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CERTIFIED QUALITY CONTROL

PROFESSIONALS

Presented By
RAZA AFTAB

Supported By
JAHANZEB
AHMED

Special Thanks to
HR Department
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PROFESSIONALS
CONTENTS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Measurement of No-Load Loss & Acoustic Sound Level

Measurement of Impedance Voltage & Load Loss

Separate Source & Induce Over-voltage withstand test (with


measurement of Partial Discharges)
Lightning impulse over-voltage withstand test
Heat run (temperature rise test)
Measurement of zero-sequence impedance
Measurement of voltage & current harmonics
Tests on OLTC & Insulating Oil

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PROFESSIONALS
Separate Source Voltage Withstand Test
PURPOSE
The purpose of the test is testing the insulation between the windings and the
insulation between the windings and earthed parts (tank, pressing beams etc.)
under the temporary and switching overvoltages conditions which may occurred
during the service.
The transformer is not magnetized. Every part of the test winding is exposed to
the full test voltage between the winding and earth.
CLASS
IEC declare it as a routine test.
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PROFESSIONALS
Separate Source Voltage Withstand Test
APPLICABLE STANDARD
IEC 60076-3, Clause 11
ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA
The test shall be successful if no collapse of the voltage occurs.

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PROFESSIONALS
Separate Source Voltage Withstand Test
EQUIPMENTS/INSTRUMENTS

Voltage regulating transformer


HV Transformer
Current Transformer
Ammeters & Voltmeters
Capacitive Voltage Divider
OR
High voltage step-up transformer Phenix USA make or equivalent
complete set of input control module.
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with

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PROFESSIONALS
Separate Source Voltage Withstand Test
TEST CIRCUIT

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PROFESSIONALS
Separate Source Voltage Withstand Test
TEST CIRCUIT

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PROFESSIONALS
Separate Source Voltage Withstand Test
PROCEDURE
The full test voltage shall be applied for 60s between all terminals of the
winding under test connected together and all terminals of the remaining
windings, core, frame and tank or casing of the transformer, connected together
to earth. The separate source AC voltage test shall be made with single-phase
alternating voltage as nearly as possible of sine-wave form and not less than 80
% of the rated frequency. The peak value of voltage shall be measured. The
peak value divided by 2 shall be equal to the test value. The test shall
commence at a voltage not greater than one-third of the specified test value,
and the voltage shall be increased to the test value as rapidly as is consistent
with measurement.
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PROFESSIONALS
Separate Source Voltage Withstand Test
PROCEDURE.Continued
In case of repeating the test, after the transformer has successfully withstood
the test, the test voltage levels shall be reduced to 80% of the original value as
mentioned in IEC 60076-3 clause: 9 unless otherwise agreed and provided that
the internal insulation has not been modified in the mean time.

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PROFESSIONALS
Separate Source Voltage Withstand Test
TEST RESULTS
Following items are recorded in the test reports.
1. Applied voltage
2. Leakage Current
3. Duration of the test

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PROFESSIONALS
Separate Source Voltage Withstand Test
PRECAUTIONS
1. All connections should be tight.
2. Proper clearances should be observed.
3. Earthing should be proper.

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PROFESSIONALS
Induce Overvoltage Withstand Test (with measurement of
partial discharges)
PURPOSE
The purpose of the test is to ensure that the insulation between the phases,
windings, turns, coils, tapping leads and line terminals withstand the temporary
and switching voltages conditions to which the transformer may be subjected
during its lifetime. Measurement of partial discharges gives comprehensive
information about the quality of the insulating material.
CLASS
IEC declare it as a routine test.

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PROFESSIONALS
Induce Overvoltage Withstand Test (with measurement of
partial discharges)
APPLICABLE STANDARD
IEC 60076-3, Clause 12 for Induce Test and Clause 12.2.2, 12.3, 12.4 &
Appendix A for partial discharge test.
AFFECTED BY
Partial Discharges
Partial Discharges
It is an electric discharge that only partially bridges the insulation between the
conductors
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PROFESSIONALS
Induce Overvoltage Withstand Test (with measurement of
partial discharges)
EQUIPMENTS/INSTRUMENTS
Motor Generator Set
Adaptor Transformer
Current Transformers
Voltage Transformers
Partial Discharge measuring test set
Calibrator

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PROFESSIONALS
Induce Overvoltage Withstand Test (with measurement of
partial discharges)
TEST CIRCUIT

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PROFESSIONALS
Induce Overvoltage Withstand Test (with measurement of
partial discharges)
PROCEDURE

Measurement of Partial Discharges


For the measurement of the partial discharges the BUSHINGTAP method is
used. According to this method the calibration of the circuit has to be made
before starting measuring. For this reason priority calibrator is required.
After the transformer has been energized, the value of partial discharge that
was observed from the measuring equipment is multiplied by the correction
factor (K) of every terminal and the apparent partial discharge value is found.

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PROFESSIONALS
Induce Overvoltage Withstand Test (with measurement of
partial discharges)
PROCEDUREContinued
The partial discharges are measured during the increasing of test voltages at
110%, 130% of Um, where Um is the max. operating voltage and at exact test
voltages, and the reducing of the test voltages.

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PROFESSIONALS
Induce Overvoltage Withstand Test (with measurement of
partial discharges)
PROCEDURE

Induced overvoltage test


This test is similar to no-load test. All the other windings, other than that being
tested, are open circuited. If the winding has a neutral terminal, this may be
earthed during the test. Twice the rated voltage is applied to the winding,
preferably on LT side. The form of the voltage shall be as nearly as possible
sinusoidal and its frequency sufficiently above the rated frequency to avoid
excessive magnetizing current during the test. The peak value of the induced
test voltage shall be measured.

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PROFESSIONALS
Induce Overvoltage Withstand Test (with measurement of
partial discharges)
PROCEDUREContinued

Induced overvoltage test


The test shall be commenced at a voltage not greater than one third of the test
voltage and shall be increased to the test value as rapidly as is consistent with
the measurement. At the end of the test, the voltage shall be reduced rapidly to
less than one third of the test value before switching off.
The duration of the test at full test voltage shall be 60s for any test frequency up
to and including twice the rated frequency (i.e. 100Hz for the rated frequency of
50 Hz).
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PROFESSIONALS
Induce Overvoltage Withstand Test (with measurement of
partial discharges)
PROCEDUREContinued

Induced overvoltage test


The test is successful is no collapse of the test voltage occurs. When the test
frequency exceeds twice the rated frequency, the duration of the test shall be
as follows:
Duration(s) = 120 x rate frequency / test frequency

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PROFESSIONALS
Induce Overvoltage Withstand Test (with measurement of
partial discharges)
CALCULATIONS
For partial discharge the correction factor (K) can be calculated as follows:
K = qo/qm
qo
qm

Where:
:charge reproduced by the calibrator
:charge observed at measuring equipment

The partial discharge q can then measured as:


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q = qm. K

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PROFESSIONALS
Induce Overvoltage Withstand Test (with measurement of
partial discharges)
TOLERANCES
According to IEC the level of partial discharges should be less than:
300 pC @ 130%Um
500 pC @ 150% Um
Continuous level < 100 pC @ 110% Um

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PROFESSIONALS
Induce Overvoltage Withstand Test (with measurement of
partial discharges)
TEST RESULTS
Following items are recorded in the test reports.
1. Partial Discharges
2. Test Voltage
3. Duration

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PROFESSIONALS
Induce Overvoltage Withstand Test (with measurement of
partial discharges)
PRECAUTIONS
1. For the measurement of partial discharges, calibration process has to be
made at the de-energized state of the transformer.
2. No one should be present in the test bay but all other equipment (MG Set)
must be running.
3. Connections should be checked strictly.
4. Voltage should be increased at a rapid and smooth pace.
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PROFESSIONALS
Induce Overvoltage Withstand Test (with measurement of
partial discharges)
PRECAUTIONSContinued
5. A poor quality test connection can cause unexpected voltage rises.
External flashovers can over unexpectedly. Keep well clear.
6. Saturation current for the core should be as much avoided.
7. All points of the transformers should be earthed through proper earthing.

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PROFESSIONALS

THANK
YOU
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