Chapter 3

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Chapter 3

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Trusses

CIVL3310 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

Professor CC Chang

Common Types of

Trusses

Truss: composed of slender members joined

together at their end points

Connections: bolt or weld the ends of the

members to a common plate called gusset

Planar trusses is often used to support roof or

bridges

Common Types of

Trusses

Roof Trusses

Roof load is transmitted to

the truss at the joints by

means of a series of purlins

To keep the frame rigid, knee braces are

sometimes used at the supporting column

Common Types of

Trusses

Roof Trusses

Common Types of

Trusses

Bridge Trusses

floor beams

joints of supporting side

truss

Top & bottom cords of these side trusses are

connected by top & bottom lateral bracing

resisting lateral forces

For a long span truss, a roller is used at one end

for thermal expansion

Common Types of

Trusses

Bridge Trusses

Common Types of

Trusses

Assumptions for Design

All loadings are applied at the joints

acts as an axial force member (2-force

member)

Classification of

Coplanar

Trusses

Three types: Simple , Compound or Complex

Truss

Simple Truss

triangle

Classification of

Coplanar

Trusses

Compound Truss: connecting 2 or more simple

trusses

Type 2: Joined by 3 bars

Type 3: Main + secondary

Classification of

Coplanar

Trusses

Complex Truss

as being either simple or compound

Stability

Determinacy

equilibrium eqns

No. of unknowns = no. of members (member

forces) b+

no. of external support

Fx 0 and Fy 0

reactions r

Each joint provides 2 equilibrium eqns

b r 2 j statically determinate

stable/unstable

b r 2there

j statically

For j joints,

are indetermin

2j eqns ate

b r 2 j unstable

Stability

Stability

determinate or statically indeterminate

Stability has to be determined through inspection

or by force analysis

b r 2 j statically determinate

stable/unstable

b r 2 j statically indeterminate

b r 2 j unstable

All stable structures should have ONE unique solution!

All forces can be determined uniquely!

Stability

Stability

External Stability

A

are concurrent or parallel

Stability

Internal Stability

The

inspection of the arrangement of its members

A simple truss will always be internally stable

If a truss is constructed so that it does not hold its

joints in a fixed position, it will be unstable

L

L

L

2P/3

P

P/3

Stability

Internal Stability

To

truss, it is necessary to identify the way in which the

simple truss are connected together

The truss shown is unstable since the inner simple

truss ABC is connected to DEF using 3 bars which are

concurrent at point O

Stability

Internal Stability

For

its stablility

The instability of any form of truss may also be

noticed by using a computer to solve the 2j

simultaneous eqns for the joints of the truss

If inconsistent results are obtained, the truss is

unstable

Example 3.1

Classify each of the trusses as stable, unstable, statically

determinate or statically indeterminate. The trusses are

subjected to arbitrary external loadings that are assumed

to be known & can act anywhere on the trusses.

Externally stable

Reactions are not concurrent or parallel

b = 19, r = 3, j = 11

b + r =2j = 22

Truss is statically determinate

Solution

Externally stable

b = 15, r = 4, j = 9

b + r = 19 >2j

Truss is statically indeterminate

Chapter 3: Analysis of Statically Determinate Trusses

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution

Externally stable

b = 9, r = 3, j = 6

b + r = 12 = 2j

Truss is statically determinate

Chapter 3: Analysis of Statically Determinate Trusses

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Solution

Externally stable

b = 12, r = 3, j = 8

b + r = 15 < 2j

The truss is internally unstable

Chapter 3: Analysis of Statically Determinate Trusses

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

exerted on the pin at each joint of the truss

Applications of eqns yields 2 algebraic eqns

that can be solved for the 2 unknowns

Example 3.2

Determine the force in each member of the roof truss as

shown. State whether the members are in tension or

compression. The reactions at the supports are given as

shown.

Zero-Force Members

members can be identified first

These zero-force members may be necessary

for the stability of the truss during

construction & to provide support if the

applied loading is changed

The zero-force members of a truss can

generally be determined by inspection of the

joints & they occur in 2 cases.

Zero-Force Members

Case 1

at a right angle & there is no external load on the

joint

The free-body diagram of joint C indicates that

the force in each member must be zero in order

to maintain equilibrium

Any other zero-force members?

Zero-Force Members

Case 2

geometry as joint D

Any other zero-force member?

Example 3.4

Indicate all the members of the truss that have zero force.

aa will be appropriate

Also, the member forces acting on one part of

the truss are equal but opposite

The 3 unknown member forces, FBC, FGC & FGF

can be obtained by applying the 3 equilibrium

eqns

Example 3.5

Determine the force in members CF and GC of the roof

truss. State whether the members are in tension or

compression. The reactions at the supports have been

calculated.

You Learnt?

Truss structure

Determinacy and stability

Solution

Zero-force member

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