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VALUES, ASSUMPTIONS AND

BELIEFS IN O D

Importance of values, assumptions and beliefs in O D

Set of values, assumptions and beliefs are integral part of O D
shaping the goals and methods of the field and distinguishing O D
from other interventions
These values and assumption have been developed from
research and theories by behavioral scientists and observations of
practicing managers
VALUES - Meaning
- Values are beliefs about what is desirable and good and what
is undesirable and bad

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VALUES --

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ASSUMPTIONS - Meaning
- Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded so valuable and
obviously correct that they are taken for granted and rarely
examined or questioned
BELIEFS Meaning
- A belief is a proposition about how world works that the
individual accept as true
THUS values, assumptions and beliefs are cognitive facts or
propositions with values being beliefs about good and bad and
assumption being strongly held and , relatively unexamined
beliefs accepted as truth

VALUES --

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Values, assumptions and beliefs provide structure and
stability for people as they attempt to understand the
world around them
O D values tend to be humanistic
- These values proclaim the importance of individual,
respect of whole person, treat people with respect and
dignity
- View all people have potential of growth and
development

Rationality.These values assert the sanctity of individual. reasons and goodwill are tools for making progress  O D values tend to be democratic .These values presume that people are basically good .Recognizes importance of fair and equitable treatment for all and need for justice thru rule of law and due process  4 .Progress is possible and desirable in human affairs .VALUES ----- O D values tend to be optimistic . the right of people to be free from arbitrary misuse of power .

of increased understanding between and within groups in order to reduce tension .VALUES ----- a) - 5 Evolution of O D Warren Bennis – In 1969 proposed that O D practitioner share set of normative goals based on their principles. which he said are: Improvement in inter-personal competence A shift in values so that human factors come to be legitimate Dev.

VALUES ----- 6 Development of more effective team management so that functional groups work more competently Development of better methods of conflict resolution Development of organic rather than mechanical system. He clarified that mechanical system rely on “ authority-obedience relationship” while organic system rely on mutual confidence and trust .

VALUES ---b) Richard Beckhard (1969) described several assumption and nature of functioning of organization held by O D practitioners : .Relevant change goal is to reduce inappropriate competition and development of more collaborative condition 7 .The basic building blocks of an organization are groups and therefore unit of change is group rather than individual .

VALUES ---The goal of healthy organization is to develop open communication.Away from a view of people as essentially bad towards a view of people as basically good - 8 .People affected by change must be allowed active participation and sense of ownership c) Robert Tannenbaum Sheldon values in transition as under: . mutual trust .

VALUES ---- 9 Away from negative evaluation of individual towards confirming them as valuable human being Away from resisting and fearing individual differences towards accepting and utilizing them Away from distrusting people to trusting them THESE values and assumption may not seem profound today but in 1950 and 60 they represented a radical departure from accepted beliefs and assumption .

functioning .THEORIES AND MANAGEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT     10 This pertains to foundation of organization development theories and practice It deals with the aspect of art and science of O D theories. which form the knowledge base on which O D is constructed This knowledge base is used to plan and implement effective change programs The change programs are indeed a complicated process and improves org.

THEORIES ---    11 Models and theories of planned change The development of models of planned change facilitated the development of OD Models and theories depict the important features of some phenomenon and variables and describe the relationships among the variables They help in understanding as to what happens and how it happens in planned change .

every obstacle before you. you will burn away every problem. If you focus your rays of energy the way a magnifying glass focuses the rays of the sun. 12 .Theories---Do everything with your whole mind and with your whole heart.

That is. the status quo – what is happening  13 . These are as follows: The FIRST.idea states that what is occurring at any point of time is a resultant in a field of opposing forces .Lewin introduced two idea about change that have been influential for long time.Theories ----Kurt Lewin .

He suggested that change is a three stage process 14 .With the technique called the force field analysis we can identify the major forces and then develop action plans for moving the equilibrium point in one direction or the other Lewin’s SECOND .right now is the result of forces pushing in opposing direction .idea was a model of change process itself.Theories ----.

Theories ----He explained three stages as: a) Unfreezing b) Moving to a new level of behavior c) Refreezing the behavior EDGAR SCHEIN .Took this idea and improved it by specifying the psychological mechanism involved in each stage as shown below:  15 .

Theories ----Unfreezing . judge things 1) 16 .Helping the client to see things.creating motivation and readiness to change through: a) Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation b) Creation of guilt or anxiety c) Provision of psychological safety 2) Changing through cognitive restructuring .

mentor etc b) Scanning the environment for new relevant information 3) Re-freezing .helping the client to integrate the new point of view into - 17 .Theories ---Feel things and react to things differently based on a new point of view obtained through: a) Identifying with a new model.

They expanded the three stage model into seven stage. Jeanne Watson and Bruce Westly .Theories ----a) b)  18 The total personality and self concept Significant relationships Another modification of Lewin’s model .This was proposed by Ronald Lippit.model representing consulting process: .

Theories ----Developing a need for change .correspond to Lewin’s unfreezing phase 2) Establishing a change relationship .In this phase a client system in need for help and a change agent from outside the system establish a working relationship 3) Clarifying or diagnosing the client system’s problem 1) 19 .

terminating the client –consultant relationship 20 .Theories ---4) Examining alternatives routes and goals. establishing goals and intention of action 5) Transforming intentions into actual change efforts 6) Generalizing and stabilizing change 7) Achieving a terminal relationship that is.

Securing commitment from top management .Theories-----    1) 21 Total system change This is comprehensive change model Ralph Kilmann in his book Managing beyond the Quick Fix propounded this model This model has five sequential stages: Initiating the program .

Thorough analysis of the problems and situations facing the organization 3) Scheduling the track .Theories ------2) Diagnosing the problem .Enhances trust. communication. information sharing and willingness to change 22 .Involve intervening in five critical leverage points which are: a) Culture track .

Establishes cooperation organization.Theories----b) Management skill track .Provide all management personnel with new ways of coping complex problems c) Team building track .wide so that complex problems can be addressed 23 .

Theories---d) The strategy – structure track .Establishes a performance based reward system that sustains all improvements and uses of updated management skills 24 . works groups. jobs and all resources with the new strategic direction e) The reward system track .Develops a completely new or a revised strategic plans and align various divisions.

Xerox and Eastman Kodak .It received wider acceptance because of its being comprehensive in nature and its identification of five tracks as critical leverage points .And also because of its having holistic view of organizational change and development  25 .Ford.Theories----Kilmann tested his model in mighty organizations likeAT&T. GE.

Theories---- The   26 Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational change This model shows how to create first order and second order change which they term as transactional change and transformational change In first order change some features of the organization change but fundamental of organization remain the same .

radical changes . revolutionary. incremental and continuous change In second order change nature of organization is fundamentally and substantially altered Second order change go by different levels such as transformational.Theories----   27 First order change are also called Transactional. evolutionary. adaptive.

Theories----- First   28 order change Changing structure. management practices and system causes change in work unit climate which changes motivation in turn individual and organizational performance Transactional leadership is required to make the change in organizational climate which paves the way for transformational changes .

Theories--- Second   29 order change In second order change targets are mission and strategy leadership style and organizational culture Intervention directed towards these factors transform the organization and cause a permanent change in organizational culture which produces changes in individual and organizational performance .

Theories---- Burke-Letwin is a significance advance in thinking about planned change  The O D practitioner map the change situation. determine the kind of change required ei transactional or transformational and then target intervention towards factors of the organization that produce the desired change 30 .

Theories----   31 Porras and Robertson Model of Organizational Change The basic premise of this model is that O D intervention alter features of the work setting causing change in individual’s behavior which in turn lead to individual and organizational improvement The work setting plays a central role in this model and consists of four factors: .

Strategies. management style. Structure.Goals. rewards system and ownership 2) Social factors Culture.Theories---Organizing arrangements . Informal patterns and individual attitude 1) 32 . interaction processes. Administrative policies and procedures.

Theories-----3) Physical setting . work flow design. technical procedures and system 33 . equipment and machinery. physical ambience. Information technology. Job design.Space configuration.Tools. interior design and architectural design 4) Technology . technical expertise.