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Introduction in Psychiatry

competences: to understand object

and limitations of psychiatry as medical
discipline, definition, history,


Greek etymology

Psyche =soul

Iatrea =cure

Medical discipline
The study of psychiatric disorders
Medical assistance of the patients
Disorder versus disease
Distortions of personality
Changes of conscience
Changes of relationship with external medium

Psychiatry-a complex medical

Human personality functions:

Relationship with other medical


Internal medicine

Burden of psychiatry
To prevent psychiatric disorders and to
promote mental health
Decrease of morbidity-diagnose and early
treatment of the patients
Recovery, reintegration and resocialization
of the patients
Education for young doctors
Scientifically research

Historical issues
before Hipocrate period
A period of ignorance and superstition (Regis)
- Supernatural forces determine psychiatric illness
- King Saul -developed manic and depressive episodes
along lifetime
-Licantropia of Nabucodonosorhe had delusional
thoughts that he will be transform into a wolf
-Paricid of Oreste, epilepsy of Hercule, violence
moments of Achile etc.
- Temple of Esculap persons who treated psychiatric
disorders using religious ceremonies, a form of
psihoterapy, kinetoterapy, meloterapy

Hipocratic period
Hippocrate considered that psychiatric disorders are
diseases of the brain and the patients must be treated by
the doctors and not by the priests
He described clinical aspects of phrenitis(acute fever
delirium), mania, hipocondriac delusional thoughts,
alcholic delirium,epileptic psychosis, hysteria
He treated psychiatric disorders using drugs like elebor
and mandragora
Herophyl i Erasistrat(300b.Ch)-they continued ideas of
Hipocrate about psychiatric disorders

Medium eve

Arabian concepts
Avicena published a book about melancholy
Ahmed Ibu Aljazzar published a book about love ill

European concepts in opposite with Arabian concepts about psychiatric disorders

Obscurantisme medical issues was influenced by religious concepts
Demonomanii-the devil come into the body of the patient and will determine
Persecutions and death condemnations for persons with psychiatric disorders

Bedlam in England (sec. XVI) was a settlement for patients with

psychiatric disorders, where they stayed without heat or bed;

Petite Maison in France-the patients were exposed in public and

they did not have any condition in this settlement

Modern period

Ph. Pinel (1772) new approaches of treatment for psychiatric

Esquirol described clinical aspects of monomanie and dementia
Lasegue - described persecutory delusional thoughts
Falret described folie a deux
Baillarger described folie circulaire and folie a double forme
(manic and depressive episodes)
Magnan considered that clinical observation had a great role in
- discovered the concept of psychopathy
Griesinger psychiatric disorder represents a disease of the
functioning of the brain;
- he considered that there area certain connections
between psychiatry and neurology

Modern period (cont)

Russia (sec. XVIII, XIX) Balinski-conduced the first department of psychiatry at

Medico-Surgery Academy;
- Kandinski- realized the first classification in psychiatry and described
- Secenov-papers about reflex of the brain;
- Korsakov-described alcoholic psychosis.

Kraepelin-he realized boundaries and classifications of the entities of

psychiatry (introduced the concept of nosology in psychiatry)

Ribot - studied disorders of the memory

Charcot described hysteria



Meynert-described amentia,

Wernicke- described presbiofrenia, alcoholic halucinosis,

Kleist-described involution paranoia

Social psychiatry and development of psychiatric

assistance in Romania

feudal periode - medical assistance in psychiatry was realized in

some monasteries:
Cldruani, Schitul Balamuci, Mrcua in Muntenia
Schit Madona Ducu in Oltenia
Neam, Golia in Moldova
Matei Basarab 1652- in pravile described legal aspects about
assistance of psychiatric patients

Al. uu(1837-1919)- founder of Romanian school of psychiatry

Al. Obreja realized a modern assistance for psychiatric patients,
defined ciclofrenia (schizophrenia)
Iasi- in 1881, Golia became a base from psychiatric and
neurological medical education
Julien Lucacevski-preoccupied of epidemiology, therapy and
especially ergotherapy; 1883-1894- conduced Golia hospice
Al. Brescu-1895-course of pathology of mental disorders

Socola hospital
Al. Brescu
C.I. Parhon
L. Ballif
P. Brnzei
T. Pirozynski
P. Boiteanu

Conceptions and new approaches

in psychiatry

Organogenetic hypothesis(Griesinger)-psychiatric disorders are explained by cerebral lesions

Psihogenetic hypothesis -psychiatric disorders are determined by some difficulties during lifetime

Organodinamism any psychiatric disorder involved an organic lesion undiscovered yet

Psihanalize human psychic was determined by an inconscience motivation; Freud- the essence
of inconscience is represented by the sexual instinct

Fenomenology (Jaspers) conserved the authenticity of psychopathological manifestations by

expressing all the feelings of the patients

Existentialism-the main important thing for understanding psychiatric disorders is the human
being and medical empathy

Psihosomatic stress can determine somatic illness

Pavlovism psychiatric disorders are determined by biochemical changes and cerebral lesions

Social Psihiatry

Transcultural Psihiatry a psychiatry in which we observed some characteristics of psychiatric

disorders from cultural aspects

Antipsihiatry (Cooper)- psychiatry is not a medical science

New approaches in psychiatry

clinico-nosologic direction (Kraepelin)- classification of psychiatric disorders

using clinico-nosological criterion, psychiatry become a medical science

clinico-statistic direction- created boundaries of syndromes, nosological

entities and created correlations between terminology from different
psychiatric schools

psihosocial direction the role of psychiatrists become more complex and

involve prophylaxis of psychiatric disorders and social recovering and
reintegration of the patients