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ART

NOUVEAU
AKILA AMIRTHALINGAM
Vth SEMESTRER

BIRTH OF ART NOUVEAU


The last third of the 19th century saw the
development of a fundamentally approach to
architecture and interior design. All over

Europe there was a need for liberating


change of direction, a desire to break away
from set formulas based on pastiche (work
ofvisual art , literature, or music thatimitatesthe style
or character of the work of one or more other artists) of

historical styles and a search for original


ideas, all of which resulted at the beginning of
the

1890s in the birth of Art Nouveau.

INTRODUCTION: ART
NOUVEAU
Art Nouveau (French for
"New Style") was
popularized by the famous
Maison de l'Art Nouveau
(House of New Art), a Paris
art gallery operated by
Siegfried Bing.

INTRODUCTION: ART
NOUVEAU
Art Nouveau represents the

beginning of

modernism in design (Modern Architecture).


It occurred ata time when mass-produced
consumer goods began to fill the
marketplace,and designers, architects, and
artists began to understand that the handcrafted
work of centuries past could be lost. While
reclaiming thiscraft tradition, art nouveau
designers simultaneously rejected traditional
styles in favor of new, organic forms that
emphasized humanity's connection tonature.

INTRODUCTION: ART
NOUVEAU
TIME & PLACE
Art Nouveau art
and architecture
flourished in
major European
cities between
1890 and 1914.

INTRODUCTION: ART
NOUVEAU
It embracedall forms of art and design:

architecture
furniture
glassware
graphic design
jewelry
painting
pottery
metalwork
textile

This was a sharp contrast to thetraditional separation of art into


the distinct categories of fine art(painting and sculpture) and
applied arts (ceramics,furniture, and other practical objects).

INTRODUCTION: ART
NOUVEAU
HALLMARKS OF
ART NOUVEAU STYLE

flat, decorativepatterns;
intertwined organic forms such
as stems or flowers;
an emphasis on handcrafting as
opposed to machine
manufacturing;
the use of new materials;
and the rejection of
earlierstyles

ART NOUVEAU
ARCHITECTURE
FEATURES
Art Nouveau buildings have many of these
features:

Asymmetrical shapes
Extensive use of arches and curved forms
Curved glass
Curving, plant-like embellishments
Mosaics
Stained glass
Japanese motifs

ART NOUVEAU
ARCHITECTURE

Pierre
Francastel
divides Art Nouveau
into two main
tendencies that could
broadly termed the

organic and the


rationalist

ART NOUVEAU
ARCHITECTURE
Rationalist:

Organic:

Mackintosh school

Gaudi house

Glasglow, Scotland
1897-1909
-dependent on the straight line

Barcelona, Spain
1903
-gives precedence to the curved line and floral shapes

ART NOUVEAU
ARCHITECTURE

Stephan
Tschudi
Madsen
(Art Historian)
proposed a more subtle
classification, but still relies on
an assumed antagonism
between four designs

ART NOUVEAU
ARCHITECTURE
In his book Sources of Art Nouveau, he describes for styles:
1. An abstract, structural style with a
strong symbolic and dynamic
tendency (France & Belgium)
(Horta, Guimard, Van de Velde)

2. A floral approach focuding on


organic plant forms
(Galle, Majorelle, Vallin)

Henry Van de Veldes house

Aquarium Pavillion

ART NOUVEAU
ARCHITECTURE
3. The linear, flat approach, with a
heavy symbolic element
(Glasglow group, Mackintosh)

Glasgow School of Art


by Charles Rennie Mackintosh

4. A structured, geometric style


(Austria & Germany)
(Wagner, Olbrich, Hoffmann, Loos)

Majolikahaus in Vienna
by Otto Wagner

ART NOUVEAU
ARCHITECTS
AND THEIR
WORKS

Victor
Horta
(Belgian architect and
designer)
(January 6, 1861 - September 8 1947)

Hotel
Tassel
Brussels, Belgium
Construction started

1893
Completed

1894

(1st Art Nouveau Building in the World)

airway of Tassel House, Brussels

Hotel
van
Eetvelde
Brussels, Belgium
Construction started
Completed

1900

1898

Hotel van Eetvelde office : fireplace

Hotel
Solvay
Brussels,
Belgium
Construction started

1898
Completed

1900

Horta
Museum
formerly known as

Maison & Atelier Horta

Brussels, Belgium
Construction started
Completed

1900

1898

Hector
Guimard
(French architect)
(Lyon, March 10, 1867
New York,
May 20, 1942)

Castel
Beranger
Paris, France
1890 circa
multi-familty
housing,
Building Type
apartment
building
Construction bearing masonry,
System brick, cast iron
Climate temperate
Context urban
Notes Graceful
asymmetrical
wrought iron
entry gate,
precedent to
work of
contemporary
American

Details of
Castel
Beranger

Paris
Metro
Entrances
Paris, France
1899 to 1905
Building Type

light rail rapid


transit stations

Construction
iron and glass
System
Climate temperate
Context urban
Notes Graceful organic
forms.

Hotel
Guimard
Paris, France
1912

Building Type

private residence
hotel

ConstructionSyste cut stone bearing


m masonry
Climate temperate
Context urban
Notes Elegant facade with
organic detailing.

Louis
Sullivan
(American architect)
(September 3, 1856 April 14,
1924)
"father of skyscrapers
"father of modernism
one of "the recognized trinity
of American architecture"

Wainwrigh
t
Building
Missouri, USA
1890 to 1891
Height: 44.81 meters / 147
feet
Stories: 10

Charles
Rennie
Mackintosh

(British Architect, Interior Designer

The
Light
House
Glassglow, Scotland
Completed in

1895

Antonio
Gaudi
(Architect, Barcelona)
Gaudi was a Spanish (Catalan)
Architect who created complex
buildings in that the architecture
was considered sculptural as
well.
His buildings are considered
biomorphic, or organicallyshaped. This is possibly a
rejection to the coldness that a
machine-produced geometric
object would create

Casa
Battlo

Barcelona, Spain
1905-1907

Casa
Mil

Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain


1905-1907

Classification

Name: Casa Mila (La Pedrera)


Architect: Antoni Gaud
Timeline: 1907-1910
Country: Spain,Catalonia
Style: Modernism

Description of work
A.

Technical elements and structural materials: stone,


brick, iron and ceramics.

B.

Support: The building leans on pillars, structure that


eliminates the need for load-bearing walls and partitions
allows free distribution and the large openings of the facade.
The structure is basically iron pillars but also combining other
materials such as brick and stone.

C.

Cover: golf are covered with 270 diaphragm arches of brick,


all adopted different catenary(chain) shape that perfectly
absorbs lateral loads. Constitute a fourth insulating the attic to
other apartments, but hardly increases the weight given the
lightness of the materials used. Above the attic roof with
fanciful sculptural forms, which houses the water tanks and
the stairwells and elevators.

D.

Decorative elements: We find throughout the


building, from the front (wave pattern and iron bars) to
the inside of the housing (roofs and stucco walls,
furniture), the scale (stucco, ceramics, paintings, iron)
and above the roof.

E. Interior space: Gaudi cared for until the end


aesthetics and functionality of the space. He and his
aides designed the ceilings of the rooms and much of
the furniture in undulating waves. Floor: Free. The
building is organized around two large courtyards,
Gaudi became true "interior walls"; spacious were
originally decorated with frescoes. Each apartment
opens onto a courtyard and exterior, so light and
proper ventilation is ensured. Parties: Ground floor;
five floors; attic and roof.

Antoni Gaud

Plan

Outdoor spaces:

Front: Despite the appearance that offers powerful, it is a simple lining and
stand on the rocks due to the internal structure of iron.

The rows of balconies heavy curl alternately inwards and outwards, and this
gives the whole unit a plastic. Forms that evoke nature: both the front and
steep undulating, embodied the feeling of waters that break the resistance
of a stone structure, in continuity with the natural coastal and mountain
ranges of Catalonia.

The forms also recall the waves of the Mediterranean Sea. Iron railings:
full of vitality organic mimic some marine rocks and sand on the beach.
Gaudi, the son of a coppersmith, retained the affection wrought iron, which
was a great master.

This treatment anticipates the work of welded metal sculptors of the


twentieth century, but often exceeds the richness and variety of forms.

Windows: have a large amplitude, and undulating with gently curved


corners that give the building a great plasticity. Plastic unit: the sequence of
raised wavy lines unifies the visual of a building devoid of decoration. His
strength anticipates architectural expressionism.

Roof: One of the most amazing spaces that can be found in the
universal architecture and is a veritable forest of magical shapes.

Chimneys: There is one for each apartment. Grouped screwing up


spirally, so that the air tour and facilitates the expulsion of smoke.
Volumes scales: Gaudi care how much function and construction;
useful items become beautiful through its brilliant creativity. Some of
these volumes are covered with pieces of marble or ceramic.

Vents: Also take fantastic shapes. Only fences that protect visitors
there was added later. Some believe and see figures relate to Islamic
traditions of Muslims and Christians. Others think seeing shapes from
the stony place called Fray Guerau, Montserrat. Others, even the most
distant yet related sites such as Cappadocia. Pieces of broken
champagne bottles: a group of chimney lining, Arte Povera and
anticipate the second half of the twentieth century.

La
Sagrada
Familia
(The Holy Family)
Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
1882-2026

Construction of Sagrada Famlia had commenced


in1882and Gaudi became involved in 1883,taking over the
project and transforming it with his architectural and
engineering style, combining Gothic and curvilinearArt
Nouveauforms.
Gaud devoted his last years to the project, and at the time
of his death at age 73 in 1926 less than a quarter of the
project was complete.Sagrada Famlia's construction
progressed slowly, as it relied on private donations and was
interrupted by theSpanish Civil War, only to resume
intermittent progress in the 1950s.
Construction passed the midpoint in 2010 with some of the
project's greatest challenges remaining and an anticipated
completion date of 2026, the centenary of Gaud's death.

Story of Creation 1
The construction started in 1882

Story of Creation (II)


Gaudi began to work only after a year

PLAN

The Sagrada Famlia was planned from the outset to be a cathedralsized building.

In common with Catalan and many other European Gothic


cathedrals, the Sagrada Famlia is short in comparison to its width,
and has a great complexity of parts, which include double aisles,
anambulatory with achevet(an apse with an ambulatory giving
access behind the high altar to a series of chapels set in bays. )of
sevenapsidal chapels, a multitude of towers and three portals, each
widely different in structure as well as ornament.

A covered passage orcloisterwhich forms a rectangle enclosing the


church and passing through thenarthex (entrance or lobby area)of
each of its three portals. With this peculiarity aside, the plan,
influenced by Villar's crypt, barely hints at the complexity of Gaud's
design or its deviations from traditional church architecture.

FACADES

The Church will have three grand faades: theNativityfacade to the


East, thePassion facade to the West, and theGloryfaade to the
South (yet to be completed).
The Nativity Faade was built before work was interrupted in 1935
and bears the most direct Gaudi influence.
The Passion faade was built after the project which Gaudi planned in
1917. The construction was begun in 1954, and the towers, built over
the elliptical plan, were finished in 1976. It is especially striking for
its spare, gaunt, tormented characters, including emaciated figures
of Christ being scourged at the pillar; and Christ on theCross. These
controversial designs are the work ofJoseph Maria Subirachs.
The Glory faade, on which construction began in 2002, will be the
largest and most monumental of the three and will represent one's
ascension to God. It will also depict various scenes such as Hell,
Purgatory, and will include elements such as theSeven Deadly
Sinsand theSeven Heavenly Virtues.

INTERIOR

The church plan is that of a Latin cross with five aisles.


The central nave vaults reach forty-five metres (150ft) while the side
nave vaults reach thirty metres (100ft).
The transept has three aisles. The columns are on a 7.5 metre (25ft)
grid. However, the columns of theapse, resting on del Villar's foundation,
do not adhere to the grid, requiring a section of columns of the
ambulatory to transition to the grid thus creating a horseshoe pattern to
the layout of those columns.
The crossing rests on the four central columns of porphyry supporting a
great hyperboloid surrounded by two rings of twelve hyperboloids (solid
or surface having plane sections that are hyperbolas, ellipses, or circles)
(currently under construction). The central vault reaches sixty metres
(200ft). The apse is capped by a hyperboloid vault reaching seventy-five
metres (250ft).
Gaud intended that a visitor standing at the main entrance be able to
see the vaults of the nave, crossing, and apse; thus the graduated
increase in vault loft.

Detail of the roof in the nave. Gaud designed the columns


tomirror trees and branches.

There are gaps in the floor of theapse, providing a view down into
the crypt below.
The columns of the interior are a unique Gaud design. Besides
branching to support their load, their ever-changing surfaces are the
result of the intersection of various geometric forms. The simplest
example is that of a square base evolving into an octagon as the
column rises, then a sixteen-sided form, and eventually to a circle.
This effect is the result of a three-dimensional intersection of
helicoidal (forming or arranged in a spiral )columns (for example a
square cross-section column twisting clockwise and a similar one
twisting counter-clockwise).
Essentially none of the interior surfaces are flat; the ornamentation is
comprehensive and rich, consisting in large part of abstract shapes
which combine smooth curves and jagged points. Even detail-level
work such as the iron railings for balconies and stairways are full of
curvaceous elaboration.

GEOMETRIC DETAILS

Alpha and Omega carving at Sagrada Famlia entrance

The towers on the Nativity faade are crowned with geometrically


shaped tops that are reminiscent ofCubism(they were finished
around 1930), and the intricate decoration is contemporary to the
style ofArt Nouveau, but Gaud's unique style drew primarily from
nature, not other artists or architects, and resists categorization.

Gaud usedhyperboloid structuresin later designs of the Sagrada


Famlia (more obviously after 1914),
however there are a few places on the nativity
faadea design not equated with
Gaud'sruled-surfacedesignwhere
thehyperboloidcrops up.

pinnacle detail

Parque
Guell
Barcelona, Spain
1900 to 1914
Parque Guell, or Guell Park is
surrounded
by an undulating mosaic wall.

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