the Nationalist Party
(Partido Nacionalista) and
President of the Philippines
from 1944 to 1946.

Foreign Policies

United Nations Charter

President Osmea sent the Philippine delegation, which was

headed byCarlos P. Romulo, to the San Francisco gathering for
the promulgation of theCharter of the United Nationson 26
June 1945.

members of the delegation were Maximo Kalaw,Carlos P.

Garcia, Pedro Lopez, Francisco Delegado, Urbano Zafra, Alejandro
Melchor, and Vicente Sinco.

The 28th signatory nation of the United Nations, the Philippines

was one of the fifty-one nations that drafted the UN Charter.
Once approved by Philippine delegation, the UN Charter was
ratified by the Congress of the Philippines and deposited with
the U.S State Department on 11 October 1945.

Foreign Policies

Foreign Relations Office

To prepare for the forthcoming independent status of the

Philippine, President Osmea created the Office of Foreign

Sinco was appointed as its first Commissioner, with cabinet


In this connection, President Osmea also entered into an

agreement with theUnited States Governmentto send five
Filipino trainees to the U.S. State Department to prepare
themselves for diplomatic service.

were sent by U.S. State Department to the United States

embassies in Moscow andMexico Cityand consulates

Foreign Policies

International banking

On 5 December 1945, President Osmea appointed

Resident CommissionerCarlos P. Romuloas his
representative to accept Philippine membership in
theInternational Monetary Fundand in the
International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development, which bodies had been conceived in the
Bretton Woods Agreement, in which the Philippine had
also taken part. Romulo signed said membership on 27
December 1945 on behalf of the Philippines.

Foreign Policies

Bell Trade Act

On 30 April 1946, theUnited States Congress, at last approved

theBell Act, which as early as 20 January had been reported to the
Ways and Means Committee of the lower house, having been already
passed by the Senate. President Osmea and Resident Commissioner
Ramulo had urged the passage of this bill, with United States High
Commissioner,Paul V. McNutt, exerting similar pressure.
The Act gave thePhilippineseight years of free trade with the United
States, then twenty years during whichtariffswould be upped
gradually until they were in line with the rest of the American tariff
policy. The law also fixed some quotas for certain products: sugar
850,000 long tons;cordage 6,000,000 pounds;coconut oil 200,000
long tons; cigars 200,000,000 pounds.

Foreign Policies

Bell Trade Act

The great aid this legislation meant for

thePhilippineswas coupled with that to be obtained
from the recently passed Tydings Damage bill, which
provided some nine hundred million dollars for payment
of war damages, of which one million had been
earmarked to compensate for church losses. The sum of
two hundred and forty million dollars was to be
periodically allocated by the United States President as a
manifestation of good will to theFilipinopeople.
Additionally, sixty million pieces of surplus property were
also transferred to thePhilippine Government.

Manuel Acua Roxas

Last President of the

Term: May 28, 1946- July 4,
First President of the Third
Republic of the Philippines
Term: July 4, 1946- April 15,
Political leader and first
president of the independence
republic of the Philippines.

Foreign Policies

Treaty of General Relations

On August 5, 1946, theCongress of the Philippinesratified the

Treaty of General Relations that had been entered into by and
between theRepublic of the Philippinesand the United States
on July 4, 1946.Aside from withdrawing her sovereignty from
the Philippines and recognizing her independence, the Treaty
reserved for the United States some bases for the mutual
protection of both countries; consented that the United States
represent the Philippines in countries where the latter had not
yet established diplomatic representation; made the
Philippines assume all debts and obligations of the former
government in the Philippines; and provided for the settlement
of property rights of the citizens of both countries.

Foreign Policies

United States Military Bases

Although Roxas was successful in getting rehabilitation

funds from the United States after independence, he
was forced to concede military bases (23 of which
were leased for 99 years), trade restriction for the
Philippine citizens, and special privileges for U.S.
property owner and investor.

Foreign Policies

Parity Rights Amendment

On March 11, 1947, the Filipino people, heeding Roxas'

persuasive harangue, ratified in a nationwide
plebiscite the "parity amendment" to the1935
Constitution, granting United States citizens the right
to dispose and utilize of Philippine natural resources,
or through parity rights.

night before the plebiscite day, Roxas narrowly

escaped an assassination by a disgruntledTondobarber,
Julio Guillen, who hurled agrenadeon the platform
atPlaza Mirandaimmediately after the President
addressed the rally of citizens.

Elpidio Quirino

Second President, Third

Republic of the
Term: April 17, 1948November 10, 1953
Political leader and
second president of the
Independence Republic
of the Philippines.

Foreign Policies

In 1950, at the onset of theKorean War, Quirino

authorized the deployment of over 7,450 Filipino
soldiers to Korea, under the designation of
thePhilippine Expeditionary Forces to Korea or

Foreign Policies

Quirino-Foster Agreement

By the time of the creation of the integrity board,

moreover, the Bell Mission, led by Daniel W. Bell, an
American banker, and composed of five members,
with a staff of twenty workers, following their period of
stay in thePhilippines, beginning in July 1950, finally
submitted its report on October of the same year.

Foreign Policies

Quirino-Foster Agreement

The Report made several proposals, most noteworthy, of

which were that the United States should give the
Philippines 250,000,000 dollars over a period of five
years, but the Philippines, in return, ought to reform its
tax structure, enact a minimum wage law for agricultural
and industrial labor, initiate social and land reforms, as
well as a sound planning for economic development, For
all the strong language of the Report, which, in some
quarters merited bitter opposition, President Quirino
gamely and patriotically, took in the recommendations
and sought to implement them.

Foreign Policies

Quirino-Foster Agreement

Thus in November 1950, President Quirino and William

Foster, representing theUnited States Government,
signed an agreement by virtue of which the former
pledged to obtain the necessary Philippine legislation,
in keeping with the Bell Mission Report, while envoy
Foster promised the necessary by the same Report.

Foreign Policies

However, much as he tried to become a good

president, Quirino failed to win the people's
affection. Several factors caused the unpopularity
of his administration, namely:

Economic distress of the times, aggravated by rising

unemployment rate, soaring prices of commodities,
and unfavorable balance of trade. Quirino's vaunted
"Total Economic Mobilization Policy" failed to give
economic relief to the suffering nation.
Frauds and terrorism committed by theLiberal
Partymoguls in the1947,1949and1951 elections.

Ramon del Fierro


Third President of the Third

Republic of the Philippines
Term: December 30, 1953March 17, 1957
Best known for successfully
defeating the communist
led Hukbalahap (Huk)
Movement. Idol of the
masses, champion of
democracy, and freedom

Foreign Policies


The administration of President Magsaysay was active in

the fight against the expansion of communism in the Asian
region. He made the Philippines a member of the
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), which was
established in Manila on Sept. 8, 1954 during the "Manila

of SEATO were alarmed at the possible victory of North

Vietnam over South Vietnam, which could spread communist
ideology to other countries in the region. The possibility that a
communist state can influence or cause other countries to adopt
the same system of government is called the domino theory.

Foreign Policies


The active coordination of the Magsaysay

administration with the Japanese government led to
the Reparation Agreement. This was an agreement
between the two countries, obligating the Japanese
government to pay $800 million as reparation for
war damages in the Philippines.

Foreign Policies

Defense Council

Taking the advantage of the presence of U.S. Secretary John

Foster Dulles in Manila to attend the SEATO Conference, the
Philippine government took steps to broach with him the
establishment of a Joint Defense Council. Vice-President and
Secretary of Foreign Affairs Carlos P. Garcia held the
opportune conversations with Secretary Dulles for this
purpose. Agreement was reached thereon and the first
meeting of the Joint United States-Philippines Defense
Council was held in Manila following the end of the Manila
Conference. Thus were the terms of the Mutual Defense Pact
between the Philippines and the United States duly

Foreign Policies

Laurel- Langey Agreement

The Magsaysay administration negotiated the Laurel-Langley

Agreement which was a trade agreement between the Philippines and
the United States which was signed in 1955 and expired in 1974.
Although it proved deficient, the final agreement satisfied nearly all of
the diverse Filipino economic interests.
While some have seen the Laurel-Langley agreement as a continuation
of the 1946 trade act, Jose P. Laurel and other Philippine leaders
recognized that the agreement substantially gave the country greater
freedom to industrialize while continuing to receive privileged access
to US markets.

The agreement replaced the unpopular Bell Trade Act, which tied the economy of the
Philippines to that of United States economy.

Foreign Policies

Bandung Conference

Billed as an all Oriental meet and threatening to become a propaganda

springboard for Communism, a Conference was held in Bandung (Java) in April
1955, upon invitation extended by the Prime Ministers of India, Pakistan,
Burma, Ceylon, and Indonesia. Although, at first, the Magsaysay Government
seemed reluctant to send any delegation, later, however, upon advise of
Ambassador Carlos P. Romulo, it was decided to have the Philippines
participate in the conference. Ambassador Romulo was asked to head the
Philippine delegation.
At the very outset indications were to the effect that the conference would
promote the cause of neutralism as a third position in the current cold war
between the democratic bloc and the communist group. John Kotelawala,
Prime Minister of Ceylon, however, broke the ice against neutralism. He was
immediately joined by Philippine envoy Romulo, who categorically states that
his delegation believed that "a puppet is a puppet", no matter whether under
a Western Power or an Oriental state.

Foreign Policies

Reparations agreement

On August 12, 1955, President Magsaysay informed the Japanese

government, through Prime Minister Ichiro Hatoyama, that the
Philippines accepted the Neri-Takazaki agreement. In view of political
developments in Japan, the Japanese Prime Minister could only inform
the Philippine government of the Japanese acceptance of said
agreement on March 15, 1956. The official Reparations agreement
between the two government was finally signed at Malacaan Palace
on May 9, 1956, thus bringing to a rather satisfactory conclusion this
long drawn controversy between the two countries.

Carlos Polestico Garcia

Fourth President of the Third

Republic of the Philippines
Term: March 18, 1957December 30, 1961
Famous for his austerity
program and policy. He
maintained the strong
tradition ties with the
United States and sought
closer relation with noncommunist Asian countries.

Domestic Policies

Filipino First Policy

President Garca exercised theFilipino First Policy, for which he

was known. This policy heavily favored Filipino businessmen over
foreign investors. He was also responsible for changes in retail
trade which greatly affected the Chinese businessmen in the
country. In a speech during a joint session of the Senate and the
House of Representatives on September 18, 1946, President Garcia
said the following:

We are called upon to decide on this momentous debate whether or not

this land of ours will remain the cradle and grave, the womb and tomb of
our race the only place where we can build our homes, our temples, and
our altars and where we erect the castles of our racial hopes, dreams and
traditions and where we establish the warehouse of our happiness and
prosperity, of our joys and sorrows

Domestic Policies

Austerity Program
In the face of the trying conditions of the country, President
Garca initiated what has been called "The Austerity
Program". Garca's administration was characterized by its
austerity program and its insistence on a comprehensive
nationalist policy. On March 3, 1960, he affirmed the need for
complete economic freedom and added that the government
no longer would tolerate the dominance of foreign interests
(especially American) in the national economy. He promised
to shake off "the yoke of alien domination in business, trade,
commerce and industry." Garca was also credited with his
role in reviving Filipino cultural arts.

Foreign Policies

At the time of the sudden death of President Ramon

Magsaysay, Vice President and Foreign Affairs Secretary Carlos
P. Garca was heading the Philippine delegation to the SEATO
conference then being held at Canberra, Australia. Having
been immediately notified of the tragedy, Vice President
Garca enplaned back for Manila. Upon his arrival he directly
repaired to Malacaan Palace to assume the duties of
President. Chief Justice Ricardo Paras, of the Supreme Court,
was at hand to administer the oath of office. President Garca's
first actuations dealt with the declaration of a period of
mourning for the whole nation and the burial ceremonies for
the late Chief-Executive Magsaysay.

Foreign Policy


his administration, he acted on the BohlenSerrano

Agreement which shortened the lease of the US Bases
from 99 years to 25 years and made it renewable after
every five years.

Domestic Policies

Austerity Program
The main points of the Austerity Program were:

The government would tighten up its controls to prevent abuses in the over shipment of
exports under license and in under-pricing as well.
There would be a more rigid enforcement of the existing regulations on barter shipments.
Government imports themselves were to be restricted to essential items.
The government also would reduce rice imports to a minimum.
An overhauling of the local transportation system would be attempted so as to reduce the
importation of gasoline and spare parts.
The tax system would be revised so as to attain more equitable distribution of the
payment-burden and achieve more effective collection from those with ability to pay.
There would be an intensification of food production.

The program was hailed by the people at large and confidence was expressed
that the measures proposed would help solve the standing problems of the

Diosdado Macapagal

Fifth President of the Third

Republic of the Philippines
Term: December 30, 1961
- December 30, 1965
Poet, politician, lawyer,
diplomat, statesman,
economist and intellectual.
Best known as the
"Champion of the Common

Foreign Policies

Sabah Claim

On September 12, 1962, during President Diosdado Macapagal's administration,

the territory ofNorth Borneo, and the full sovereignty, title and dominion over the
territory were ceded by the then reigning Sultan of Sulu, HM Sultan Muhammad
Esmail E. Kiram I, to theRepublic of the Philippines.
The cession effectively gave the Philippine government the full authority to
pursue their claim in international courts.
ThePhilippinesbroke diplomatic relations with Malaysia after the federation had
included Sabah in 1963.
It was revoked in 1989 because succeeding Philippine administrations have
placed the claim in the back burner in the interest of pursuing cordial economic
and security relations withKuala Lumpur.
To date, Malaysia continues to consistently reject Philippine calls to resolve the
matter of Sabah's jurisdiction to theInternational Court of Justice. Sabah sees the
claim made by the Philippines' Moro leader Nur Misuari to take Sabah to
International Court of Justice (ICJ) as a non-issue and thus dismissed the claim.

Foreign Policies


Maphilindo was described as a regional association that would approach

issues of common concern in the spirit of consensus. However, it was also
perceived as a tactic on the parts ofJakartaandManilato delay, or even
prevent, the formation of theFederation of Malaysia. Manila had its own
claim toSabah(formerlyBritish North Borneo),and Jakarta protested the
formation of Malaysia as a British imperialist plot.
The plan failed whenSukarnoadopted his plan ofkonfrontasiwith
Malaysia. The Konfrontasi, or Confrontation basically aims at preventing
Malaysia to attain independence. The idea was inspired onto President
Sukarno by the Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI), or literally the Indonesian
Communist Party. The party convinced President Sukarno that the
Formation of Malaysia is a form of neo-colonization and will later affect
tranquility in Indonesia. The subsequent development ofASEANalmost
certainly excludes any possibility of the project ever being revived.

Foreign Policies

Vietnam War

Before the end of his term in 1965, President Diosdado

Macapagal persuadedCongressto send troops
toSouth Vietnam. However this proposal was blocked
by the opposition led bySenate PresidentFerdinand
Marcoswho deserted Macapagal'sLiberal Partyand
defected to theNacionalista Party.

Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr.

AFilipinolawyer and
politician who served as
President of the Philippines
from 1965 to 1986.

He ruled undermartial
lawfrom 1972 until 1981.

Marcos took his oath of

office on June 30, 1981 at
the Luneta Park, he
announced the
establishment of a "New
Republic of the

Foreign Policies
Relation with Communist State in Asia
President Marcos announced to the Filipino people his policy of establishing
relations with communist countries such as the People's Republic of Chine (June
9, 1975) and the Soviet Union (June 2, 1976).
Relations with the United States was modified.
It was no longer based on the "sentemental ties" but on mutual respect for each
other's national interest. Thus, the military and economic agreements between
U.S. and the Philippines were amended to reflect this new relationship.
In the amendments to the RP-U.S. Military Bases Agreement of 1947, the U.S.
acknowledged the sovereignty of the Philippines over the American military
bases in the country (Subic and Clark). These bases would have a Filipino
commander and would fly the Philippine flag. IN addition, the U.S agreed to pay
rentals to the Philippines for the use of the bases.

Foreign Policies
Marcos established closer ties with the Asian countries.
The Philippines became a leading member of the Third-World
the collective name for the developing countries at that time.
Joining International Organizations.
The Philippines actively participated in such world conferences
as the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
(UNCTAD) meeting held in Nairobi, Kenya, in 1976 and in the
International Meeting on "Cooperation and Development held
by the heads of 21 nations in Cancun, Mexico, in 1981.

First term (19651969)

Vietnam War
To the surprise of many, soon after becoming president, Marcos
wanted the Philippines to become involved in theVietnam War. He
asked Congress to approve sending acombat engineer unit to South
Vietnam. When the previous Philippine president, Macapagal,
suggested in 19641965 to send troops it had been Marcos who had
led the opposition against this plan on both legal and moral grounds.
Congressional approval and Philippine troops were sent from the
middle of 1966 as the Philippines Civic Action Group (PHILCAG),
PHILCAG reached a strength of some 1,600 troops in 1968 and
between 1966 and 1970 over 10,000 Filipino soldiers served in South

Second term (19691972)

First Quarter Storm
1970 was a period of leftist unrest in the Philippines,
composed of a series of heavy demonstrations, protests,
and marches against the government from January to March
1970, or the first quarter of 1970. It was one of the factors
leading to the declaration of Martial Law in 1972.
From the declaration of martial law in 1972 until 1983 :
the U.S. government provided $2.5 billion in bilateral
military and economic aid to the Marcos regime, and about
$5.5 billion through multilateral institutions such as
theWorld Bank.

Foreign investment was encouraged: an exportprocessing zone was opened; a range of additional
investment incentives was created, and the
Philippines projected itself onto the world economy
as a country of low wages and industrial peace. The
inflow of international capital increased dramatically.
To finance the boom, the government extensively
resorted to international debt, hence the
characterization of the economy of the Marcos era as
"debt driven."

By 1976 the Philippines was among the top

100 recipients of loans from the World Bank
and was considered a "country of
concentration." Its balance of payments
problem was solved and growth facilitated,
at least temporarily, but at the cost of
having to service an external debt that rose
from US$2.3 billion in 1970 to more than
US$17.2 billion in 1980.

There were internal problems as well, particularly in

respect of the increasingly visible mismanagement of
crony enterprises.
A financial scandal in January 1981 in which a
businessman fled the country with debts of an estimated
P700 million required massive amounts of emergency
loans from the Central Bank of the Philippines and other
government-owned financial institutions to some eighty
firms. The growth rate of GNP fell dramatically, and from
then the economic ills of the Philippines proliferated.

In 1980 there was an abrupt change in economic policy:

The Philippine government agreeing to reduce the
average level and dispersion of tariff rates and to
eliminate most quantitative restrictions on trade, in
exchange for a US$200 million structural adjustment
loan from the World Bank. Exports did not increase
substantially, while imports increased dramatically.
The result was growing debt-service payments;
emergency loans were forthcoming, but the
hemorrhaging did not cease.

End of the Presentation

Prepared by:
Ma. Lourdes Burac