MySQL, LINQ and the ADO.

NET Entity Framework
Presented by, MySQL & O’Reilly Media, Inc.

Reggie Burnett, MySQL David Sceppa, Microsoft

Agenda       From DataSets to data access layers Introducing LINQ Using LINQ to access your data The ADO.NET Entity Framework Introducing ADO.NET Data Services Summary

Working with DataSets  Basic example
//Execute a query, retrieve and store the results connectionString = "Data Source=localhost;User ID=...;"; commandText = "SELECT CompanyName, City FROM Customers " + "WHERE Country = ?Country"; adapter = new MySqlDataAdapter(commandText, connectionString); adapter.SelectCommand.Parameters.AddWithValue("?Country", "Brazil"); table = new DataTable(); adapter.Fill(table); //Display the results DataGridView resultsGrid = new DataGridView(); resultsGrid.DataSource = table; //Submit pending changes commandBuilder = new MySqlCommandBuilder(adapter); adapter.Update(table);

Working with DataSets  Benefit
• Rapid development - Designers, wizards, bound controls make it easy to write code and generate user interface

 Drawbacks
• Developers must become SQL experts to build advanced queries • Code becomes more complex when app model and database schema diverge

Moving to data access layers  Focus on your application model
• Queries expressed in terms of app model • Classes track their own changes

 Data access layer responsible for
• Translating into SQL queries • Returning results as objects • Submitting pending changes

Moving to data access layers  Basic example
//Partial class to separate data access code public class Customer { //Add methods to return data public static List<Customer> GetCustomers(string country) { List<Customer> results = new List<Customer> (); MySqlConnection connection = new MySqlConnection(connectString); connection.Open(); MySqlCommand command = new MySqlCommand(queryString, connection); command.Parameters.AddWithValue("?Country", country); MySqlDataReader reader = command.ExecuteReader(); while (reader.Read()) results.Add(Customer.CreateFromReader(reader)); return results; } //Support tracking and submitting changes private string origCustomerId, origCompanyName, ...; public void SubmitChanges() { ... } }

Moving to data access layers  Benefit
• Division of labor - Manage data access code separately, only subset of developers need to become SQL gurus

 Drawbacks
• Data access code quickly gets complex
 Classes that span multiple tables  Handling inheritance hierarchies  Note: Patterns and frameworks emerge

Introducing LINQ  What is LINQ?
• Stands for Language INtegrated Query • Allows developers to query data structures using SQL-like syntax from within their application’s code • Is available to both C# and Visual Basic developers in Visual Studio 2008

Introducing LINQ  LINQ Example - Querying an array
//Create an array of integers int[] myarray = new int[] { 49, 28, 20, 15, 25, 23, 24, 10, 7, 34 }; //Create a query for odd numbers //Create a query for odd numbers, sorted in descending order var oddNumbers = from i in myarray var oddNumbers = from i in myarray where i % 2 == 1 select i; where i % 2 == 1 //Compose the original query to create a query for odd numbers select i orderby i; descending var sorted = fromselect oddNumbers orderby i descending select i; i in i; //Display the results of the query foreach (int i in oddNumbers) Console.WriteLine(i);

LINQ-enabled classes  Collection classes extended
• Arrays, Hashtable, List<T>, etc.

 LINQ to DataSet
• Extended for untyped and strongly typed

 LINQ to XML  Data access technologies
• LINQ to SQL • LINQ to Entities

Agenda       From DataSets to data access layers Introducing LINQ Using LINQ to access your data The ADO.NET Entity Framework Introducing ADO.NET Data Services Summary

LINQ to DataSet  DataSet class enhanced to support LINQ
• Available via typed and untyped DataSet
Dim ordersQuery = From o In dataSet.Orders _ Where o.CustomerID = "ALFKI" _ Select o For Each o As NorthwindDataSet.OrdersRow In ordersQuery Console.WriteLine("{0} {1,10:d}", _ o.OrderID, o.OrderDate) Next o

LINQ to DataSet  Benefits
• Quickest way to use LINQ w/ .NET 2.0 feature set • Supports query capabilities previously unavailable using a DataSet • Returns results as series of DataRows or as anonymous types

 Limitations
• All client-side processing

LINQ to SQL  Benefits
• Rapid application development scenarios • Query processing performed at the server • Designer makes mapping classes to tables simple

 Limitations
• Supports limited mapping scenarios • No provider model for extensibility

Agenda       From DataSets to data access layers Introducing LINQ Using LINQ to access your data The ADO.NET Entity Framework Introducing ADO.NET Data Services Summary

LINQ to Entities  What is LINQ to Entities?
• LINQ implementation of the Entity Data Model

 What is the Entity Data Model?
• Definition for your application model • Map between app model, database schema • Advanced mapping scenarios supported
 One entity mapped across multiple tables  Multiple inheritance hierarchy mappings  Many-to-many without "link" table in model

LINQ to DataSet  DataSet class enhanced to support LINQ
• Available via typed and untyped DataSet
Dim ordersQuery = From o In dataSet.Orders _ Where o.CustomerID = "ALFKI" _ Select o For Each o As NorthwindDataSet.OrdersRow In ordersQuery Console.WriteLine("{0} {1,10:d}", _ o.OrderID, o.OrderDate) Next o

LINQ to Entities or LINQ to SQL?
 LINQ to SQL
• • • • • • • • Shipped with Visual Studio 2008 and .NET 3.5 Emphasis on rapid application development Supports Microsoft SQL Server family of databases Will ship as an update to .NET 3.5 Offers a provider model for third-party databases Designed for enterprise-grade data scenarios Higher level of abstraction for programming databases Just one layer of the overall ADO.NET Entity Framework

 LINQ to Entities

LINQ to Entities: Generating Queries  Converting LINQ queries to SQL
• • Compiler converts code into a LINQ expression tree LINQ to Entities converts LINQ expression tree into a DbCommandTree based on mapping information  DbCommandTree expressed in terms of the database schema • ADO.NET provider generates a DbCommand • LINQ to Entities executes the DbCommand, assembles results into the structure(s) specified in the LINQ query

Agenda       From DataSets to data access layers Introducing LINQ Using LINQ to access your data The ADO.NET Entity Framework Introducing ADO.NET Data Services Summary

Entity Framework: LINQ and more  ADO.NET Entity Framework Layers
• • • • • • First implementation of Entity Data Model (EDM) Includes a text-based query query language (Entity SQL) New Provider – EntityClient New ORM stack (Object Services) leverages Entity Client LINQ support over Entities An evolution of ADO.NET preserving customer investment
LINQ to Entities ObjectServices EntityClient ADO.NET Provider

Entity Framework Query Options
 LINQ to Entities
var ordersQuery = from o in context.Orders where o.Customers.CustomerID == "ALFKI" select o; foreach (var o in ordersQuery) Console.WriteLine("{0} {1:d}", o.OrderID, o.OrderDate);

 Sweet spot:
• Strongly typed queries and results
 Compile-time type checking and Intellisense

• Results returned as objects: entities / projections • Queries must be well defined at compile time

Entity Framework Query Options
 ObjectQuery<T> / ObjectQuery(Of T)
Dim eql As String = "SELECT VALUE o FROM Orders AS o " & _ " WHERE o.Customer.CustomerID = 'ALFKI'" Dim ordersQuery = context.CreateQuery(Of Order)(esql) For Each o As Order In ordersQuery Console.WriteLine("{0} {1,10:d} ", o.OrderID, o.OrderDate) Next o

 Sweet spot:
• Strongly typed results, text-based queries • Results returned as objects: entities / projections • Queries more loosely defined at compile-time

Entity Framework Query Options
 EntityClient Provider
string eSql = "SELECT VALUE o FROM NorthwindEntities.Orders AS o " + "WHERE o.Customers.CustomerID = 'ALFKI'"; EntityCommand cmd = new EntityCommand(eSql, connectionString); EntityDataReader rdr = cmd.ExecuteReader(); while (rdr.Read()) Console.WriteLine("{0} {1:d}", rdr["OrderID"], rdr["OrderDate"]);

 Sweet spot:
• Untyped queries and results • Results returned as DataReaders • Queries can be generated purely at run time
 No application model classes needed at compile time

Agenda       From DataSets to data access layers Introducing LINQ Using LINQ to access your data The ADO.NET Entity Framework Introducing ADO.NET Data Services Summary

ADO.NET Data Services
 Formerly known as "Project Astoria"
• Part of ASP.NET Extensions Preview • Integrated into .NET Framework going forward

 Targeting Web development technologies
• Silverlight and AJAX • Data returned via Web-friendly formats
 ATOM (XML-based) and JSON

ADO.NET Data Services
 Service exposed via lightweight data access API
• Supply both location and query as a URI:
 http://myserver/data.svc/Customers[ALFKI]/Orders

• Query converted to LINQ inside of service • Supports submitting changes
 Specialized Entity Framework logic for submitting changes

 Online data hosting service available  For more information:
• http://astoria.mslivelabs.com

Agenda       From DataSets to data access layers Introducing LINQ Using LINQ to access your data The ADO.NET Entity Framework Introducing ADO.NET Data Services Summary

Summary - LINQ
 Represents a revolution for developers
• Query your objects using SQL-like syntax • LINQ to DataSet
 Rich query scenarios for data residing in a DataSet

• LINQ to Entities
 Provider model for working with other data stores  Supports enterprise mapping scenarios

Summary - ADO.NET Entity Framework
 More than just LINQ to Entities
• Also supports text-based query language – ESQL • ObjectQuery<T> for strongly typed results • EntityClient for reader-based results

 Enterprise-grade data scenarios  Provider model for working with other data stores

Summary - ADO.NET Data Services
 Designed for Silverlight, AJAX environments  Lightweight API, connect and query via URI  Retrieve results via familiar formats
• ATOM • JSON

Questions?