You are on page 1of 21

Forging defects and

residual stresses in




al defects


Metal forging
Metal forging is a metal
forming process that
involves applying
compressive forces to a work
piece to deformed it, and
create a desired geometric
change to the material. The
forging process in very
important in industrial metal
manufacture, particularly in
the extensive iron and steel
manufacturing industry.

Forging defects
Though forging process give generally prior quality
product compared other manufacturing processes.
There are some defects that are lightly to come a
proper care is not taken in forging process design.
Forging defect can be categorized into two broad

Geometrical defect
Non geometrical defect

Geometrical defect
The main types of geometrical defect are:
Laps and fold

There are number of other diffrent geometrical

defect that can occur during forging. These include:

Forging shape does not match design
Die deflection, yielding or wear
Eccentricity or bucking

Cold Shut
This appears as a small cracks at the corners of the forging. This is caused mainly by
the improper design of die. Where in the corner and the fillet radii are small as a result
of which metal does not flow properly into the corner and the ends up as a cold shut.
A cold shut is a discontinuity produced when two surfaces of metal fold against each
other without welding completely. A cold shut can occur when a flash or fin produced
by one forging operation is pressed into the metal surface during a subsequent

Underfills are another geometrical defect commonly caused by
inadequate press force, energy and/or power. In this some
section of the die cavity are not completely filled by the flowing
metal. The causes of this defects are improper design of the
forging die or using forging techniques.


Laps and Folds

This is caused by the
improper die design,
making the laps created
onto the final part which is
very much undesirable as
they distort the surface
finish and also tend to
weaken the product due to
internal or external cracks.



Less-than-optimum process and perform design is

the principal cause of most geometrical defects. By
understanding the process issues, the forge is
better able to design its processes to minimize the
occurrence of such defects. When the press or
hammer die close, the workplace will move in a
path of least resistance. It is imperative that the
die pre-form design create this least resistant path
so that the net result is a sound forging. On
occasion, the die design may create a situation in
which the path of least resistance is the one that
results in a defect during forging.

These are basically internal ruptures caused by the improper
cooling of the large forging. Rapid cooling causes the exterior
to cool quickly causing internal fractures. This can be
remedied by following proper cooling practices.

Cracking at the flash of
closed-die forgings is another
surface defect, since the
crack generally penetrates
into the body of the forging
when the flash is trimmed of
his type of cracking is more
prevalent the thinner the
flash in relation to the
original thickness of the
metal. Flash cracking can be
avoided by increasing the
flash thickness or by
relocating the flash to a less

Scale Pits
This is seen as irregular deputations on the surface of the
forging. This is primarily caused because of improper
cleaning of the stock used for forging. The oxide and scale
gets embedded into the finish forging surface. When the
forging is cleaned by pickling, these are seen as
deputations on the forging surface.

Die Shift:
This is caused by the miss alignment of the die halve, making
the two halves of the forging to be improper shape.
Improper Grain Flow:
This is caused by the improper design of the die, which makes
the flow of the metal not flowing the final interred direction.

In general, defects in parts

manufactured by metal forging can be
controlled first by careful consideration
of work stock volume, and by good
design of both the forging die, and the
process. The main principle is to enact
the right material distributions, and the
right material flow to accomplish these

Residual Stresses in Forging

The residual stress
produced in forgings as a results
inhomogeneous deformation are
generally small because the
deformation is normally carried
out well into the hot-working
However, appreciable
residual stresses and warping
can occur on
the quenching of steel forgings in
heat treatment.

Large forgings are subjected to the formation of

small cracks, or flakes at the centre of the cross
section. This is associated with the high hydrogen
content usually present in steel ingots of large
size, coupled with the presence of residual
Large forgings therefore have to be slowly cooled
from the working temperature. Examples: burying
the forging in ashes for a period of time or using a
controlled cooling furnace.
Finite element analysis is used to predict residual
stresses in forgings.

Why are residual stresses

Quenching of closed die forgings which have thin cross
sections can cause distortion during the quenching
operation, leading to expensive hand finishing.
Forgings that are machined after the quenching
operation will distort from their intended shape if the
internal stress pattern is not relieved.
Tensile stresses which are revealed during the
machining operation will enhance stress corrosion
The unaccounted for stress pattern may lead to
premature failure of forged parts.

Abbaschian, Reed-Hill. Physical
Metallurgy Principles. 4th edition. 2009
Beer & Johnston (2006). Mechanics of
Materials (5th edition). McGraw Hill.
Robert S Williams Metallurgy and
metallurgical engineering series.
McGraw-Hill Book Co; 5th edition (1948).