You are on page 1of 26

# Principles of

Groundwater Flow

• Bernoulli’s Equation

• Hydrostatic Pressure

Hydraulic Head • Bernoulli’s Equation v2 P  z  const. 2g g • Hydrostatic Pressure   P  gz  P0 .

Hydraulic Head • Total Hydraulic Head (drop velocity – why?) P h  z Or g • Force Potential (driver)     gh   h  z hP • Bernoulli’s equation suggests this should be constant. but clearly it is not – what’s going on?   .

How to measure it? • Piezometer .

.

viscosity .Validity and Applicability of Darcy’s Law • Reynolds Number • Re = (vd/) • • • • – density v – velocity d – characteristic distance .

Equations of Flow – Confined Aquifers • Combine Darcy’s Law and Conservation of Mass • (Derivation on Pages 126-128 of Fetter) • Governing Equation • Transmissivity (average over z direction) .

Unconfined Aquifers • Without a confining upper layer the governing equation changes a little • Boussinesq Equation    h   K  h  K  x  x  y  h  h h  Sy t  y   • What makes this equation so difficult to deal with?   .

Direction of Groundwater Flow • Potential and Equipotential Lines • What direction is the flow in .

Steady Flow in Confined Aquifer  h K 2 0 x 2   .

Steady Flow in Confined Aquifer  h K 2 0 x 2     h q K x h q'  Kb x .

Steady Flow in an Unconfined Aquifer    h  K  h  0 x  x    .

Steady Flow in an Unconfined Aquifer    h  K  h  0 x  x      h q'  Kh x 1  q'  K  2  h12  h22      L  .

Groundwater Divides • Can our equations predict these?    h  K  h  w x    x   Source or sink .

Groundwater Divides • Can our equations predict these? 2 wx h2    c1 x c2 K .

Groundwater Divides • If h=h1 at x=0 and h =h2 at x=L 2 2 (h  h w 2 2 1 2) h  h1  x (L  x)x L K .

Groundwater Divides • Discharge per unit width  L  dh K (h  h ) q'  Kh   w  x  2  dx 2L 2 1 2 2 .

Groundwater Divides • Location of GW Divide is where q’=0 2 2 h  h L K 1 2 d  2 w 2L .