Chapter 2

Perception, Personality, and Emotions
Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Chapter Outline
• • • • • • What Is Perception, and Why Is It Important? Factors Influencing Perception Perception and Judgement: Attribution Theory Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Personality Emotions

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Perception and Personality, and Questions for Consideration Emotions
Questions for Consi
derat ion

• What is perception, and why is it important for understanding the workplace? • To what extent does personality affect behaviour? • Does understanding emotions lead to better understanding of how people interact?

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Perception
• What Is Perception?
– A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.

• Why Is it Important?
– Because people’s behaviour is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. – The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviourally important.
Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Why We Study Perceptions

• We study this topic to better understand how people make attributions about events. • We don’t see reality. We interpret what we see and call it reality. • The attribution process guides our behaviour, regardless of the truth of the attribution.

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Factors Influencing Perception
• The Perceiver • The Target • The Situation

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Exhibit 2-1 Figure-Ground Illustrations

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Exhibit 2-2 Factors that Influence Perception
The Situation
• Time • Work setting • Social setting • Attitudes • Motives Perception • Interests • Experience • Expectations

The Perceiver

The Target
• Novelty • Motion • Sounds • Size • Background • Proximity

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Factors Affecting Judgment
• Attribution Theory • Perceptual Errors
– – – – – Selective Perception Halo Effect Contrast Effects Projection Stereotyping

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Attribution Theory
• When individuals observe behaviour, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused.
– Distinctiveness
• Does individual act the same way in other situations?

– Consensus
• Does individual act the same as others in same situation?

– Consistency
• Does the individual act the same way over time?
Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Attribution Theory
• Fundamental Attribution Error
– The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behaviour of others.

• Self-Serving Bias
– The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Exhibit 2-3 Attribution Theory
Attribution Observation Interpretation of cause
High External Distinctiveness Low Internal

High Individual behaviour Consensus Low Internal External

High Internal Consistency Low External Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Perceptual Errors
• Selective Perception
– People selectively interpret what they see based on their interests, background, experience, and attitudes

• Halo Effect
– Drawing a general impression about an individual based on a single characteristic

• Contrast Effects
– A person’s evaluation is affected by comparisons with other individuals recently encountered
Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Perceptual Errors
• Projection
– Attributing one’s own characteristics to other people

• Stereotyping
– Judging someone on the basis of your perception of the group to which that person belongs

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Personality
The sum total of ways in which an individual react and interacts with others.

• Personality Determinants
– Heredity – Environment – Situation

• Personality Traits
– Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behaviour
• The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) • The Big Five Model
Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Exhibit 2-4 Sixteen Primary Personality Traits
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Reserved Less intelligent Affected by feelings Submissive Serious Expedient Timid Tough-minded Trusting Practical Forthright Self-assured Conservative Group-dependent Uncontrolled Relaxed vs. vs. vs. vs. vs. vs. vs. vs. vs. vs. vs. vs. vs. vs. vs. vs. Outgoing More intelligent Emotionally stable Dominant Happy-go-lucky Conscientious Venturesome Sensitive Suspicious Imaginative Shrewd Apprehensive Experimenting Self-sufficient Controlled Tense

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
• Personality test to determine how people usually act or feel in particular situations • Classifications:
– – – – Extroverted (E) or introverted (I) Sensing (S) or intuitive (I) Thinking (T) or feeling (F) Perceiving (P) or judging (J)

• Combined to form types, for example:
– ESTP – INTJ
Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

The Big Five Model
• Classifications
– – – – – Extroversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional Stability Openness to Experience

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Big Five Personality Factor Extroversion

Exhibit 2-6 Big Five Personality Factors and Performance
Relationship to Job  Performance Relationship to Team  Performance
* Positively related to job performance in occupations requiring social interaction * Positively related to training  proficiency for all occupations * Positively related to job performance in service jobs * Positively related to team  performance * Positively related to degree of  participation within team * Most studies found no link between  agreeableness and performance or  productivity in teams * Some found a negative link between  person’s likeability and team  performance 

Agreeableness

Conscientiousness

* Positively related to job performance for all occupational groups * May be better than ability in predicting job performance

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Big Five Personality Factor Emotional Stability

Exhibit 2-6 Big Five Personality Factors and Performance
Relationship to Job  Performance Relationship to Team  Performance
* A minimal threshold amount may be  necessary for adequate performance;  greater degrees not  related to job  performance * Positively related to performance in  service jobs * May be better than ability in  predicting job performance across all  occupational groups  *Positively related to training  proficiency  *Data unavailable

Openness to Experience

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB
• • • • • • • Locus of Control Machiavellianism Self-Esteem Self-Monitoring Risk Taking Type A Personality Type B Personality

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Locus of Control
• The degree to which people believe they are in control of their own fate
– Internals
• Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them

– Externals
• Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance
Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Machiavellianism
• Degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Self-Esteem
• Individuals’ degree of liking or disliking of themselves

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Self-Monitoring
• A personality trait that measures an individual’s ability to adjust behaviour to external situational factors

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Risk-Taking
• Refers to a person’s willingness to take chances or risks

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Type A Personality
– Always moving, walking, and eating rapidly. – Feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place. – Strive to think or do two or more things at once. – Cannot cope with leisure time. – Are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire.
Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Type B Personality
– Never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience. – Feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments unless such exposure is demanded by the situation. – Play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost. – Can relax without guilt.
Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Achieving Personality Fit
• Person-Job Fit
– Identifies six personality types and proposes that the fit between personality type and occupational environment determines satisfaction and turnover.

• Person-Organization Fit
– Argues that people leave organizations that are not compatible with their personalities
Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Exhibit 2-7 Personality-Job Fit
Type Realistic Personality Congruent Characteristics Occupations Shy, genuine, Mechanic, drill persistent press operator Investigative Analytical, Biologist, original, curiouseconomist Social Sociable, friendly Social worker, teacher

Conventional Conforming, efficient

Accountant, corporate manager Enterprising Self-confident, Lawyer, real ambitious estate agent Artistic Imaginative, disorderly Painter, musician

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Exhibit 2-8 Relationships Among Occupational Personality Types
i list ea ) R (R c

Inv es tig (I) ative

Conventional (C)

Artistic (A)

En

ter p (E) rising

ial oc ) S S (

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

What Are Emotions?
• Three related terms:
– Affect
• A broad range of feelings that people experience.

– Emotions
• Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something.

– Moods
• Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus.
Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Choosing Emotions: Emotional Labour
• When an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal interactions. • Employees can experience a conflict between
– Felt emotions
• An individual’s actual emotions

– Displayed emotions
• Emotions that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job.

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Gender and Emotions
• Differences
– Women show greater emotional expression than men – Women experience emotions more intensely – Women display more frequent expressions of all emotions, except anger

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Gender and Emotions
• Explanations
– Men and women socialized differently
• Men: tough and brave; Women: nurturing.

– Women may have more innate ability to read others and present their emotions than do men. – Women may have a greater need for social approval and thus show more positive emotions like happiness.

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Emotional Intelligence
• Noncognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influence a person's ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures • Five dimensions
– – – – – Self-awareness Self-management Self-motivation Empathy Social skills

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Negative Workplace Emotions
• Negative emotions can lead to a number of deviant workplace behaviours. They fall in categories such as:
– Production (leaving early, intentionally working slowly) – Property (stealing, sabotage) – Political (gossiping, blaming co-workers) – Personal aggression (sexual harassment, verbal abuse)
Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Summary and Implications
• Perception
– Individuals behave based not on the way their external environment actually is but, rather, on what they see or believe it to be – Evidence suggests that what individuals perceive from their work situation will influence their productivity more than will the situation itself – Absenteeism, turnover, and job satisfaction are also reactions to the individual’s perceptions

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Summary and Implications
• Personality
– Personality helps us predict behaviour – Personality can help match people to jobs, to some extent at least

• Emotions
– Can hinder performance, especially negative emotions – Can also enhance performance

Chapter 2, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.