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Chapter 7: Traditional

Training Methods
Rhonda Bush
Takisha Butler
Janice Tucker
Sonya Lemon


Chapter 7 focuses on the traditional methods of delivering training.

Various types of instructional methods include:
Role Play
Case Study
Computer-Based Training
Adventure Training
Virtual Reality

Presentation Methods

Presentation Methods- those means of training delivery in which trainees

are the passive recipients of information, such as facts or information
about processes or problem solving methods.
A lecture- is the method of training delivery involving a trainer verbally
communicating the material the trainees are to learn.
Audiovisual Instruction- includes overheads, slides, and videotapes.

Hands-On Method

On-the-job training (OJT)- involves new or inexperienced employees

learning by observing their peers or managers at work and trying to
emulate their behaviors.
Requires less time or money invested
Utilizes expertise among peers and managers
Can be effective for cross-training employees within a department
It is typically unstructured and, therefore, managers and peers may not
use the same process to complete the same task
Bad habits can be passed on
Demonstration may be flawed
Opportunities for practice and feedback not provided

Hands-On Method

OJT must be structured to be effective

Successful OJT incorporates the principles of social learning theory and
involves the following:
Policy Statement
Clear Specification
Thorough Review
Structured training managers and peers
Availability of lesson plans
Evaluation of Employees basic skill levels

Hands-On Method

Self-Directed Learning- is an approach to training that places

responsibility for learning on the employer/learner. The training content is
pre-determined, but trainees learn at their own pace and in their own way.
Fewer training staff
Reduces the costs of facilities and travel
Constant access to training material
Responsibility placed on trainees
Higher development costs

Hands-On Method

Steps to effective self-directed learning:

Conducting a Job Analysis to identify the tasks that need to be covered
Writing trainee-centered learning objectives
Developing the content for the learning packet based on the traineecentered learning objectives
Breaking the content into smaller chunks
Developing an evaluation package, including means of evaluating
oneself as well as the learning package.

Hands-On Methods



Apprenticeship- is a work-study method with both on-the job and

classroom training.
Registered apprentice:
144 hours of classroom instruction
2,000 hrs or one year of on-the job experience
Advantages of Apprenticeships:
Learners paid while they learn
Effective learning experiences
Typically results in full-time employment for trainees

Hands-On Methods


Disadvantages of Apprenticeships:
Cost and time commitment
Limited access for minorities and women
Lack of guarantee that employment will follow
Narrow skill focus of current apprenticeships (i.e.. one craft or trade)

Hands-On Methods


Stimulation- is a training method that represents a real-life situation, with

trainees decisions resulting in outcomes that mirror what would happen if
they were on the job.
A common example is the use of stimulators for training in flight
simulators for pilots
Stimulations are used to teach production and process skills as wells as
management and interpersonal skills
Advantages of Simulations:
Allows trainees to learn production and process skills first hand
Allows for observation and evaluation of trainees performance followed
by feedback

Hands-On Methods

Case Study- is a description about how employees or an organization dealt

with a difficult situation.
Trainees are required to analyze, critique, indicate the appropriate actions
and make suggestions.
This approach assumes that employees will learn through this process of
The cases are usually appropriate for developing higher-order intellectual
skills such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.

Hands-On Methods

Cases help trainees develop the willingness to take risks.

The learning environment must give trainees the opportunity to prepare
and discuss their case analyses.
Learners must be willing and able to analyze the case and communicate
and defend their positions.

Hands-On Methods


Process for Case Development:

Identify a story
Gather information
Prepare a story outline
Decide on administrative issues
Prepare case materials

Hands-On Methods

Business Games- require trainees to gather information, analyze it and

make decisions.
Typically for the purpose of developing managerial skills.
The games should reflect all aspects of management practice: labor
relations, ethics, marketing and finance.
To ensure learning and transfer of training, games should be simple and
can be played in a short period of time.
Trainees need to feel they are participating in a business and acquiring
knowledge, skills and behaviors that are useful on the job.
Debriefing from a trainer can help trainees understand the game experience
and facilitate learning and transfer.

Hands-On Methods

Role Plays
Soft Skills
Explaining the Purpose

Behavior Modeling
Learning Skills and Behaviors
Behavior Modeling Training
. Key Behaviors

Hands-On Methods

Modeling Display
Clear Presentation

Hands-On Methods

Practice Sessions
Multiple Times
Understands Company/Job
Provides Feedback

Application Planning
Transfer of Key Behaviors
Trainee Preparation
Trainer Follow-up

Group Building Methods

Experimental Learning
Conceptual Knowledge and Theory
Behavioral Simulation
Analyze Activity
Theory and Activity Connection

Adventure Learning
Skill Objections

Group Building Methods

Team training-the performance of employees who work interdependently

to achieve common goals
The three major components of team training:
The behavioral component (communication, coordination, adaptability,
The knowledge component (mental models)
The attitude component (beliefs)

Group Building Methods

The main elements of the structure of team training:

Coordination training
Team leader training

Group Building Methods

Action learning-providing teams or work groups an actual problem to

work on solving through an action plan for which they are held
accountable to carry out
Similar objectives as team training
Has not been formally evaluated, but appears effective in the means and
transfer of learning because of it's realness

Choosing a Training Method

Factors to consider:
The intended learning outcomes
The learning environment needed
The issue of transferring learning
Effectiveness under the given circumstances