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Behavioral Science

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HISTORY

Frederick W. Taylor
1880 - Scientific Management

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Business Terms
1. Division of Work.
2. Authority.
3.Discipline
4.Unity of Command
5.Unity of Direction
6.Subordination of individual interest
7.Remuneration
8.Centralization (or Decentralization).
9.Scalar chain (Line of Authority).
10.Order
11.Equity
12.Stability of Tenure of Personnel.
13.Initiative.

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1. Division of Work. Specialization allows the


individual to build up experience, and to continuously
improve his skills. Thereby he can be more productive.

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2. Authority. The right to issue commands, along with which must


go the balanced responsibility for its function.

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3. Discipline. Employees must obey, but this is two-sided: employees


will only obey orders if management play their part by providing
good leadership.

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4. Unity of Command. Each worker should have only one boss with
no other conflicting lines of command.

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5. Unity of Direction. People engaged in the same kind of activities


must have the same objectives in a single plan. This is essential to
ensure unity and coordination in the enterprise. Unity of command
does not exist without unity of direction but does not necessarily
flows from it.

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6. Subordination of individual interest (to the general interest).


Management must see that the goals of the firms are always top.

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7. Remuneration. Payment is an important motivator although by


analyzing a number of possibilities, Fayol points out that there is no
such thing as a perfect system.

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8. Centralization (or Decentralization). This is a matter of degree


depending on the condition of the business and the quality of its
personnel.

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9. Scalar chain (Line of Authority). A hierarchy is necessary for


unity of direction. But lateral communication is also fundamental, as
long as superiors know that such communication is taking place.
Scalar chain refers to the number of levels in the hierarchy from the
ultimate authority to the lowest level in the organization. It should
not be over-stretched and consist of too-many levels.

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10. Order. Both material order and social order are necessary. The
former minimizes lost time and useless handling of materials. The
latter is achieved through organization and selection.

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11. Equity. In running a business a combination of kindliness and justice is


needed. Treating employees well is important to achieve equity.

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12. Stability of Tenure of Personnel. Employees work better if job security


and career progress are assured to them. An insecure tenure and a high rate
of employee turnover will affect the organization adversely.

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13. Initiative. Allowing all personnel to show their initiative in some way is
a source of strength for the organization. Even though it may well involve a
sacrifice of personal vanity on the part of many managers.

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6 Important Managerial Skills For


Successful Leadership

Excellent leadership is always pro active


rather than reactive. By developing these
six managerial skills builds a solid
foundation for success.

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6 Important Managerial Skills For Successful


Leadership
1. Observation

This is an important aspect that often gets neglected due the


demands on a leader's time and schedule. Observation and
regular visits to the work environment are a priority and should
be scheduled into the calendar. Observing employees at work, the
procedures, interaction and work flow is foundational to
implementing adjustments to improve results. To have credibility,
a leader needs to be seen and be known to be up to date with
what is happening in the work place.

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6 Important Managerial Skills For Successful


Leadership
2. Monitor Employee Performance
Employee performance needs to be monitored in mutually accepted
ways. Policies and procedures need to be clear. Conferencing should
be on a regular basis and not just when there is a problem.
Assessments and evaluations should not be merely all formality or
viewed a necessary paperwork to be done and filed away. Individual
and group conferencing should be undertaken not only to monitor
performance, but with the expectation of on going professional
development and support. There should be frequent encouragement
and clear criteria for on going goals both for the group and
individual.

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6 Important Managerial Skills For Successful


Leadership
3. Implementation of Professional Development Programs
A good leader evaluates weaknesses and provides training and
development strategies to strengthen the weaker skills in the team.

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6 Important Managerial Skills For Successful


Leadership
4. Demonstrates Working Knowledge and Expertise
Good leadership comes from a place of strong knowledge and
experience of the production and process leading to results. If a
leader does not have all the expertise and knowledge personally, then
regular consultations with experts involved in the departments
should be held. This is important in order to maintain an accurate
and informed overall picture.

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6 Important Managerial Skills For Successful


Leadership
5. Good Decision Making
Good leadership is characterized by the ability to make good
decisions. A leader considers all the different factors before making a
decision. Clear firm decisions, combined with the willingness and
flexibility to adapt and adjust decisions when necessary, create
confidence in the leadership.

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6 Important Managerial Skills For Successful


Leadership
6. Ability to Conduct and Evaluate Research
On going review and research is vital in order to keep on the cutting
edge in business. While managing the present to ensure on going
excellence in product and performance, a good leader is also able to
look towards the future. Conducting and evaluating research is an
important way of planning and being prepared for the future.

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Models of Organizational
Behavior
There are four major models or frameworks
that organizations operate out of, Autocratic,
Custodial, Supportive, and Collegial
(Cunningham, Eberle, 1990; Davis ,1967):

Models of Organizational
Behavior
Autocratic
The basis of this model is power with a managerial
orientation of authority. The employees in turn are
oriented towards obedience and dependence on the
boss. The employee need that is met is continuation.
The performance result is minimal.

Models of Organizational
Behavior
Custodial
The basis of this model is economic resources with a
managerial orientation of money. The employees in
turn are oriented towards security and benefits and
dependence on the organization. The employee need
that to met security. The performance result is
passive teamwork.

Models of Organizational
Behavior
Supportive
The basis of this model is leadership with a
managerial orientation of support. The employees in
turn are oriented towards job performance and
participation. The employee need that is met is
status and recognition. The performance result is
awakened drives.

Models of Organizational
Behavior
Collegial
The basis of this model is partnership with a
managerial orientation of teamwork. The employees
in turn are oriented towards responsible behavior
and self-discipline. The employee need that is met is
self-actualization. The performance result is
moderate enthusiasm.

Basic OB
Model,
Stage II

THE END

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