Chapter 4.

Manufacturing Process
-Introduction, Types of Manufacturing system, Characteristics and difference.

Manufacturing System
 We

know what is system.  A system has number of components, combined together to achieve a goal.  Manufacturing is conversion of raw material into final goods and services.  Any manufacturing organization can also be called as a Production system.

Manufacturing System
 There

are 3 main components in a manufacturing system.

INPUT

Transformation Process

OUTPUT

Manufacturing System

The 3 components can be further subdivided in number of sub-components.

Input:- LIMCA T  Transformation:- Activities & operations  Output:- Goods and services.

Manufacturing System
 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Characteristic of conversion or transformation process. Receipt/Storage of RM as rules of FIFO, urgency, time reqd. for delivery Means of transportation (internal) Inspection of WIP and Finished goods Storage of Finished goods. The Production management is active throughout the process by info and control

Manufacturing System
 The

manufacturing system can be seen as interdependent group of sub-systems.  The sub-systems are related to its successor and predecessor to achieve a predetermined goal.  The sub-systems cannot work in vacuum. The are in continuous interaction with environment, both internal and external.

Manufacturing System
 Internal

Environment is a combination of marketing, accounts, personnel and finance activities.  Marketing and production have a very sensitive relationship.  They should be properly designed to avoid a source of perpetual conflict due to their conflicting interests.

Manufacturing System
 External

Environment is combined effect of various multiple things. With and without control over it. external environment is formed of Customers, Competitors, Suppliers, Labor Unions, Stock holders and etc.

 The

Types 0f Manufacturing System
Manufacturing System

Intermittent System

Continuous System

Job Production

Batch Production Mass Production Process Production

Types 0f Manufacturing System
 1.     

INTERMITTENT SYSTEM In this, goods are prepared to fulfill orders, rather than to stock. The production facilities are flexible. It is basically used for manufacturing things of non-regular inputs and design of product. As the name suggests, it is a non-continuous manufacturing system. This system requires regular adjustments.

Characteristics of Intermittent System
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Items are produced for order. Production process is flexible. Wide range of products can be manufactured Capital investment may be low. Change in location is easy. It is a functional type of organization.

Characteristics of Intermittent System
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Smaller scale of production. Planning and control operations are complicated and tedious. Per unit cost is high. Less security of jobs. Requires highly skilled staff. Storage is required at each operation. Accuracy is low. Equipment is used for limited time.

Types 0f Manufacturing System
 JOB     

PRODUCTION. It is production of one complete unit by a single or multiple operators. The ex. of job production are, bridge building, dam, ship making. The whole project is one operation. This system requires highly skilled labors and huge capital investments. Future demand of the same is not assured.

Types 0f Manufacturing System
 Batch   

 

PRODUCTION. It is an extension of Job production system. Here the work can be divided into number of operations and activities. After the work for the batch is over, the machine is ready for another batch of similar (not same) kind of manufacturing. This requires high amount of planning. The ex.:- Printing press, chemical products.

Types 0f Manufacturing System
 2.     

CONTINUOUS SYSTEM The items are produced for stocks. A rough estimation of sales forecast is made before carrying out the production. Here, the inputs are of standardized nature, with set line of production. The production is in single flow and very low or no WIP storage is required. It is further divided into Mass and process system of manufacturing.

Characteristics of Continuous System
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Same product is produced continuously Large scale of production is done. Planning & Control operations are easy Per unit cost of production is low. More security of Jobs. Storage is required only at limited place Accuracy is high.

Characteristics of Continuous System
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Regular use of equipment. Process is not flexible. Only a particular type of product is produced. Capital investment is high Requires better co-ordination of activity Change in location is difficult.

Types 0f Manufacturing System
 Mass 

  

Production. Standard product is a basic characteristic of this manufacturing system. RM & Process are standardized The goods are produced to stock rather than consumer orders. The system is made to produce only one type of a product at a time. It is basically used to make components and assemblies of an item. Ex. Spark plugs.

Types 0f Manufacturing System
 Process    

Production. It is similar to Mass production. This system is used to manufacture the goods which are in continuous high demand. The goods can either be a raw material for many or itself a thing of high demand. The whole process is made to manufacture a specific product. Only a minor adjustment can be done in case of emergency. Ex. Oils, Petroleum products, plastics, etc.

Advantages and limitations
 Advantages

for Intermittent system is the 1st slide of the characteristics. of IntermittentSystem are in 2nd slide of characteristics.

 Disadvantage/Limitations

Advantages and limitations
 Advantages

for Continuous system are points 1 to 8 of the characteristics. of ContinuousSystem are points 9 to 14 of characteristics.

 Disadvantage/Limitations

Comparison of the Systems.
 Can

be done by seeing the characteristics of both..  Should we see it?