Testing

© All Rights Reserved

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Testing

© All Rights Reserved

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TRANSFORMER

PRESENTED BY

RAZA AFTAB

SUPPORTED BY

JAHANZEB AHMED &

MUHAMMAD SHAFIQUE

MODULE -1

TRANSFORMER TESTING

OF TRANSFORMER

CONTENTS

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Measurement of Impedance Voltage & Load Loss

Separate Source & Induce Over-voltage withstand test

(with measurement of Partial Discharges)

Lightning impulse over-voltage withstand test

Heat run (temperature rise test)

Measurement of zero-sequence impedance

Measurement of voltage & current harmonics

Tests on OLTC & Insulating Oil

MODULE -1

TRANSFORMER TESTING

OF TRANSFORMER

Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage

DEFINITIO

N

reference temperature associated with a pair of windings

when rated current is flowing through the line terminals of

one of the windings and the terminals of the other winding are

short-circuited.

Load losses has an importance from the economical point of

view. .

Load loss = ohmic loss of windings and internal connections +

stray losses (eddy current losses due to leakage field)

MODULE -1

TRANSFORMER TESTING

OF TRANSFORMER

Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage

PURPOS

E

in the windings for the capitalization of losses and for

determining the required loading during the temperature rise

test. The test is performed at principal and extreme tap

positions if the taps provided are > + 5%.

AFFECTED

BY

power

CLAS factor

S

test

MODULE -1

TRANSFORMER TESTING

OF TRANSFORMER

Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage

STANDAR

DS

60076-8, Clause 10

TOLERANCE

S

not exceed guaranteed value by more

MODULE -1

TRANSFORMER TESTING

than 10%.

OF TRANSFORMER

Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage

EQUIPMENTS/INSTRUMEN

TS

1. Motor-Generator Set

2. Adapter Transformer

3. Power Analyzer

4. Precision Current Transformer

5. Precision Potential Transformer

6. Compensation Capacitors

MODULE -1

TRANSFORMER TESTING

OF TRANSFORMER

Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage

MEASURING CIRCUIT

MODULE -1

TRANSFORMER TESTING

OF TRANSFORMER

Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage

PROCEDUR

E

Rated current is generally applied to the HV windings with

the LV short circuited. The test is usually carried out at the

principal and extreme taps. Test current should be close to

the value of rated current as much as possible and the

voltage waveform should be in sinusoidal form with rated

frequency. If rated current is not available, then current

greater than 50% is preferable. The voltage, current and

load losses for each phase should be measured during the

test.

In case that the generator could not supply the system, the

MODULE

-1

reactive power

is encountered by using the capacitor

TRANSFORMER

TESTING

banks.

OF TRANSFORMER

Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage

PROCEDURE continued..

The readings have to be taken as quickly as possible to

prevent the temperature changes in the windings and the

applied current should be sustained 25% - 100% of rated

current. This increases the accuracy of the reading.

Now according to IEC the measured value of the losses

shall be referred to a winding temperature 75C. The

transformer is at ambient (tm) temperature when the

measurements are carried out, the loss value are corrected

to the reference temperature (75C) according to the standards as

follows:

MODULE

-1

TRANSFORMER TESTING

OF TRANSFORMER

Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage

PROCEDURE continued..

The d.c. losses Pac at the measuring temperature tm are

calculated using the resistance values RHV and RLV obtained in the resistance

measurement: RHV and RLV between the line terminals.

DC losses at tm measuring temperature Pdc = 1.5(I2.RHV + I2.RLV)

Additional losses at tm measuring temperature Pac = Pkm - Pdc

MODULE -1

TRANSFORMER TESTING

OF TRANSFORMER

Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage

PROCEDURE continued..

If the measuring current is different than the rated

current, then the load losses are calculated referring the

rated current as follows:

Pk = Pkm. (IN/Im)2

where:

MODULE -1

TRANSFORMER TESTING

Im = Measured current

Pkm = Measured load losses

Pk = Load losses at rated current

OF TRANSFORMER

Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage

PROCEDURE continued..

The load losses at reference temperature:

Pk = Pdc. t1 + 75C + Pac. t1 + 75C

ts + t m

t s + tm

t1 = 235C

= 225C

for Copper

for Aluminum

MODULE -1

TRANSFORMER TESTING

Pkm = Measured load losses

Pk = Load losses at rated I

OF TRANSFORMER

Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage

TEST RESULTS

Following items are recorded in the test report:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Impedance voltage

Measured current

Load losses at the measured current

Ambient temperature

Load losses at rated current & reference temperature

Percentage impedance at rated current & reference temperature

MODULE -1

TRANSFORMER TESTING

OF TRANSFORMER

Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage

PRECAUTIONS

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Condenser bushing taps to be earthed.

Readings should be taken quickly to keep the temperature almost

constant.

Voltage should be measured at the terminals to avoid addition of cable

losses.

Applied current should be controlled for gradual increase from zero to

prevent inrush current.

MODULE -1

TRANSFORMER TESTING

OF TRANSFORMER

Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage

DEFINITIO

N

at rated frequency and reference temperature, across the

terminals of one winding of a pair, when the terminals of the

other winding are short circuited.

For a 3-phase transformer the impedance is expressed as

phase impedance, in a transformer having a tapped winding,

the short circuit impedance is referred to a particular tapping

unless other specified, the principal tapping applies.

Short circuit impedance voltage is an important parameter for

MODULE

-1operation of the transformers and fault

the parallel

calculations.

TRANSFORMER

TESTING

OF TRANSFORMER

Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage

PURPOS

E

voltage is the parallel operation of the transformer and fault

calculations. The test is performed at principal and extreme

tap positions if the taps provided are > + 5%.

AFFECTED

BY

power factor

CLAS

S

test

MODULE -1

TRANSFORMER TESTING

OF TRANSFORMER

Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage

STANDAR

DS

60076-8, Clause 10

TOLERANCE

S For a 2-winding or specified 1st winding pair of multi-winding :- principle

tapping 7.5% (if Z 10%), 10% (if Z < 10%); any other tapping:

10% (if Z 10%), 15% (if Z < 10%). Auto connected winding pair or

specified 2nd winding pair of multi-winding :- principal tapping: 10% of

declared value; any other tapping of the pair: 15%. Further winding

pairs: to be agreed but 15% of declared value.

MODULE -1

TRANSFORMER TESTING

OF TRANSFORMER

Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage

PROCEDURE

If the measuring current is different than the rated

current, then the short circuit impedance is calculated

referring the rated current as follows:

Uk = Ukm. (IN/Im)2

where:

MODULE -1

TRANSFORMER TESTING

Im = Measured current

Ukm = Measured short circuit

impedance

Uk = Short circuit impedance at

rated current

OF TRANSFORMER

Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage

PROCEDURE

The short circuit impedance at measuring temperature t m

can be calculated as follows:

Ukm = 100. (Ukm/Un) %

URM = 100. (Pkm/SN) %

Ohmic component

Inductive component

MODULE -1

TRANSFORMER TESTING

OF TRANSFORMER

Measurement of Load Loss & Impedance voltage

PROCEDURE

The short circuit impedance at reference temperature of

75C can be calculated as follows:

UR = 100. (Pk/Sn) %

Uk = U2R U2km %

MODULE -1

TRANSFORMER TESTING

THANK YOU

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