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Mini Quiz to check your understanding

1.

What factors affecting resistance?


(A)
Material only
(B)
Area and temperature
(C)
Length, material, area and temperature.

2.

Which one of the circuit protecting device can be reset?


(A)
(B)
(C)

3.

Fuses
Circuit Breaker
Contactor/Relay

Which direction of current flow in Conventional Current Flow?


(A)
(B)
(C)

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From positive terminal to negative terminal


From negative terminal to positive terminal
From negative to positive then to negative terminals
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RESISTANCE / RESISTOR

8.1
Resistance and affecting factors and specific
resistance for different type of material
8.2
Fixed resistors, stability, tolerance and limitations,
methods of construction.
8.3
Variable resistors, thermistors, voltage dependent
resistors.
8.4
Positive and negative temperature coefficient
conductance.
8.5
Resistor colour code, values and tolerances, preferred
values, wattage ratings.
8.6
Operation and use of potentiometers and rheostats
8.7
Construction and construction of potentiometers and
rheostats.

5.

Resistance / Resistor

Purpose
- to control the amount of current flow by
converting some of the electrical energy
that flows through the circuit into heat.
Two types of resistors
- Fixed resistor
- Variable resistorPage No :3

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or

5.

Resistance / Resistor (contd)

Fixed resistors has three common types :

Composition resistor
- mixture of carbon and insulating material.

Film resistor
- a thin layer or film of resistive material wrapped
around a nonconductive ceramic core material.

Wire wound resistor


- used when a great deal of power to be
dissipated
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End Cap

Ceramic Core

Coating

Axial Lead

Resistance Film

Composition Resistor

Film Resistor

Wire Wound Resistor


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TYPES OF RESISTORS

5.

Resistance / Resistor (contd)


Variable resistor - three terminals & two types

Rheostat - to control current in a circuit.


1

+
2

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5.

Resistance / Resistor (contd)

Potentiometer - to control voltage in a circuit


1

+
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V
2

5.

Resistance / Resistor (contd)


Thermistor
A type of resistor used to measure
temperature changes, relying on the change
in its resistance with changing temperature.
For temperature compensating
- negative coefficient temperature

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5.

Resistance / Resistor (contd)

Voltage-Dependent Resistors
Varistors (Variable Resistors) are voltage-

dependent resistors with a symmetrical V / I


characteristic curve, whose resistance
decreases with increasing voltage.

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5.

Resistance / Resistor (contd)


The value of resistor can be determined by

By using an ohmmeter.

Color band.

Body, tip ,spot (BOTS).

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5.

Resistance / Resistor (contd)

Check resistor value using an Ohmmeter

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5.

Resistance / Resistor (contd)

Resistor value using color bands :

1st band
- 1st figure.
2nd band - 2nd figure.
3rd band - number of zeros (multiplier).
4th band - tolerance in percentage.
- gold 5%
- silver 10%
- no forth band 20%
If the ohmic value is < 10,
then silver or gold for third band.
5% - Gold
10% - Silver

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5.

Resistance / Resistor (contd)

a. First Band Brown


b. Second Band Black
c. Third Band Yellow
d. Fourth Band - Gold

R=?
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Determined the value of this resistor using color band?

R=?
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R=?
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5.

Resistance / Resistor (contd)


Resistor value using BOTS (use color code):
Body - 1st figure.
Tip - 2nd figure.
Spot - number of zeros.

Tip Second Figure


Dot of Band Multiplier
Body First Figure
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5.

Resistance / Resistor (contd)


There are few example to help you to remember
the color code in its proper order.
Black, Brown, Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Violet, Gray, White
Example:

Buy Better Resistance Or Your Grid Bias May Go Wrong


Bad Boy Rape Our Young Girl But Virgin Go Without
Bye Bye Rosie On You Go to Birgmingham Via Great Western
0
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5.

Resistance / Resistor (contd)

The following are some example for other


standard to determine the resistor value
BS 1852 Coding for resistor values
- The letter R is used for Ohms and K for Kohms, M for Megohms
and placed where the decimal point would go.
- At the end is a letter that represents tolerance.
Where M=20%, K=10%, J=5%, G=2%, and F=1% D=0.5%
C=0.25 B=0.1%
Example: R33 0.33 ohm , 2R2 2.2 ohms , 1K2 1.2k ohms ,
4M7 4.7M ohms , 5K6G 5.6K ohms 2%
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5.

Resistance / Resistor (contd)


Military specification for resistor

- MIL-R-11
- MIL-R-39008
- MIL-R-39017
- There are other MIL-R- standards.
Example

: RCR07C1003F 100K ohms W 1%,


RCR07C4700G 470 ohms W 2%,
RCR07C2071G 2.07K ohms W 2%,

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5.

Resistance / Resistor (contd)


Tolerance Code

Power Rating at 70C


Industrial
type
designation

Tolerance

MIL
Designation

5%

20%

10%

RCR20

2%

RC32

RCR32

1%

RC42

RCR42

0.5%

0.25%

0.1%

Power
rating
(Watts)

MIL-R-11
Style

MIL-R-39008
Style

1/8

RC05

RCR05

RC07

RCR07

RC20

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5.

Resistance / Resistor (contd)


Resistor is rated as Ohm and Watts

The bigger the size of a


resistor, the higher the
current it can allow to
flow without overheating

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END OF TOPIC 5
RESISTANCE / RESISTOR

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