Production Planning and Control

Production planning categories.

Categories of production planning
There are 3 categories of production planning Viz.
 Routing  Scheduling  Loading.

ROUTING
 “Routing

means determination of path or route over which each piece is to travel in being transformed from raw material into finished products.” -Kimball and Kimball.

Scheduling
 “The

determination of time that is required to perform each operation and also the time required to perform entire series as routed is Scheduling.” -Kimball and Kimball.

Scheduling
Features of Scheduling.
3.

Description of When and Where of each operation in a production process is to be executed. Establishment of timetable at which to begin and complete each event or operation comprising any procedure.

5.

Scheduling
 2. 3. 4. 5.

Objectives of Scheduling. Plan the sequence such that delivery date is meet. Have minimum throughput time. (OUR) Minimize Idle time of Man and Machine. Thus reducing the cost. Prevent unbalanced allocation of time among various departments.

Scheduling

Types of Schedules:Operation Schedule Master Schedule Sequential Schedule.

3. 4. 5.

Scheduling
I.

Operation Schedule:

It Gives details of 2 things.  Time required to do a piece of work.  Details of all input requirements (L-I-M-CA-T)-(CA)

Scheduling
I.   

Master Schedule It is 1st step of actual Production Planning How many of each item is to be made. Nature depends on 2 basis.
Order – future order, designing, delivery time. – Stock – Sales forecast, inventories and buffer. Ex. Baker.

Scheduling
Sequential Scheduling - Sequence is an order in which a no. of jobs can be done on a finite number of service facilities (say machines) in effective manner. - Sequencing is basically done for a multiproduct plant.
I.

Scheduling
 2. 3. 4.

7.

Tools for Scheduling/ Scheduling devices. Sequencing Gantt Charts Network Diagrams - Critical Path Method (CPM) - Program Evaluation Review Technique. The Run out Approach.

Scheduling (Tools)

Sequencing. Sequence is an order in which a no. of jobs can be done on a finite number of service facilities (say machines) in effective manner. Sequencing is basically done for a multiproduct plant.

Scheduling (Sequencing Tool)
 

Let see a numerical example. Situation:- Suppose 6 jobs are to be done on 2 machines. The time for each job are given below. Calculate the minimum time required for the same. B 8 3 C 3 7 D 6 2 E 7 8 F 5 4

JOB/ A Mach. M1 4 M2 6

Scheduling (Sequencing Tool)
    

Solution. Search for the least time in the whole problem. If the least time belongs to m2, then assign it as last activity. It the least time belongs to M1, the assign it as 1st Activity. Repeat the process.

Scheduling (Sequencing Tool)
Solution:The sequence in our Situation is as follows.

C

A

E

F

B

D

Scheduling (Sequencing Tool)
Mach TI 0 3 7 14 19 27 ine 1 PT 3 4 7 5 8 6 TO 3 7 14 19 27 33 Mach TI 3 10 16 24 28 33 ine 2 PT 7 6 8 4 3 2 TO 10 16 24 28 31 35 35 hrs. IDT 3 2

C A E F B D

Class assignment

Situation.

There is a press having 2 machines, one for printing and another for binding. They have 6 books to be printed and bound. Times are given as follows. Give min. time reqd.

Book PRINT BIND

A 3 6

B 7 2

C 4 7

D 5 3

E 7 4

Scheduling. Sequencing tool
 We

have seen how to sequence the operations to get the minimum completion time with 2 machines.  Now let us see how to sequence the jobs when we have 3 machines.  Should we recap the previous method?  Yes NO.

Scheduling. Sequencing
 Suppose

we have 3 machines M1, M2, and M3. Also the order of the Machines is M1 —M2—M3.  The sequence of jobs can be done on this system only and only if at least one of the following conditions is satisfied.  The Conditions are:-

Scheduling. Sequencing
1.

2.

Smallest processing time of any job on machine M1 is greater than or equal to Maximum process time of any job on machine M2. OR Smallest processing time of any job on machine M3 is greater than or equal to Maximum process time of any job on machine M2.

Scheduling. Sequencing
 

Let see the same with an illustrative example. Find the minimum total time in hours required to complete the following jobs on 3 machines. In the order M1—M2—M3. A 5 2 3 7 1 7 B 6 4 5 C 9 5 6 D 5 3 7 E

Job/ Mach M1 M2 M3

Scheduling. Sequencing

Solution. Find the Minimum time on Machine M1 = 5hrs. Maximum time on Machine M2 = 5hrs. Minimum time on Machine M3 = 3hrs.

 4. 5. 6.

Scheduling. Sequencing
 Then

compare Min time on M1 is it(> or =) Max. time on M2. Or Min time on M3 is it(> or =) Max. time on M2.  If any one of the condition is true, the you can proceed ahead, or else there is no optimal solution for this problem.

Scheduling. Sequencing
 If

any of the condition is satisfied,  Then we need to add various jobs on M1 and M2 first and after that add jobs on M2 and M3.
Jobs-> A Mach. M1&M2 7 M2&M3 5 B 8 8 C 10 9 D 14 11 E 8 10

Scheduling. Sequencing
 Now

we continue as if we have 2 machines and find the optimal sequence as in previous problems.  Same rule, Min on M1 to the left and min of M2 on right. Optimal sequence is as follows.
E B D C A

Scheduling. Sequencing

Solution Ma chi 1 ma chi 2 Ma ch ine 3 Ti Pt To Ti Pt To Idt Ti Pt To Idt 0 5 12 21 27

Mc Jb E B D C A

That’s all for today Folks

See you all in next lecture. Bye!!