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Steering systems

Functions and its types

Steering system components


Steering wheel, column and shaft
Steering gear
system
Steering linkage
Tie rods
Steering arms
Ball joints

Steering wheel
Used by the driver to rotate a steering shaft
that passes through the steering column.

Steering wheel

Puller

Steering column
Supports the steering wheel and steering shaft.

Steering column

Steering gear systems


Recirculating ball
Rack and pinion

Recirculating ball
Used to move steering Tie rods.

Recirculating ball

Pitman arm

Rack and pinion


Converting circular motion into linear motion
along the transverse axis of the car.

Rack and pinion

Steering linkage
Steering linkage is connected to the wheels
and the steering gear.

Tie rods
Used to adjust TOE of the car tires face in /
\ or out \ / when driving straight.

Tie rods

Tie rods

Steering arms
Used to get proper steering angle during turns.

Steering arms

Ball joints
Allow suspension movement up and down, as
well as turning movement.

Ball joints

Types of steering

Power steering
Speed sensitive steering
Four-wheel steering
Active four-wheel steering
Crab steering
Ackermann steering
Articulated steering
Rear wheel steering
Davis steering
Other types of steering

Power steering
Helps the driver to steer by directing some of
its power.
- Hydraulic power steering
- Electric power steering

Speed sensitive steering


The first vehicle with this feature was the
Citroen.

Four-wheel steering
Used to improve steering response.

Active four-wheel steering


All four wheels turn at the same time when the
driver steers.
Honda Prelude (1987-2000) and Honda Ascot
Innova models (1992-1996).

Production cars with active


four-wheel steering
BMW 5-series (2011 onwards)
Chevrolet Silverado (2002-2005) (high and low
speed)
Efini MS-9 (high and low speed)
Lexus GS (2013 onwards)
Mazda Eunos 800 (1996-2003)
Mercedes-Benz Vito (London taxi variant)
Nissan Cefiro (A31) (high speed only)

Crab steering
It steers all the wheels in the same direction
and at the same angle.

Ackermann steering
Invented by the German Carriage Builder
Georg Lankensperger in Munich in 1817.

Articulated steering
Four-wheel drive vehicle split into front and
rear halves.

Rear wheel steering


It turns the rear wheeled automobile in the
direction opposite of how it is initially steered.
Used in lift trucks , camera dollies , early pay
loader , Buckminster fullers Dymaxion car and
Thrust SSC

Davis steering
It fulfills the fundamental equation of
gearing in all the positions.

Other types of steering

Watercraft steering
Aircraft and Hovercraft steering
Tunnel boring machines are steered by hydraulic
tilting of the cutter head.
Rail track vehicles are steered by curved guide
tracks , including switches and articulated
undercarriages.
Land yachts on wheels and kite buggies are
steered similarly to cars.

Steering ratio
Steering ratio is a measurement of how many
turns of the steering wheel it takes to go from a
full lock to the other full lock.

List of steering system


companies
In India:
- Apcom Scales (P) Ltd.
- Sharada Mechanical Engineering
- Sona Somic Lemforder Components Ltd.
- Sivasakthi Software Solutions And Services
In Abroad:
- Bishop Steer Company , Germany
- Autoliv Steering Wheels , Mexico S De R L De C V

Bishop steering company


BISHOP is a world leader in the development of
steering systems , steering racks and components for
the automobile industry. It has licensed its technology
to manufacturers of steering gears and components. It
has over 250 patents and patent applications in 17
countries as well as numerous licensees worldwide.
This technology has become common from Formula 1
race cars to standard passenger cars through to light
truck applications.

Thank You

Presented By:
Aayush Jain