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Chapter

1
Introduction to
Employee
Training and
Development
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Introduction (1 of 3)
Boston Pizza International, Bowaters Coated and
Specialty Paper Division, Americredit, and Home
Depot illustrate how training can contribute to
companies competitiveness
Competitiveness refers to a companys ability
to maintain and gain market share in an industry

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Introduction (2 of 3)
Although they are in different types of businesses,
they each have training practices that have helped
them gain a competitive advantage in their markets
Issues affecting companies and influencing training
practices:
customer service
employee retention and growth
doing more with less
quality and productivity
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Introduction (3 of 3)
The training practices have helped Boston Pizza
International, Bowaters Coated and Specialty
Paper Division, Americredit, and Home Depot :
grow the business, and
improve customer service, by
providing employees with the knowledge and skills
they need to be successful

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Human Resource Management


Refers to the policies, practices, and systems that
influence employees:
behavior
attitudes
performance

HRM practices play a key role in attracting,


motivating, rewarding, and retaining employees
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What is training?
Training refers to a planned effort by a
company to facilitate employees learning of jobrelated competencies
The goal of training is for employees to:
master the knowledge, skill, and behaviors emphasized
in training programs, and
apply them to their day-to-day activities

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High-Leverage Training
Linked to strategic goals and objectives
Uses an instructional design process to ensure
that training is effective
Compares or benchmarks the companys training
programs against training programs in other
companies
Creates working conditions that encourage
continuous learning
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Continuous Learning (1 of 2)
Continuous Learning requires employees to
understand the entire work system including the
relationships among:
their jobs
their work units
the entire company

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Continuous Learning (2 of 2)
Employees are expected to:
acquire new skills and knowledge
apply them on the job
share this information with other employees

Managers take an active role:


in identifying training needs
helping to ensure that employees use training in their
work
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Training and Performance


Emphasis on high-leverage training has been
accompanied by a movement to link training to
performance improvement
Training is used to improve employee
performance
This leads to improved business results
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Training and Performance: Todays


Emphasis (1 of 2)
Providing educational opportunities for all
employees
An on-going process of performance
improvement that is directly measurable
not one-time training events

The need to demonstrate the benefits of training


to executives, managers, and trainees
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Training and Performance: Todays


Emphasis (2 of 2)
Learning as a lifelong event
senior management, training managers, and employees
have ownership

Training used to help attain strategic business


objectives
helps companies gain a competitive advantage

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Training Design Process


Conducting Needs
Assessment

Ensuring Employees
Readiness for
Training

Developing an
Evaluation Plan

Ensuring Transfer of
Training

Select Training
Method

Monitoring and
Evaluating the
Program

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Creating a Learning
Environment

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Instructional System Design (ISD)


Refers to a process for designing and developing
training programs
There is not one universally accepted ISD model
ISD process should be:
systematic
flexible enough to adapt to business needs
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Assumptions of ISD Approaches (1 of 2)


Training design is effective only if it helps
employees reach instructional or training goals
and objectives
Measurable learning objectives should be
identified before training

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Assumptions of ISD Approaches (2 of 2)


Evaluation plays an important part in:
planning and choosing a training method
monitoring the training program
suggesting changes to the training design process

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Forces Influencing the Workplace


and Training: (1 of 2)
Globalization
Need for leadership
Increased value placed on knowledge
Attracting and retaining talent
Customer service and quality emphasis

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Forces Influencing the Workplace


and Training: (2 of 2)
Changing demographics and diversity of the work
force
New technology
High-performance models of work systems
Economic changes

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Core Values of Total Quality


Management (TQM) (1 of 2)
Methods and processes are designed to meet the
needs of internal and external customers
Every employee in the company receives training
in quality
Quality is designed into a product or service so
that errors are prevented from occurring, rather
than being detected and corrected
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Core Values of TQM (2 of 2)


The company promotes cooperation with
vendors, suppliers, and customers to improve
quality and hold down costs
Managers measure progress with feedback based
on data

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Categories and Point Values for the Malcolm


Baldrige National Quality Award Examination
Leadership

120 points

Measurement Analysis and Knowledge Management

90 points

Strategic Planning

85 points

Human Resource Focus

85 points

Process Management

85 points

Business Results

450 points

Customer and Market Focus


Total Points

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85 points
1,000 points

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Skills Needed to Manage a Diverse Work


Force: (1 of 2)
Communicating effectively with employees from
a wide variety of backgrounds
Coaching, training and developing employees of
different ages, educational backgrounds,
ethnicities, physical abilities, and races

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Skills Needed to Manage a Diverse Work


Force: (2 of 2)
Providing performance feedback that is free of
values and stereotypes based on gender, ethnicity,
or physical handicap
Creating a work environment that allows
employees of all backgrounds to be creative and
innovative

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How Managing Cultural Diversity Can


Provide Competitive Advantage
1. Cost
argument
2. Resourceacquisition
argument
4. Creativity
argument
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3. Marketing
argument
5. Problemsolving
argument

6. System
flexibility
argument

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Use of new technology and work design needs to


be supported by specific HRM practices: (1 of 2)

Employees choose or select new employees or


team members
Employees receive formal performance feedback
and are involved in the performance improvement
process
Ongoing training is emphasized and rewarded
Rewards and compensation are linked to company
performance

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Use of new technology and work design needs to


be supported by specific HRM practices: (2 of 2)

Equipment and work processes encourage


maximum flexibility and interaction between
employees
Employees participate in planning changes in
equipment, layout, and work methods
Employees understand how their jobs contribute to
the finished product or service

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Comparison of Training Investment Leaders


and Benchmark Companies (1 of 2)
Benchmark
Company

Investment
Leader

Percent of eligible employees being trained

78%

91%

Amount of training received per employee

24 hours

57 hours

Amount spent on training:


Percentage of payroll
Per employee

2%
$734

4%
$1,647

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Comparison of Training Investment Leaders


and Benchmark Companies (2 of 2)
Benchmark
Company

Investment
Leader

Average total spent

$3.6m

$11.1m

Percent of training delivered using learning


technology

11%

22%

Percent training time in classroom

77%

61%

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Roles of Trainers
Strategic Adviser
Systems Design and Developer
Organization Change Agent
Instructional Designer
Individual Development and Career Counselor
Coach / Performance Consultant
Researcher
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Who
Provides
Training?

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Who Is In
Charge of
Training?

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