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You are on page 1of 53

Voltages

& High Currents

Unit 4

Techniques

Sphere Gaps

Applicatios:

about 2500 kV by means of spheres.

Arrangements:

1.

2.

Horizontally with both spheres connected to the source voltage or one sphere grounded (For

Lower Voltages).

Sphere Gaps

The arrangement is selected based on the relation between the peak voltage,

determined by sparkover between the spheres, and the reading of a voltmeter on the

primary or input side of the high-voltage source. This relation should be within 3%

(IEC, 1973).

Standard values of sphere diameter are 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, and 200 cm.

sphere gaps

Sphere Gaps

3%.

voltage.

factor related to the relative air density (RAD) .

Under impulse voltages, the voltage at which there is a 50% breakdown probability

is recognized as the breakdown level.

Sphere Gaps

Factors Influencing the Sparkover Voltage of Sphere Gaps

i.

ii.

iii.

Irradiation, and

iv.

The limits of accuracy are dependant on the ratio of the spacing d to the sphere

diameter D, as follows:

d < 0.5 D

Accuracy = 3 %

Accuracy = 5 %

For accurate measurement purposes, gap distances in excess of 0.75D are not used

Microammeter

Resistance (R) :

Value: Few hundreds of Mega ohms Selected to give (1-10A) for FSD.

Voltage drop in each element is chosen to avoid surface flashovers and discharges

(5kV/cm in air, 20kV/cm in oil is allowed)

Provided with corona free terminals.

Material: Carbon alloy with temperature coefficient of 10 -4/oC .

Resistance chain located in air tight oil filled PVC tube for 100kV operation with good

temp stability.

Mircoammeter MC type

Impedance of the meter is few ohms. i.e, very less compared to R so the drop

across the meter is negligible.

Protection: Paper gap, Neon Glow tube, a zener diode with series resistance

Gives protection when R fails.

7

Microammeter

Limitations:

Series resistance micrometer

Resistance potential divider

Generating voltmeter

Sphere and other gaps

Voltage of source, V = IR

wound resistors in series.

Accuracy =0.2%

Selection of R value:

Corona free termination

stability

10

RESISTANCE POTENTIAL

DIVIDER

always be confined to one location

V2 V1X

R2

(R1 R2 )

Highvoltagemagnitude,

V1 V2X

(R1 R2 )

R2

11

Switching operation

Flashover of test objects

Damage due to stray capacitance across the elements & ground

capacitance

GENERATING VOLTMETER

direct connection is to be avoided.

electrostatic voltage generator.

measurement

DC and AC voltages

power from the voltage measuring source

electrode in fact constitute a capacitance system.

varies with time and, therefore, the charge q(t) is

given as,

12

capacitor

GENERATING VOLTMETER

and,

For d.c. Voltages,

Hence

If the capacitance varies linearly with time and reaches its peak value C m is time Tc /2 and

again reduces to zero linearly in time Tc /2, the capacitance is given as

If the capacitance C varies sinusoidally between the limits C 0 and (C0 + Cm) then

C = C0 + Cm sin t

and the current i' is then given as, i(t) = im cos t , where im = VCm

Here is the angular frequency of variation of the capacitance.

Generally the current is rectified and measured by a moving coil meter

Generating voltmeters can be used for a.c. voltage measurement also provided the

angular frequency is the same or equal to half that of the voltage being measured.

Above fig. shows the variations of C as a function of time together with a.c. voltage, the

frequency of which is twice the frequency of C (t).

13

Generating Voltmeter

I(t) = n/30 CmV(t)

which employs rotating vanes for variation of capacitance

which is kept at a fixed distance on the axis of the other

low voltage electrodes D2, D1, and D0.

Rotor vanes of D0 cause periodic change in capacitance between the insulated disc D 2 and the

high voltage electrode D3.

Number and shape of vanes are so designed that a suitable variation of capacitance (sinusodial

or linear) is achieved.

The a.c. current is rectified and is measured using moving coil meters. If the current is small an

amplifier may be used before the current is measured.

14

Generating Voltmeter

Generating voltmeters are linear scale instruments and applicable over a wide range of

voltages.

The sensitivity can be increased by increasing the area of the pick up electrode and by using

amplifier circuits

Advantages:

i.

ii.

iii.

15

Measurement Of High Ac

Voltage

Electrostatic voltmeter

Series impedance voltmeter

Potential dividers : Resistance or Capacitance type

Potential transformers : Electromagnetic or CVT

Sphere gaps

16

Electrostatic Voltmeter

voltages is by means of electro-static voltmeters.

disc type of electrostatic voltmeter is used.

section area A and spacing s) are charged q and

have a potential difference V, then the energy

stored in the is given by

1

1

W CV 2 dW V 2 dC F ds

2

2

1

dC

Force, F V 2

Newton

2

ds

For uniform field capacitance, C

A

dC

A

2

s

ds

s

1 V2

F A 2 Newton

2 s

It is thus seen that the force of attraction is proportional to the square of the potential difference

applied, so that the meter reads the square value (or can be marked to read the rms value).

17

Electrostatic Voltmeter

Electrostatic voltmeters of the attracted disc type may be connected across the high

voltage circuit directly to measure up to about 200 kV, without the use of any

potential divider or other reduction method. [The force in these electrostatic

instruments can be used to measure both a.c. and d.c. voltages].

The centre portion of the left hand disc is cut away and encloses a small disc which

is movable and is geared to the pointer of the instrument.

The range of the instrument can be altered by setting the right hand disc at premarked distances.

The force of attraction F(t) created by the applied voltage causes the movable partto which a mirror is attached-to assume a position at which a balance of forces takes

place.

An incident light beam will therefore be reflected toward a scale calibrated to read

the applied voltage magnitude.

18

Electrostatic Voltmeter

Advantages:

i.

ii.

iii.

charge the system capacitance.(i.e., For 1V VoltmeterCapacitance is few Pico farad)

iv.

Disadvantage:

i.

be overcome by varying the gap distance d in appropriate steps.

19

For power frequency a.c. measurements the series impedance may be a pure

resistance or a reactance.

Power losses

Temperature problem

resistance.

High resistance units for high voltages have stray capacitances and hence a unit

resistance will have an equivalent circuit as shown in Fig.

At any frequency of the a.c. voltage, R+jXL is connected in parallel with jXC.

R jL 1

R jL

jC

Z

2

1

1

LC jCR

R jL

jC

Since, 2 LC jCR,

Z

20

R jL

1 jCR

Z

jL 1 jCR

1 jCR 1 jCR

R jL jCR 2 2 LCR

Z

1 2C 2 R 2

L

Z R jL jCR 2 R 1 j

CR

R

CR

R

Resistor unit then has to be taken as a transmission line equivalent, for calculating

the effective resistance.

Ground or stray capacitance of each element influences the current flowing in the

unit, and the indication of the meter results in an error.

second surrounding spiral RS which shunts the actual resistor but does not

contribute to the current through the instrument.

21

By tuning the resistors Ra the shielding resistor end potentials may be adjusted with

respect to the actual measuring resistor so that the resulting compensation currents

between the shield and the measuring resistors provide a minimum phase angle.

22

capacitor is used instead of a resistor for a.c. high voltage measurements.

where V1,V2 ,... ,Vn represent the rms value of the fundamental, second... and n th

harmonics.

I1=CV1 , I2=2CV2 , In=nCVn

2

With a 10% fifth harmonic only, the current is 11.2% higher, and hence the

error is 11.2% in the voltage measurement

Not recommended when a.c. voltages are not pure sinusoidal waves but contain

considerable harmonics.

23

A rectifier ammeter was used as an indicating instrument and was directly calibrated

in high voltage rms value.

The meter was usually a (0-100)A moving coil meter and the over all error was

about 2%.

24

Types:

Digital Peak Voltmeter

25

Chubb Frotscue Method:

method of measuring peak value of a.c. voltages.

and a current integrating ammeter (MC ammeter) as shown

in Fig. 4.11 (a).

of change of the charge and hence the voltage V(t) to be

measured flows through the high voltage capacitor C and is

subdivided into positive and negative components by the

back to back connected diodes

The voltage drop across these diodes can be neglected (1 V for Si diodes) as compared with

the voltage to be measured

The measuring instrument (M.C. ammeter) is included in one of the branches. The ammeter

reads the mean value of the current,

An increased current would be obtained if the current reaches zero more than once during

one half cycle

26

(Chubb Frotscue Method Continued)

This means the wave shapes of the voltage would contain more than one maxima per half cycle.

The standard a.c. voltages for testing should not contain any harmonics and, therefore, there could

be very short and rapid voltages caused by the heavy predischarges, within the test circuit which

could introduce errors in measurements.

To eliminate this problem filtering of a.c. voltage is carried out by introducing a damping resistor

in between the capacitor and the diode circuit, Fig. 4.11 (b).

The measurement of symmetrical a.c. voltages using Chubb and Fortescue method is quite

accurate and it can be used for calibration of other peak voltage measuring devices.

27

Digital Peak Voltmeter:

In contrast to the method discussed just now, the rectified current is not

measured directly, instead a proportional analog voltage signal is derived

which is then converted into a proportional medium frequency for using a

voltage to frequency convertor (Block A in Fig. 4.13).

The frequency ratio fm/f is measured with a gate circuit controlled by the a.c.

power frequency (supply frequency f) and a counter that opens for an

adjustable number of period t = p/f. The number of cycles n counted during

this interval is

28

Digital Peak Voltmeter continued.

Voltageto frequency

fm

fm

A

convertion

factor

Rim R 2Vm f C

im RectifiedCurrentthroughR

fm

1

f 2RVm C

f

i.e., m 2Vm CR A

f

Therefore,

n 2Vm CR AP

im

Vm

Vm2 f C

XC

i.e.,im proportio

nalto 2Vm f C

immediately.

Accuracy is less than 0.35%

29

Peak voltmeter with Potential divider:

V2 is reduced

30

Type of Current

Method used

D.C Current

1. Resistant shunt

2. Hall Generator

technique

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

31

Resistive shunts

Magnetic potentiometers or probes

Magnetic links

Hall generators

Faraday Generators

Hall Generators

high direct current.

Whenever electric current flows

through a metal plate placed in a

magnetic field perpendicular to it,

Lorenz force will deflect the electrons

in the metal structure in a direction

perpendicular to the direction of both

the magnetic field and the flow of

current.

The change in displacement generates

an e.m.f called Hall Voltage

32

Hall Generators

Hall Voltage,VH

BI

d

BI

VH R

d

where, B-Magnetic Flux density

I-Current

d-Thickness of the metal plate

R-Hall Coefficient (depends on Material of

the plate & temperature)

R is small for metals and High for

semiconductors

When large d.c. currents are to be measured the current

circuit

33

Hall Generators

air gap at a depth d is given by,

1

H

2d

The Hall element is placed in the air gap and a small constant

d.c. current is passed through the element.

The voltage developed across the Hall element is measured and

by using the expression for Hall voltage the flux density B is

calculated and hence the value of current I is obtained.

34

Method

of polarisation in materials by the magnetic field which is

proportional to the current (Faraday effect).

When a linearly polarised light beam passes through a transparent

crystal in the presence of a magnetic field, the plane of polarisation

of the light beam undergoes rotation. The angle of rotation is given

by,

= Bl

where,

= A constant of the cyrstal which is a function of the wave length of the

light.

B = Magnetic flux density due to the current to be measured in this case.

l = Length of the crystal.

35

Method

Crystal C is placed parallel to the magnetic field produced by the current to

be measured.

A beam of light from a stabilised light source is made incident on the

crystal C after it is passed through the polariser P1.

The light beam undergoes rotation of its plane of polarisation.

After the beam passes through the analyser P2, the beamis focussed on a

photomultiplier, the output of which is fed to a CRO.

36

Method

The filter F allows only the monochromatic light to pass through it.

Photoluminescent diodes too, the momentary light emission of which is

proportional to the current flowing through them, can be used for

current measurement.

Advantages:

1.

2.

3.

37

It provides isolation of the measuring set up from the main current circuit.

It is insensitive to overloading.

As the signal transmission is through an optical system no insulation problem

is faced. However, this device does not operate for D.C current.

surrounded by a coil as shown in Fig.

and M is the mutual inductance between the coil and the conductor, the

voltage across the coil terminals will be:

di

dt

Usually the coil is wound on a non-magnetic former in the form of a

toroid and has a large number of turns, to have sufficient voltage

induced which could be recorded.

v(t) M

38

If N is the number of turns of the coil, A the coil area and lm its mean

length, the mutual inductance is given by

NA

M 0

lm

Usually an integrating circuit RC is employed as shown in Fig to obtain

the output voltage proportional to the current to be measured. The

output voltage is given by

t

1

1

di

M

M

v0 (t)

v(t)dt

dt

di

i(t)

RC 0

RC

dt

RC

RC

The frequency response of the Rogowski coil is flat upto 100 MHz but

beyond that it is affected by the stray electric and magnetic fields and

also by the skin effect.

39

Resistive Shunt

40

Extended series

impedance with

inductance

neglected

41

VOLTMETER

C capacitor

D1,D2 Diodes

OP Protective devices

I indicating meter

V(t) voltage waveform

Ic(t) capacitor current

waveform

T period

42

43

44

Ub = kd Ub0

45

SPHERE GAPS

46

measurement

47

HALL GENERATORS FOR D.C CURRENT MEASUREMENTS

plate located in a magnetic field perpendicular to it,Lorenz forces will

deflect the electrons in the metal structure in a direction normal to the

direction of both the current and magnetic field.

voltage).

VH=RBi/d

H=I/

48

ALTERNATING CURRENTS

transmitted to the ground side through electro optical device.

optical fibre bundle to a photo detector and converted back into an analog

voltage signal.

49

SPHERE GAP

The sphere gap method of measuring high voltage is the most reliable and is used as the

standard for calibration purposes.

breakdown strength of a gas depends on the ionisation of the gas molecules, and on the density

of the gas.

As such, the breakdown voltage varies with the gap spacing; and for a uniform field gap, a high

consistency could be obtained, so that the sphere gap is very useful as a measuring device.

In the measuring device, two metal spheres are used, separated by a gas-gap. The potential

difference between the spheres is raised until a spark passes between them.

The breakdown strength of a gas depends on the size of the spheres, their distance apart and a

number of other factors.

A spark gap may be used for the determination of the peak value of a voltage wave, and for the

checking and calibrating of voltmeters and other voltage measuring devices.

The density of the gas (generally air) affects the spark-over voltage for a given gap setting.

Thus the correction for any air density change must be made. The air density correction factor

must be used.

50

SPHERE GAP

The spark over voltage for a given gap setting under the standard conditions (760

torr pressure and at 20oC) must be multiplied by the correction factor to obtain the

actual spark-over voltage.

humidity of the atmosphere, but the presence of dew on the surface lowers the

breakdown voltage and hence invalidates the calibrations.

The breakdown voltage characteristic (figure 6.3) has been determined for similar

pairs of spheres (diameters 62.5 mm, 125 mm, 250 mm, 500 mm, 1 m and 2 m)

51

SPHERE GAP

minimum clearance to be maintained between the spheres and the

neighbouring bodies and the diameter of shafts are also specified, since

these also affect the accuracy (Figure:d).

spheres.

kV by means of spheres.

One sphere may be earthed with the other being the high voltage

electrode, or both may be supplied with equal positive and negative

voltages with respect to earth (symmetrical gap).

about 50 kV, but errors are caused by the variation of the sharpness of

the needle gaps, and by the corona forming at the points before the gap

actually sparks over.

such gaps is much greater.

52

When the gap distance is increased, the uniform field between the spheres becomes

distorted, and accuracy falls.

The limits of accuracy are dependant on the ratio of the spacing d to the sphere

diameter D, as follows:

d < 0.5 D

Accuracy = 3 %

Accuracy = 5 %

For accurate measurement purposes, gap distances in excess of 0.75D are not used

voltage sphere in the case of asymmetrical gaps, in a symmetrical gap, then the

polarity has no effect.

53

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