Group Behavior

Definition of group
“ A collection of two or more interacting individuals with a stable pattern of relationship between them ,who share common goals and who perceive themselves as being a group.”

Interaction among members

Shared Goals

People see themselves as members

Two or more People

In Group Out Group



Membership Informal •Horizontal •Vertical •Random Formal Command Temporary Task Group

Reference Interacting Co acting Counteracting

Why People Join Groups
• Security • Status • Self-esteem • Affiliation • Power • Goal Achievement

The Five-Stage Model of Group Development
Forming Stage The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty. Storming Stage The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict. Norming Stage The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness.

…Group Development (cont’d)
Performing Stage The fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional. Adjourning Stage The final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than performance.

Stages of Group Development

Stages Of Group Development
New Task New Members Mutual Acceptance

Control and Organization

Communication and Decision Making

Motivation And Productivity

Group Structure - Cohesiveness
Cohesiveness Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group.

Increasing group cohesiveness:
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Make the group smaller. Encourage agreement with group goals. Increase time members spend together. Increase group status and admission difficultly. Stimulate competition with other groups. Give rewards to the group, not individuals. Physically isolate the group.

Decision Making Process
 Diagnose

the problem  Develop alternatives  Evaluate alternatives  Implement and monitor

How do group make decisions?
 Decision

by lack of response  Authority rule  Minority  Majority  Consensus  Unanimity

Group Decision
Advantages • Greater knowledge base • Greater number of approaches • Increased participation • Better understanding of final decision Disadvantages • Time required is high • Social pressure to conform • Dominant individual emerges and controls group decisions • Group make a compromise

Group Decision-Making Techniques
Delphi Technique Group decisions made without members meeting face to face Series of questionnaire distributed over time. Nominal Group Technique A group decisionmaking method in which individual members meet faceto-face to pool their judgments in a systematic but

Group Decision-Making Techniques
Brainstorming An idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives, while withholding any criticism of those alternatives. Electronic Meeting A meeting in which members interact on computers, allowing for anonymity of comments and aggregation of votes.

What is a Team?

Number of people with complimentary skills, who are committed to a common purpose/ goal and an approach for which they hold themselves accountable.

Teams: Large Group

– Performance – work of individual group member – Individual role responsibility – Shares common goals – Responsive to demands placed on them by management

– Performance = Individual efforts + Collective efforts. – Every one is responsible for outcomes – Shares common commitment. – Self managing and autonomous.

Types of Teams
 Work

Teams  Problem Solving Teams  Management Teams  Virtual Teams

Implementing Teams in Organizations
 Planning

the change  Making the decision  Implementing the decision