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Chapter 12

Human
resources
management

Learning outcomes
This chapter should enable the student to:

Define human-resource management and strategic


human-resource management.

Discuss the importance of human-resource management


within the context of managing the organisation as an
integrated whole.

Explain the role of the human-resources manager.

Discuss the current trends in human-resources


management.

Identify and explain the functions of human-resource


management by discussing the strategic planning, staffing,
assessment, development and maintenance of human
resources.

Human-resources (HR)
management

Strategic human-resources
management

Long-term, top-level management


decisions, choices and actions

Integrated with overall business


strategy

The role of humanresources management

Ensuring that the

organisations human
resources are managed as
effectively and efficiently as
possible, thereby:

Increasing organisational
effectiveness.

Satisfying employees' needs.

Primary responsibilities of
human-resources manager

Ensuring the optimisation of the


organisations HR by being:

Part adviser
Part strategist
Part trainer and developer
Part counsellor
Part manager

The required skills of a HR


manager

Human-resources
management process
Four main activities:

HR planning
Staffing
Training and development
Maintenance

Strategic HR
planning

Strategic HR
planning
Once HR strategy
has been determined,
two steps remain:

Job analysis
Determines:

The content of the job


AND

Behaviours and attributes necessary


to

master the content.

Figure 12.1 Job analysis results in two


end-products

Uses of job analysis:


HR forecasting
Recruitment
Interviewing and selection
Induction
Training and development
Job evaluation and remuneration
Organisational restructuring
Performance management

HR forecasting (workforce
planning)

HR forecasting means developing and


implementing plans so that the right
type of employees fill the right type
and number of jobs to enable the
organisation to achieve its goals and
objectives.

Staffing
Finding suitably qualified workers to fill
particular jobs

Done through:
Recruitment
selection
Induction

Recruitment
Recruitment means all HR activities

used to draw a sufficient number of


qualified job applicants to apply for a
job, so that the most appropriate one
can be selected.

Recruitment
Internal filling positions as far as

possible from inside the organisation

External - filling positions from outside


the organisation

Usually a combination of both

Internal recruitment:
Advantages

Higher morale
Knowledge of records
Chain effect of promotion
Need to hire only at entry level
Usually faster and less expensive

Internal recruitment:
Disadvantages

Applicant pool is smaller


No new ideas
Increases possibility of internal infighting
Not necessarily best applicants
Negative morale influence on employees not
promoted

Strong management-development programme


necessary

Internal recruitment: Sources


and techniques

Record/data system
Postings e.g. notice boards and
intranet

Recommendations by supervisors

External recruitment:
Sources and techniques
Employment agencies
Walk-ins
Referrals
Professional bodies e.g. engineering
institutes

Head-hunting
Educational institutions
Internet/TV/radio

Selection
Selection is the process though which the applicant
who best suits a particular position is chosen
from a group of applicants.
Remember:

Heed current legislation.


Use pre-determined selection criteria.
Keep records.

Selection phases

Selection phases
(continued)

Selection phases
(continued)

Induction
Induction is the process though which
the new employee is welcomed and
orientated to the organisation.

Why is induction necessary?


Makes new employee feel more at
ease.

Ensures immediate productive


integration.

Training and development

Learning organisation organisation


with a culture of constant development
of its employees

Training opportunities to enhance

employee's skills and knowledge to do


a specific job

Development longer- term focus on


preparing employees for future work
responsibilities

Training and development


(T&D) process

Performance management

Performance management is a formal


and methodological process.

Employees job-related strengths and


weaknesses are identified, measured
and developed.

Performance
management

Maintaining HR

Some compensation
examples

Compensation objectives

Some trends impacting on


HRM
International economics - e.g. global recession
Social networking
Work-life balance significance
Need for ethics and social responsibility
Emphasis on performance management
Need for skilled workers
Demographic change
Government legislation

Challenges facing HR
managers

Future talent needs


Required organisations HR make-up
Facilitating optimal internal talent
development

External competencies and skills


requirements

Engaging & energising the

organisations demographic profile