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Omni Antenna Signal Pattern (Signal Propagation Shape)

Sectorize Antenna Signal Pattern (Signal Propagation Shape)

Sector Antenna

Signal Pattern

3 Dimension Sectorize Antenna Signal Pattern

Antenna Specification

UMTS RRU

Fiber Optic

UMTS BBU

RRU Board Coonection

Outdoor NodeB

UMTS and Radio Access Bearer Services

Stand-alone RABs

RAB combinations

Mapping of UMTS services to RABS


The CN will map the UMTS service to the RABs as shown in Table 2-1 below.
Traffic Class

RAB Configuration
SRB for BCCH
SRB for PCCH

Signaling Radio Bearer

SRBs fo BCCH, CCCH and DCCH


(FACH)
SRBs for CCCH and DCCH (RACH)
13.6/13.6kbps SRB for DCCH

Conversational

Speech 12.2 kbps RAB


64 kbps CS RAB
64/64 kbps PS RAB

Interactive

64/128 kbps PS RAB


64/384 kbps PS RAB

Streaming

57.6 kbps CS RAB


8/54 kbps PS RAB + Interactive 8/8
kbps PS RAB

Mixed

Conversational/Speech 12.2 kbps


RAB + Interactive 64/64 kbps PS RAB

For dimensioning purposes we only consider the services listed in Table 2-2 below.
Service Type
64 kbps CS RB + 3.4 kbps SRB
64 kbps PS RB + 3.4 kbps SRB
Streaming 57.6 kbps CS RB + 3.4 kbps SRB
Streaming 16 kbps PS RB + 8 kbps PS RB +
3.4 kbps SRB

PS 1 rate is restricted to 64 kbps


PS Streaming rate restricted to 16 kbps

It should be noted that the PS streaming RAB cannot exist as a standalone RAB but must be combined with
an interactive bearer. Since we only dimension the Radio Network for the BH two assumptions may be made:
1) PS Streaming rate restricted to 16 kbps
2) The maximum PS rate is restricted to 64 kbps

BH Assumptions

Speech 12.2 kbps RB + 3.4 kbps SRB

Logical Channel

The MAC layer provides data transfer services on logical channels, Logical channels are classified into two
groups:
Control channels for the transfer of control plane information
Traffic channels for the transfer of user plane information

Transport Channels
A transport channel is defined by how and with what characteristics data is transferred over the air interface. There exist
two types of transport channels
Dedicated channels;
Common channels,
There is one dedicated transport channel, the dedicated channel (DCH), which is a downlink or uplink transport channel.
The DCH is transmitted over the entire cell or over only a part of the cell using beam-forming antennas. The DCH is
characterized by the possibility of fast rate change (every 10 ms), fast power control, and inherent addressing of mobile
stations.

Mapping Between Logical Channels and Transport Channels

PHYSICAL CHANNELS
The transport channels are channel coded and matched to the data rate offered by physical channels. Thereafter, the transport
channels are mapped on the physical channels. Physical channels consist of radio frames and time slots. The length of a radio
frame is 10 ms and one frame consists of 15 time slots.
Uplink Physical Channels
There are two uplink dedicated physical and two common physical channels:
The uplink dedicated physical data channel (uplink DPDCH) and the uplink dedicated physical control channel (uplink DPCCH);
The physical random access channel (PRACH) and physical common packet channel (PCPCH).
Downlink Physical Channels
There is one downlink dedicated physical channel, one shared and five common control channels:
Downlink dedicated physical channel (DPCH);
Physical downlink shared channel (DSCH);
Primary and secondary common pilot channels (CPICH);
Primary and secondary common control physical channels (CCPCH);
Synchronization channel (SCH).

PACKET SESSION
A packet session begins when a user is actively transmitting or receiving data in such volume that it requires a dedicated
channel. The session ends when there is no more data to transmit and the connection is transferred to a common channel.
During the session the user may be switched up or down in data rate due to channel switching, as illustrated in below Figure.

There are periods of silence in


between transmission where the
dedicated channel is still allocated,
but only the control channel is
active. This may be due to either the
protocol
waiting
for
an
acknowledgement or if there is no
data to send. This bursty behavior is
typical of a packet application

The session length is defined from the time a dedicated channel is allocated to the time where the channel is released and the user is
disconnected or moved to a common channel.

Packet Call showing Session throughput and T Hold

Packet Traffic Assumptions

End user application

RAB
mappin
g

Call per
24h

Sessions
per packet
call

KB per
request
UL

KB per
request
DL

Web traffic with image

BE
64/64

10

40

Web traffic without image

BE
64/384

10

20

Web traffic, minibrowser

BE
64/384

10

.2

Sending mail with attachment

BE
64/384

200

20

Sending mail without attachment

BE
64/384

.5

Receiving mail with attachment

BE
64/384

20

200

Receiving mail without


attachment

BE
64/384

.5

Point of sale (Telemetry)

BE
64/384

120

1.2

1.2

ENERGY PER BIT TO NOISE RATIO (EB/NO)


Figure 3-1 below illustrates how noise introduced by the air interface produces bit errors in the received data stream.

Air Interface noise


producing bit errors

The bit error rate is proportional to ratio of energy per bit (E b) to noise power density (No). This ratio is realistically and
conceptually illustrated in Figure 3-2 below.

Realistic and conceptual


illustration of Eb/No

New Additional Slide

CAPACITY REQUIREMENTS
As with the coverage requirements, the capacity requirements will grow in phases. Table below, shows a typical example
of the number of subscribers attached to an operators 3G network in the busy hour (BH).

Example Network Subscriber numbers

CS Traffic
Profile
The subscriber BH traffic profile for Circuit Switched (CS) must be calculated from the given requirements in terms of:
Average data rate per user (kbps)
Blocking rate/probability (Grade Of Service GOS)
Busy Hour Call Attempts (BHCA)
Average Call duration in minutes

CS Traffic Profile
Example

PS traffic profile
The subscriber BH traffic profile for Packet Switched (PS) should be given in terms of:
BH UL+DL data volume per subs (kbit)
Ratio uplink/total traffic
Average BH number of active Packet Data Protocol (PDP) contexts per user

PS Traffic Profile Example

SERVICE REQUIREMENTS
The types of service offered must be given. For each area, the estimated usage of each service should also be given.
The services are characterized by the QoS (Quality of Service) parameter related to different radio access bearer attributes.
The main attributes to define a service are bit rate, transfer delay, Bit Error Rate (BER) and BLock Error Rate (BLER). The
areas with different coverage reliability should be distinguished to
determine which service could be guaranteed.
The services that are available in the P3 radio network are listed below:
Speech
CS 64
CS 57.6 Streaming
Interactive PS 64/64
Interactive PS 64/128
Interactive PS 64/384
PS Streaming (combination of streaming and interactive)
Multi-RAB (combination of speech and interactive)

NOMINAL CELL PLAN

Cell Classification table

Cell illustration

WCDMA Traffic

Objectives
Upon completion of this module, the student will be able to:
Explain the UMTS and Radio Access Bearer (RAB) Concept
Explain the four different Traffic classes
List the RABs supported by the P3 WCDMA RAN
Explain how UMTS Bearer Services are mapped onto RABs
Explain the principle of Circuit Switched (CS) and Packet Switched (PS) dimensioning
Explain how best effort applications can be included in traffic calculations
For the purpose of network dimensioning, it is necessary to estimate the amount of traffic that is carried in the
Busy Hour (BH) of a system.
The purpose of a Radio Access Bearer (RAB) is to provide a connection segment using the UMTS Terrestrial
Radio Access Network (UTRAN) for support of a UMTS bearer service. The UTRAN can provide Radio Access
Bearer connections with different characteristics in order to match requirements for different UMTS bearers.

RADIO ACCESS BEARERS (RABS)


For the purpose of network dimensioning, it is necessary to estimate the amount of traffic that is carried in the
Busy Hour (BH) of a system.
The purpose of a Radio Access Bearer (RAB) is to provide a connection segment using the UMTS Terrestrial
Radio Access Network (UTRAN) for support of a UMTS bearer service. The UTRAN can provide Radio Access
Bearer connections with different characteristics in order to match requirements for different UMTS bearers.

UMTS and Radio Access Bearer Services

RABS SUPPORTED BY RAN

Stand-alone RABs

RAB combinations

Mapping of UMTS services to RABS


The CN will map the UMTS service to the RABs as shown in Table 2-1 below.
Traffic Class

RAB Configuration
SRB for BCCH
SRB for PCCH

Signaling Radio Bearer

SRBs fo BCCH, CCCH and DCCH


(FACH)
SRBs for CCCH and DCCH (RACH)
13.6/13.6kbps SRB for DCCH

Conversational

Speech 12.2 kbps RAB


64 kbps CS RAB
64/64 kbps PS RAB

Interactive

64/128 kbps PS RAB


64/384 kbps PS RAB

Streaming

57.6 kbps CS RAB


8/54 kbps PS RAB + Interactive 8/8
kbps PS RAB

Mixed

Conversational/Speech 12.2 kbps


RAB + Interactive 64/64 kbps PS RAB

CIRCUIT SWITCHED DIMENSIONING


Cellular system capacity depends on a number of different factors. These include:
Number of channels available for voice and/or data
GoS the subscribers encounter in the system
Traffic theory attempts to obtain useful estimates, for example, the number of channels needed in a cell. These estimates
depend on the selected system and the assumed or real behavior of the subscribers.
Traffic (A) = BHCA X MHT

Where: BHCH = Busy Hour Call Attempts MHT = Mean Hold Time (in hours)

CS Traffic Calculation Example

AVERAGE CS TRAFFIC PROFILE


The Average traffic profile must be calculated for dimensioning purposes. The BH traffic per sub for the CS services is
given in Equation below:
BH Traffic per sub (mE) = A X Weighting factor
The weighting factor is required in cases where the number of subscribers using the different services is not the same.
Weighting factor = No. of subs for service/No. of UMTS subscribers

Average CS Traffic Profile Example


Calculate the BH traffic per sub for the services in Table 2-4 below
No of UMTS Subscribers

15000

No of Speech Subscribers

15000

No of CS Data Subscribers

1500

BS Speech Traffic

19.6

BH CS Traffic

10.8

OFFERED TRAFFIC AND GOS


This leads to the definition of Offered Traffic, which is defined as the number of subscribers multiplied by the traffic per
subscriber as shown in Equation below:
Offered Traffic = number of subs X traffic per sub

If the Offered Traffic for a system (or


sector) is known, once the Actual Traffic is
measured the Grade of Service can be
calculated using Equation below:

Offered Traffic

PACKET SWITCHED DIMENSIONING


A packet call starts when a connection switches from the idle mode to one of the active states, and ends when the
connection is switched back to the idle mode or when the UE is turned off. A packet call can consist of several sessions. In
many cases traffic and average data rates are given based on a packet call. It is useful to convert this type of data to traffic
based on sessions, since that is what will determine the interference as well as the hardware requirements for the radio
access network.

PACKET SESSION
A packet session begins when a user is actively transmitting or receiving data in such volume that it requires a dedicated
channel. The session ends when there is no more data to transmit and the connection is transferred to a common channel.
During the session the user may be switched up or down in data rate due to channel switching, as illustrated in Figure below.

There are periods of silence in between transmission where the dedicated channel is still allocated, but only the control
channel is active. This may be due to either the protocol waiting for an acknowledgement or if there is no
data to send. This bursty behavior is typical of a packet application.

SESSION LENGTH (HOLDING TIME THOLD)


The session length is defined from the time a dedicated channel is allocated to the time where the channel is released and
the user is disconnected or moved to a common channel.
PACKET THROUGHPUT
Throughput is defined as the perceived user data rate from the application layer. This means that the throughput will never
reach the peak rate, since the TCP and IP overhead, plus retransmissions, have to be taken into account. The throughput
can be expressed per session, per bearer or per cell
Session throughput and Thold are illustrated in Figure below.

Packet Call showing Session throughput and THold

PACKET TRAFFIC ASSUMPTIONS

End user application

RAB
mappin
g

Call per
24h

Sessions
per packet
call

KB per
request
UL

KB per
request
DL

Web traffic with image

BE
64/64

10

40

Web traffic without image

BE
64/384

10

20

Web traffic, minibrowser

BE
64/384

10

.2

Sending mail with attachment

BE
64/384

200

20

Sending mail without attachment

BE
64/384

.5

Receiving mail with attachment

BE
64/384

20

200

Receiving mail without


attachment

BE
64/384

.5

Point of sale (Telemetry)

BE
64/384

120

1.2

1.2

AVERAGE PS TRAFFIC PROFILE


For dimensioning purposes it is necessary to calculate the average PS traffic profile per sub, for the BH.
The BH average KB per sub is given in Equation below:
Average PS Kbyte in BH = Kbyte in BH X Weighting factor
The Weighting factor is required in cases where the number of subscribers using the PS services is different from the total
UMTS subscribers
Weighting factor = No. of subs for service/No. of UMTS subscribers.
REQUIRED PACKET SESSIONS
Once the required subscriber data rate is known, the number of packet sessions (M data) needed to achieve this rate can be
calculated using Equation below.
Where:
Req rate = required sub data rate [bps]
bit_rate = Packet Session bit rate [bps] (In the BH this can be assumed to be 64 kbps)

PEAK FACTOR
For the purposes of Radio Network dimensioning we could assume that each packet channel will only carry 0.7 packet
sessions due to the peak factor. If however, we are calculating the number of packet channels ( Mdata) needed to carry a
requested number of packet sessions (Mdata) we should increase the number of channels required by 1/0.7 = 1.4.
The number of packet channels (Mdata) needed to support the required packet sessions given by Equation below:

Required packet channels


Where:
Peak_Factor = Factor to account for channel sharing (1.4 is assumed for calculation purposes)
Mdata = required packet sessions

3GPP CHANNEL MODELS


The 3GPP specify a number of different channel models to be used for radio network design. These specify the environment
and speed of the UE.

These models are designed to cover the scenarios shown in Figure below.

UPLINK MAXIMUM NUMBER OF CHANNELS (MPOLE)

The uplink pole capacity, Mpole, is the theoretical limit for the number of UEs that a cell can support. It is service (RAB)
dependent. At this limit the interference level in the system is infinite and thus the coverage reduced to
zero. .

k max Subscriber per cell per service (Mpole)

Service Type

Dense Urban / Suburb


Urban
an

Rural

Conversational/Speech 12.2 Kbps RB + 3.4


Kbps SRB

78

66

65

Conversational 64 Kbps CS RB + 3.4 kbps


SRB

18

15

14

Interactive 64 kbps PS RB + 3.4 kbps SRB

19

16

15

Streaming 57.6 Kbps CS RB + 3.4 Kbps SRB

22

19

20

27

30

Streaming 16 kbps PS RB + 8 kbps PS RB +


36
Uplink Limited Capacity : (Uplink Mpole Values)
3.4 Kbps SRB

ink max Subscriber per cell per service (Mpole)


Service Type

Dense Urban /
Urban

Suburban
(TU-50)

Rural
(RA)

(TU- 3)

Conversational/Speech 12.2 Kbps RB + 3.4


Kbps SRB

59

54

53

Conversational 64 Kbps CS RB + 3.4 kbps


SRB

7.3

6.6

Interactive 64 kbps PS RB + 3.4 kbps SRB

8.5

7.2

Interactive 128 kbps PS RB + 3.4 kbps SRB

4.4

4.2

Interactive 384 kbps PS RB + 3.4 kbps SRB

1.4

1.3

Streaming 57.6 Kbps CS RB + 3.4 Kbps SRB

10

10

10

Streaming 64 kbps PS
RB + 8 kbps
PS RBCapacity
+
9.9
Downlink
Limited
: (downlink
Mpole Values)8.2
3.4 Kbps SRB

8.3

TRAFFIC Load CALCULATIONS of WCDMA Cell


Conversational traffic has priority over packet (best effort) traffic. Therefore the best effort load is the remaining
system load available on top of the conversational load, as illustrated in Figure below.

The maximum load (Qmax) is defined as the conversational load (QC) plus the best effort load (QBE) as shown in Equation
below.

Where the load per subscriber is:


Conversational load (Qc) = traffic_per_sub_CS/max possible conversational channels
Best Effort load (QBE) = BE_CH_Req/max possible packet channels

To calculate the BE (Best Effort) required channels for PS using below equation

Example
A cell is required to provide service to 1000 subscribers with the traffic requirement in table below:

Assuming a peak factor of 1.4 and that only the PS64 bearer is available, what is the maximum uplink load if the
maximum possible number of conversational and packet channels is 78 and 19 respectively
UPLINK LOAD SOLUTION
Step 1: Calculate the BE required channels using

BE_CH_Req = (40 X 1024 X 8 X 1.4)/(3600 X 64 X 103 ) =

0.001991

Step 2. Calculate the Best Effort load (QBE )

QBE = 0.001991 / 19 =

0.00010479

Step 3. Calculate the Conversational load (QC)

QC = 25 x 10 -3 / 78 =

0.0003205

Step 4. Calculate the Maximum load (Qmax) using equation 10:


Qmax = 1000 ( QC + QBE ) = 0.4253
Answer : The uplink load is 42.53 %

Cell breathing

overage/capacity versus distance (1)


High bitrates = high power,
High transmission bitrates only available close to the base station.

NETWORK ELEMENTS CAPACITY OVERVIEW

Radio Channel Layers In UMTS

Uu

No
deB

Iub

RN
C

Iu

CN

UE
Physical Channel
Logical Channel

MAC

Logical Channel
Traffic Channel

Commo
n
Channel

Control Channel

Dedicat
ed
Channel

Traffic Channel
Control Channel