Motivation

Motivation
defined as “the driving force within individuals that impel them to action”

What is Motivation?
Motivation refers to an activated state within a person that leads to goal-directed behavior.

Motivational Model SEARCH AND CHOICE OF STRATEGY

NEED DEFICIENCY

GOAL DIRECTED BEHAVIOR

RE-EVALUATION OF NEEDS

REWARD OR PUNISHMENT

EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE

Importance Of Motivation
Look for better ways to do a job. More quality oriented Highly motivated workers are more productive than apathetic workers Every organisation requires human resources Importance in management of human resources.

Theories of Motivation

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
A method of classifying human needs and motivations into five categories in ascending order of importance.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
(Self­development)

Self   Actualization

(self­esteem, status)
(sense of belonging, love)

Esteem Needs Social Needs

(security, protection)

Safety Needs

Physiological Needs
(hunger, thirst) 

The Hierarchy of Needs
Developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow in the 1940s. Maslow believed that people have an innate desire to satisfy a given set of needs. Maslow believed that these needs are arranged in a hierarchy of importance, with the most basic needs at the foundation of the hierarchy.

The Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow believed that each need level must be satisfied before the level above it becomes important. The escalation up the hierarchy continues until the self-actualization needs become the primary motivators.

The Hierarchy of Needs
Physiological Needs
– Adequate wages, ventilation, and comfortable temperatures and working conditions are measures taken to satisfy this most basic level of need. Security Needs – Security needs can be satisfied by such things as job continuity, a grievance system, and an adequate insurance and retirement system.

The Hierarchy of Needs
Affiliation Needs
– Managers can help satisfy these needs by fostering a sense of group identity and interaction among employees.

Esteem Needs
– These needs are met at least partially by job titles, choice offices, merit pay increases, awards, and other forms of recognition.

The Hierarchy of Needs
Self-Actualization Needs
– Achieved when people meet their full potential. – These needs are the hardest to understand and the most difficult to satisfy.

Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation
Intrinsically Motivated Work Behavior: Behavior that is performed for its own sake. Extrinsically Motivated Work Behavior: Behavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment.

Alderfer’s ERG Theory(1972)
1.EXISTENCE 2. RELATEDNESS 3. GROWTH

ERG Theory
ERG Theory
– Represents an extension and refinement of the need hierarchy theory by Clayton Alderfer. – The ERG theory describes existence, relatedness, and growth needs. – The ERG theory suggests that if people become frustrated trying to satisfy one set of needs, they will regress back to the previously satisfied set of needs.

The ERG theory suggests that is people become frustrated trying to satisfy one set of needs, they regress back to the previously satisfied set of needs

The Dual-Structure Theory
Developed by Frederick Herzberg Herzberg conceptualized motivation as a dual structure phenomenon consisting of motivation factors and hygiene factors.
– Motivation factors are intrinsic to the work itself and include factors such as achievement and recognition. These factors cause motivation and

The Dual-Structure Theory
Motivation and hygiene factors (continued)
– Hygiene factors are extrinsic to the work itself and include factors such as pay and job security. – These factors do not necessarily lead to satisfaction. If inadequate, however, these factors can lead to dissatisfaction.

The Dual-Structure Theory
Motivation Factors - Achievement - Recognition - The Work Itself - Responsibility - Advancement Hygiene Factors - Supervision - Working Conditions - Pay and Job Security - Company Policies - Relationships

Learned Needs Theory (nAch)
Most frequently associated with the work of David McClelland.
– Need for Achievement (nAch) – Need for Affiliation (nAff) – Need for Power (nPow)

The need for achievement is the desire to accomplish a task or goal more effectively than in the past.

Characteristics of High Need Achievers
Tend to Set Moderately Difficult Goals and Make Moderately Risky Decisions Want Immediate, Specific Feedback on Their Performance

Have a Preoccupation With Work

Assume Personal Responsibility for Getting Things Done

The Need for Affiliation
The need for human companionship. Individuals with a high need for affiliation tend to want reassurance and approval from others and usually are genuinely concerned about others’ feelings. People with a high need for affiliation often work in jobs with a lot of interpersonal contact.

The Need for Power
The desire to control the resources in one’s environment. People with a high need for power can be successful managers if three conditions are met:
– They must seek power for the betterment of the organization rather than for their own interests.

The Need for Power
Three Conditions (continued)
– They must have a fairly low need for affiliation (fulfilling a personal need for power may well alienate others in the workplace). – They need plenty of self-control to curb their desire for power when it threatens to interfere with effective organizational or interpersonal relationships.

A Graphic Comparison of Four Content Approaches to Motivation
Maslow
Higher Order Needs

Herzberg
The work itself - Responsibility - Advancement - Growth Achievement Recognition Quality of interpersonal relations among peers, with supervisors Job security Salary

Alderfer

McClelland
Need for achievement Need for power

Selfactualization Esteem Belongingness, social, and love
Motivators

Growth

Basic needs

Safety and security Physiological

Relatedness

Need for affiliation

Hygiene conditions

Existence