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CELL STRUCTURE

& FUNCTION

Cell Theory
All living things are made up of
cells.
Cells are the smallest working
units of all living things.
All cells come from preexisting
cells through cell division.

Definition of
Cell
A cell is the smallest unit that
is capable of performing life
functions.

Two Types of Cells


1. Prokaryotic
2. Eukaryotic

Prokaryotic cell
Do not have internal structures surrounded
by membranes
Few internal structures
One-celled organisms, Bacteria

Eukaryotic cells
Contain organelles surrounded by membranes
Most living organisms

Eukaryotic cells

Organelle
a structure in a cell with a specific
function

Adult humans have around 100 trillion


cells in the body
There are different types of cells :
Cells of epithelium epithelial cells
Cells of bones osteocytes
Cells of cartilages chondrocytes
Cells of muscle muscle cells
Cells of nervous tissue Nerve cells or
neurons
Cells of connective tissue fibroblast
cells
Cells of blood leucocyte, erytrocyte

Plasma membrane
Also known as cell membrane or
plasmalemma
Outer covering of cell
It separates the cell from the extracelluar
space and fluid
It is made up of phospholipid and protein
molecules double layer
Functions as a selective barrier that regulates
the passage of certain materials into and out
of the cell
Fascilitates the transport of specific
molecules

Double layer structure

Some cells present the extension of


cell membrane microvilli, cilia
and flagellum
Microvilli seen in the cells lining
intestine
Cilia seen in the cells lining the trachea
Flagellum long projection, seen in the
sperms

Flagellum and cillia


Help cell move

sperm

Flagellum and cillia


Help cell move

Cytoplasm

Cytoplasm refers to the jelly-like material with


organelles in it & Surrounded by cell membrane
Contains cell organelles like mitochondria, golgi
apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes,
lysosomes, centrioles and microtubules
If the organelles were removed, the soluble part that
would be left is called the cytosol. It consists mainly
of water with dissolved substances such as amino
acids in it.

Nucleus

Is the administrative center of the cell


Largest organelle
First described by Robert Brown in 1831
Stores the cell's hereditary material DNA
Coordinates the cell's activities like growth,
metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction
(cell division)
Generally there is only one nucleus per cell, but
there are exceptions (muscle cell)
The semifluid matrix found inside the nucleus is
called nucleoplasm
The nucleus contains nucleolus and
chromatin

Nuclear Membrane
Surrounds nucleus
Made of two layers
Openings allow
material to enter and
leave nucleus
The envelope is
perforated with tiny
holes called nuclear
pores
These pores regulate
the passage of
molecules between the
nucleus and cytoplasm

Kromosom
Di dalam nukleus terdapat benang-benang halus
yang disebut kromatin.
Pada saat sel akan mulai membelah diri, kromatin
menebal, memendek membentuk kromosom.
Kromosom adalah struktur padat yang terdiri dari
dua komponen molekul, yaitu DNA dan protein.
Molekul DNA akan berikatan dengan protein histon
dan nonhiston membentuk sejumlah nukleosom.
Unit-unit nukleosom bergabung memadat
membentuk benang yang lebih padat dan terpilin
menjadi lipatan-lipatan solenoid.
Lipatan solenoid tersusun padat menjadi benangbenang kromatin.

Nucleolus
Inside nucleus
Contains RNA to build proteins
A membrane-less organelle within
the nucleus
Under microscope it looks like a
large dark spot within the nucleus
A nucleus may contain up to four
nucleoli

Mitochondria
Rod-shaped organelles that can be considered
the power generators of the cell
Produces energy (ATP) through chemical
reactions breaking down fats & carbohydrate
Contain outer and
inner membranes
Inner membrane is
thrown into folds called
cristae
Cristae divide the
interior into
compartments

Endoplasmic Reticulum
Is a network of tubules
Synthesizes proteins, carbohydrates
and lipids
Also involved in the storage and
transport of these structures
Two type of endoplasmic reticulum Rough and smooth endoplasmic
reticulum

Rough endoplasmic
reticulum:
Rough because it contains
ribosomes
Protein is synthesized here
Smooth endoplasmic
reticulum:
Without ribosomes
Involved in carbohydrate and
lipid metabolism

Ribosomes
Organelles that help in the
synthesis of proteins.
Ribosomes are made up of two
parts, called subunits.
They get their names from
their size. One unit is larger
than than the other so they are
called large and small subunits

Both these subunits are necessary for protein synthesis in the


cell. When the two units are docked together with a special
information unit called messenger RNA, they make proteins.

Two types of ribosomes :


Free ribosomes scattered in the cytoplasm
Fixed ribosomes attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
While attached to the ER, ribosomes make proteins that the cell
needs and also ones to be exported from the cell for work
elsewhere in the body

Golgi apparatus (Golgi


complex)

Consists of a stack
of flattened
membrane discs
called cisternae
Number of cisternae
vary from 3 to 10
Usually located
close to the cell
nucleus
Protein 'packaging
plant

It is the distribution and shipping department for


the cell's chemical products
It modifies proteins and lipids (fats) that have
been built in the endoplasmic reticulum and
prepares them for export outside of the cell or for
transport to other locations in the cell
In the cell, shipping and sorting done by the Golgi
complex. It is a very important step in protein
synthesis.
If the Golgi complex makes a mistake in shipping
the proteins to the right address, certain functions
in the cell may stop.

RE and Golgi
apparatus

Lysosome
Contains digestive
enzymes for break
up old cell
components and
bacteria
Transports
undigested material
to cell membrane
for removal
Cell breaks down if
lysosome explodes

Centrioles
Animal cell contains pair of centrioles
They are cylindrical structures, made up
of short microtubules
Each centriole contains 9 groups of
microtubules
Lead cromosomes movement during
cell division
Control flagella and cilia vibration