Organizational Development

Concept of Change is defined by Robbins as “change is concerned with making things different.Things must be different because they change constantly.”

Levels Of Change
Individual level change  Group Level change  Organization level change

Reasons for Change
External Causes • Government Policies • Competition • Cost of Raw Materials • Changes In Economy • Technology push • Scarcity of Labour Internal Causes • Change in Leadership • Implementation of new technology • Decline in profitability • Changes in employee profile • Union actions

Importance Of Change
Change is inevitable  Organization cannot and should not remain constant over time  Change is pervasive

The word change produces emotional reactions.

Sources of Resistance to Change

LOGICAL

INDIVIDUAL RESISTANCE

PSYCHOLOGICAL

SOCIOLOGICAL FACTORS

THREATENED EXPERTISE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ORGANIZATIONAL RESISTANCE

RESOURCE ALLOCATION

THREATENED POWER

Symptoms of Resistance
Hostility or aggression  Individual develops apathy towards work  Absenteeism  Anxiety and tension  Slowdowns and strikes (at group level)

Benefits of Resistance
Encourages management to reexamine its change proposals

Lewin’s Three-Step Change Model

Unfreezing

Changing

Refreezing

Organizational Development
Organizational Development (OD) A collection of planned interventions, built on humanistic-democratic values, that seeks to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well-being. OD Values:
2. Respect for people 3. Trust and support 4. Power equalization 5. Participation

Organizational Development Techniques
Sensitivity Training Training groups (T-groups) that seek to change behavior through unstructured group interaction. Provides increased awareness of others and self. Increases empathy with others, improves listening skills, greater openess, and

Organizational Development Techniques (cont’d)
Process Consultation (PC) A consultant gives a client insights into what is going on around the client, within the client, and between the client and other people; identifies processes that need improvement.

Organizational Development Techniques (cont’d)
Team Building High interaction among team members increase trust and openness by developing interpersonal relationships analyze and allocate role of each member accordingly.

MBO
GOAL SETTING BY TOP MANAGEMENT

REVIEW OF PERFORMANCE

SETTING INDIVIDUAL GOALS

AUTONOMY FOR SELECTING MEANS FOR GOAL ACHIEVEMENT

Organizational Development Techniques (cont’d) Survey Feedback • Collects data about organization through questionnaires • Conducting feedback meetings and workshops for organizational members